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UNITED STATES.

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and ed, to the seat of the government of the United States, proper for carrying into execution the foregoing pow. (directed to the President of the Senate ; the President

ers, and all powers vested by this Constitution in the of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and S government of the United States, or in any department House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and or officer thereof.

the votes shall then be counted. The person having SECTION IX.-Prohibitions and Privileges.

the greatest number of yotes for President, shall be the

President, if such number be a majority of the whole3 1. The migration or importation of such persons as number of Electors appo nted ; and if no person have Sany of the States now existing shall think proper to such majority, then from the persons having the high

admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior est numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those Sto the yenr one thousand eight hundred and eight, but voted for as President, the House of Representatives

a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not shall choose immediately, by hallot, the President.exceeding ten dollars for each person.

But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken > 2. The privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall by States, the representation from each State having Snot be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or one vote: a quorum tur this purpose shall consist of 83 invasion the public safety may require it.

member or members from two-thirds of the States, and S. 3. No bill of ttainder or ex post facto law shall a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a be passed.

choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not 3 4. No copitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, Ichoose a Pres dent whenever the right of choice shall

unless in proportion to the census or enumeration devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March herein before directed to be taken.

next following, then the Vice President shall act as 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported President, as in case of the death or other constitutionfrom any State,

al disabil ty of the President. 36. No preference shall be given by any regulation 4. The person having the greatest number of votes Sof conmerce or revenue to the ports of one State over as Vice President, shall be the V ce President: if such

those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, number be a majority of the whole number of Elector Sone State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from another.

the two highest numbers on the 1 st, the Senate shall 2 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose Sin conseq aence of appropriation mn de by law; and a shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of 3 regular statement and account of the receipts and Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall expenditures of all public monsey shall be published be necessary to a cho ce. from time to time,

15. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the of. 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United fice of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice Presi. States; and no person holding any office of profit or dent. trust under them, shall, without the consent of the 6. The Congress may determine the time of choosing Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or the Electors, and the day on which they shall give title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or their votes, which day shall be the same throughout foreign state.

the United States, SECTION X.-State Restrictions, &c.

7. No person,except a natural born citizen, or a citi.

zen of the Un ted States at the time of the adoption 3 1. No Staie shall enter into any treaty, alliance or of this Const tut on. shall be elig ble to the office of & confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal: Presidente noitha

Su: President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Scoin money : emit bills of credit ; make any thing but oftice who shall not have attained to the age of thirts-> gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, passa vente

ebts : pas five years, and heen fourteen years a resident within

dhena any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impair.1 heunited states ing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of 8. In case of removal of the President from office, or nobility.

of his death, res gnution, or inability to discharge the 2. No State shall, without the consent of the Con

powers and dut es of the said office, the same shall de. Seress, luy any imposts or duties an imports or exports, volve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by except what may be absolutely necessary for execu:

wil law provide for the case of removal, death, resig. 3 Sting its inspection laws; and the nett produce of all

nation or inability both of the President and Vice Pres. 2 duties and imposts, laid by any State on un ports and ident, declaring who officer sbali then nct as Presi. 3 exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the dent:

e dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the disability he

the disability be rernoved, or a President shall be the revision and control of the Congress. ..

elected. 3. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, 9. The Pres dent shall, at stated times, receive for Slay any duty on tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war his services

his services a compensation, wh ch shall neither be inin time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact

compuccreased nor diminished during the period for which he 3 with another State, or with a foreign power, or en-Ishall have been elected, and he shall not receive with: > gage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such im. lm that period any other emolument from the United 3minent danger as will not admit of delay.

States or any of them.
ARTICLE II.-PRESIDENT. .

10. Betore he enters on the execution of his office, 3

he shull take the following oath or affirmation: SECTION 1.-Election for President.

1 "I do solemnly swear, (or affirm,) that I will faith.
1. The Executive power shall be vested in a Presi. fully execute the office of President of the United
dent of the United States of America. He shall hold states, and will to the best of my ability, preserve,
has office during the term of four years, and, togelprotect and defend the Constitution of the United
ther with the Vice President, chosen for the same Suntes..
term, be elected as follows:
S 2. Each Stala shall appoint, in such manner as thel SECTION II.-Powers of the President.

Legislature thereof may direct, a number of Electors, 1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of
Sequal to the whole nurober of Senators and Represen. (the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the

tatives to which the State may be entitled in the Con-milit a of the several States, when called into the ac-
gress; but no Senator or Representative, or person tual service of the United States; he may require the
holding an office of trust or profit under the United opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of
States, shall be appointed an Elector.

the Executive departments, upon any subject relat ng 3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall Sand vote by ballot for the President and Vice President, Ibave power to grant reprieves and pardons for offen

one of whom, at least, shall nst be an inhabitant of ces against the United States, except in cases of imSthe same Stute with themselves: they shall name in peachment.

their ballots the person voted for as President, and %. He shall have power, by and with the advice Sin d stinct ballots the person voted for as Vice Pres.land consent of the Senate, to make treuties, provi.

ident, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons ded two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as shall nominute, and by and with the advice and con. 3 Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, Isent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, seal public ministers and consuls, Judges of the Supreme Wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww

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necasions, convene both Henuseetween them, with charged from such service

1. The President, Vice President: naved from office States, or parte the states concerned, as well as : Thuhe United States, shali vietion of, treuson, bri. Congress.com

3 en impeachment forates; shall be removed frocivil offi. any State Ven the jurisdiction of ensin

Court, and all nther officers of the United States, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided every other State. And the Congress may lay general Sfor, and which shall be established by law; but the laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records

Congress may by law vest the appointment of such and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect inferior officers as they think proper in the President thereof. alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of depart.

SECTION II.-- Privilege of Citizens. ments.

3. The President shall have power to fill up all va. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to cancies that may happen during the recess of the Sen. all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several ute, by granting commissions which shall expire ati States. 3 the end of their nex session.

12. A person charged in any State with treason, felo

Iny, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be SECTION 111.-Duties of the President.

found in another Stute, shall, on demand of the Exec3. 1. He shall from time to time give to the Congress utive authority of the State from which he fled, be

information of the state of the Union, and recommend delivered up, to be removed to the State having ju-3
to their consideration such measures as he shall judge risdiction of the crime,
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary 3. No person held to service or labor in one State un-
occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, der the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in
and, in case of disagreement between them, with consequence of any law or regulation therein, be dis-
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn charged from such service or labor, but shall be deliv->
them to such time as he shall think proper: he shall ered up on claim of the party to whom such service
3 receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he or labor may be due.
shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed,

SECTION III.-New States. .
Sand shall commission all the officers of the United
States,

1. New States may be admitted by the Congress

into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or SECTION IV.-Impeachment of Officers.

erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor 1. The Prosident, Vice President, and all civil offi- any State be formed by the junction of two or more cers of the United States, shall be removed from office States, or parts of States, without the consent of the on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bri. Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the 3 bery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and " ARTICLE III.-JUDICIARY.

make all needful rules and regulations respecting the SECTION 1. - Courts - Judges.

territory or other property belonging to the United

States and nothing in this Constitution shall be so con3 1. The Judicial power of the United States shall strued as as to prejudice any claims of the United be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior States, or of any particnlar State. courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and

d SECTION IV.-State Governments-Republican. interior courts, shall hold their offices during good be. 1. The United States shall guaranty to every State > havior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their in this Union a republican form of government, and 3 services, a compensation which shall not be diminish. shall protect each of them against invasion, and on ed during their continuance in office.

application of the Legislature, or of the Execu. 3 SECTION 11.-Judicial Powers--Civil-Criminal.

tive, (when the Legislature cannot be convened,)

against domestic violence. 3.1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in Slaw and equity, arising under this Constitution, the

ARTICLE V.-AMENDMENTS. 2 laws of the United States, and the treaties made, or 1. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses Swhich shall be niade under their authority ; to all cases shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and con- this Constitution. or. on the application of the Legis. suls: to all cases of admiralty and maritune jurisdic-latures of two-thirds of the several States. shall calle tion; to controversies to which the United States Convention for proposing amendments, which in either S shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more

case, shall be validt. all intents and purposes, as part States--between a State and citizens of another State

of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures 3-between citizens of different States-between citio of three.fourths otth

zens of the same Stnte claiming lands under grants utitions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other Sdifferent State and between a State, or the citizens mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects.

provided that no amendment which may be made 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public

prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall

eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth S be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original ju clauses in the ninth section of the first article and >

isdiction. In all the other cases Derore mentioned, that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, its equal suffrage in the Senate. both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and Sunder such regulations, as the Congress shull make.

ARTICLE VI.---DEBTS. 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in

1. 1. All deb's contracted and engagements entered the State where the said crimes shall have been com-1

into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be Smitted ; but when not committed within any State, the

holas valid against the United States under this ConstuStrial shull he at such place or places as the Congress

12. This Constitution, and the laws of the United s may by law have directed.

States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and SECTION III.-Treason.

all treaties mude, or which shall be made, under the 1. Treason against the United States, sholl consist

authority of the United States, shall be the supreme

law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall only in levying war against them, or in adhering to

be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No per

Tof any Sonte to the contrary notwithstanding. son shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimo.

3. The Senators and Representatives before inentionny of two witnesses to the same overt uct, or on ed

of oned, and the members of the several State Legislaconfession in open court,

tures, and all executive and judic al officers both 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the

of the United States and of the several States, shall be punishment of treason, but nonttainder of'trenson shalil work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during

bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Consti.

tution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as the life of the person attained.

a qualification to any office or public trust under the ARTICLE IV.-STATE Rights.

Uniied States.
SECTION 1.-Restitution and Privileges.

ARTICLE VII.-RATIFICATION. 3 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State) 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine States, wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww

y, upiswer shall exteni. Criminal. tive, cation of the of them against govern

*n controversies between two er store case, shall be valla 10

3 3. Thanell be by jury in Urimes shall have beeate, the tion, as under the cition, and

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UNITED STATES. 3 shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitu- /

ARTICLE VIII. Stion between the States so ratifying the same,

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments in

the States present, the seventeenth day of Septem- fiicted.
ber, in the year of our Lord one thonsand seven
hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Indepen-

ARTICLE IX. dence of the United States of America, the The enumeration in the Constitution of certain Twelfth.

rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage oth

ers retained by the people,
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed
Sour names,

ARTICLE X.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, The powers not delegated to the United States by

the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are and Deputy from Virginia.

reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI.
AMENDMENTS.

The judicial power of the United States shall not

be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity Articles in addition to, and amendment of, the Con

commenced or prosecuted against one of the United stitution of the United States of America, pro- States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or posed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures subjects of any foreign state. of the several States, pursuant to the Fifth Article

ARTICLE XII. of the original Constitution.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States,

and vote by baliot for President and Vice President, ARTICLE I.

one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of} Congress shall make no law respecting an establish-151

the same State with themselves; they shall name in

Itheir ballots the person voted for as President, and in ment of religion, or prohib ting the free exercise there.

he distinct bullots the person voted for us Vice Presi. of; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the

dent; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons press; or the right of the people peaceably to assement

voted for as President, and of lall persons voted for as Sble, and to petition the government for a redress of

| Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, grievanees.

which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit ARTICLE IL.

sealed to the seat of government of the United States, A well regulated militia being necessary to the secu. directed to the President of the Senate: the President Srity of a free state, the right of the people to keep and of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and bear arms shall not be infringed.

House of Representatives, open all the certificates,

and the votes shall then be counted; the person having ARTICLE III.

the greatest number of votes for President, shall be

the President, if such 'number be a majority of the No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in

whole number of Electors appointed ; and, if no perany house without the consent of the owner, nor in

son have such majority, then, from the persons hav. 3 time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ing the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the

list of those voted for as President, the House of Repre. ARTICLE IV.

sentatives shall choose imniediately, by ballot, the The right of the people to be secure in their per. President. But, in choosing the President, the votes sons. houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable shall be taken by Sintes, the representation from each searches und seizures, shall not be violated; and no State having one vote; u qorum for this purpose warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, support. shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds ed by oath or affirmation, and partieularly describing of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be the place to be searched, and the persons or things to necessary to a choice. And if thie House of Repre. be seized.

sentatives shall not choose a President whenever the

right of choice shall devolve upon them before the ARTICLE V.

fourth day of Warch next following, then the Vice No person shall be held to answer for a capi.nl or President shall act as President, is in the case of the Sotherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or death or other constitutional disability of the President. 3indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in. The persen having the grentest number of votes as Sthe land or naval forces, or in the militia when in ac. Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such

tual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall number be a majority of the whole number of Elec. Sany persor: be subject, for the same offence, to be tors appointed ; and, if no person have a majority. twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be then from the two highest nunibers on the list, the Sena compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against ate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number without due process of law: nor shall private property of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall 3 be taken for public use without just compensation. be necessary to a choce.

But no person coustitutionally ineligible to the office ARTICLE VI.

Jof President, shall be eligible to that of Vice President

of the United States. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial

ARTICLE XIII. Sjury of the State and district wherein the crime shall

If any citizen of the United States shall accept, have been committed, which district shall have been

claim, receive or retain, any title if nobility or honor, Spreviously ascertained by law; and to be informed

or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept and of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be con.

retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of fronted with the witnesses against him; to have com

any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor:

or foreign power, such person shall cease to be as Sand to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

e citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable ARTICLE VII.

of holding any office of trust or profit under them,

or either of them. ? In suits at common law, where the value in contro.

versy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by (Note.-The 11th article of the amendments to the Bjury shall he preserved; and no fact tried by a jury Constitution, was proposed at the second session

shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the of the third Congress; the 12th article, at the first 3 United States, than according to the rules of the com session of the eighth Congress; and the 13th artimon law.

cle, at the second session of the eleventh Congress.] 3 wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww

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WASHINGTON'S
FARE WELL ADDRESS.

the

FRIENDS AND FELLOW-CITIZENS:

stions, contributed towards the organization and The period for a new election of a Citizen to administration of the Government, the best exadminister the Executive Government of the ertions of which a very fallible judgment was & the United States being not far distant, and the capable. Not unconscious, in the outset, of the

time actually arrived, when your thoughts inferiority of my qualifications, experieuce in must be employed in designating the person my own eyes perhaps still more in the eyes of who is to be clothed with that important trust, others, has strengthened the motives to diffiSit appears to me proper, especially as it may dence of myself; and every day the increasing

conduce to a more distinct expression of the weight of years admonishes me more and more, Spublic voice, that I should now apprize you of that the shade of retirement is as necessary to

solution I have formed, to decline being me as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any s considered among the number of those out of circumstances have given peculiar value to my 3 whom a choice is to be made.

services, they were temporary, I have the conŚ I beg you, at the same time, to do me the solation to believe, that while choice and pruSjustice to be assured, that this resolution has not dence invite me to quit the political scene, pa& been taken, without a strict regard to all the triotism does not forbid it.

considerations appertaining to the relation, In looking forward to the moment which is & which binds a dutiful citizen to his Country; to terminate the career of my public life, my S and that, in withdrawing the tender of service, feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep

which silence in my situation might imply, I acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude Sam influenced by no diminution of zeal for which I owe to my beloved Country, for the

your future interest; no deficiency of grateful inany honors it has conferred upon me; still respect for your past kindness; but am sup- more for the steadfast confidence with which it ported by a full conviction that the step is com- has supported me; and for the opportunities I patible with both.

have thence enjoyed of manifesting my invio$ The acceptance of, and continúance hitherto lable attachment by services faithful and persein the office to which your suffrages have vering, though in usefulness unequal to my twice called me, have been a uniform sacrifice zeal. If benefits have resulted to our Country of inclination to the opinion of duty, and to a from these services, let it always be remember 3 deference for what appeared to be your desire. ed to your praise, and as an instructive exams

I constantly hoped that it would have been ple in our annals, that under circumstances in & much earlier in my power, consistently with which the passions, agitated in every direction motives which I was not at liberty to disegard, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances to return to that retirement from which I had sometimes dubious vicissitudes of fortune, of been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my ten discouraging, in situations in which, not un3 inclination to do this, previous to the last elec- frequently, want of success has countenanced

tion, had even led to the preparation of an Ad- the spirit of criticism—the constancy of your dress to declare it to you; but mature reflection support was the essential prop of the efforts, on the then perplexed and critical posture of and a guaranty of the plans by which they Sour affaire with foreign nations, and the unani-were effected. Profoundly penetrated with mous advice of persons entitled to my confi- this idea, Ishall carry it with me to my grave, dence, impelled me to abandon the idea. as a strong incitement to unceasing vows, that

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, ex- Heaven may continue to you the choicest toSternal as well as internal, no longer renders the kens of its beneficence-that your union and s pursuit of inclinations incompatible with the brotherly affection may be perpetual-that the

sentiment of duty or propriety; and am persua- free Constitution, which is the work of your Sded whatever partiality may be retained for hands, may be sacredly maintained that its { my services, that in the present circumstances administration in every department may be Sof our Country, you will not disapprove of my stamped with wisdom and virtue—that, in fine, $ determination to retire.

the happiness of the people of these States, un§ The impressions with which I first under-der the auspices of Liberty, may be made comS took the arduous trust, were explained on the plete, by so careful a preservation and so pru. S proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, dent a use of this blessing, as will acquire to

I will only say, that I have with goud inten-them the glory of recommending it to the apwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww

plause, the affection and adoption of every na-ples. You have in a common cause fought tion which is yet a stranger to it.

land triumphed together; the independence and 3 Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But solici. liberty you possess are the work of joint countude for your welfare, which cannot end but cils and joint efforts, of common dangers, suffer-3 with my life, and the apprehension of dangerlings and successes. natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occa. But these considerations, however powerfulsion like the present, to offer to your solemn ly they address themselves to your sensibility, contemplation, and to recommend to your fre- are greatly outweighed by those which apply 3 quent review, some sentiments which are the more immediately to your interest. Here every result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable portion of our Country finds the most command-3 observation, and which appears to me all-im- ing motives for carefully guarding and preserv. portant to the permanency of your felicity as a ing the onion of the whole. people. These will be offered to you with the The North, in an unrestrained intercourse more freedom, as you can only see in them the with the South, protected by the equal laws of 3 disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who a common Government, finds in the productions Scan possibly have no personal motive to bias of the latter, great additional resources of mari

his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encour time and commercial enterprize, and precious Sagement to it, your indulgent reception of my materials of manufacturing industry. The

sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occa- South in the same intercourse; benefiting by sion.

the agency of the North, sees its agriculture Interwoven as is the love of Liberty with grow, and its commerce expand. Turning Severy ligament of your hearts, no recommenda- partly into its own channels the seamen of the Stion of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm North, it finds its particular navigation invigothe attachment.

rated-and while it contributes, in different The unity of government which constitutes ways, to nourish and increase the general mass Syou one people, is also now dear to you. It is of the national navigation, it looks forward to justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of the protection of a maritime strength, to

, to which your real independence, the support of your itself is unequally adapted. The East, in a like Stranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your intercourse with the West, already finds, and safety; of your prosperity; of that very Liber- in the progressive improvement of interior comty which you so highly prize. But, as it is easy munication, by land and water, will more and to foresce, that from different causes and from more find a valuable bent for the commodities different quarters, much pains will be taken, which it brings from abroad, or manufactures many artifices employed, to weaken in your at home. The West derives from the East minds the conviction of this truth ; as this is the supplies requisite to its growth and comfort point in your political fortress, against which and what is perhaps of still greater conse-> the batteries of internal and external enemies quence, it must of necessity owe the secure will be most constantly and actively (though joyment of indispensable outlets for its own

often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of productions to the weight, influence, and the Sinfinite moment that you should properly esti- future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of

mate the immense value of your National Un- the Union, directed by an indissoluble commu3ion; to your collective and individual happi-nity of interest as one Nation. Any other to

ness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual ure by which the West can hold this essential Sand immoveable attachment to it; accustoming advantage, whether derived from its own sep& yourselves to think and speak of it as of the arate strength, or from an apostate and unnatu

palladium of your political safety and prosperi- ral connection with any foreign power, must sty, watching for its preservation with jealous be intrinsically precarious. Sanxiety; discountenancing whatever may sug. While, then, every part of our Country thus

gest even a suspicion that it can in any event feels an immediate and particular interest in be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find the first dawning of every attempt to alienate in the united mass of means and efforts, greater any portion of our country from the rest, or to strength, greater resource, proportionably greatenfeeble the sacred ties which now link toge- er security from external danger, a less frether the various parts.

quent interruption of their peace by foreign na-3 For this you have every inducement of sym- tions; and, what is of inestimable value, they Spathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or must derive from union an exemption from schoice, of a common Country. that Country has broils and wars between themselves, which so s Sa right to concentrate your affections. The frequently afflict neighboring countries, not tied) $name of AMERICAN, which belongs to you in together by the same government; which their

your national capacity, must always exalt the own rivalships alone would be sufficient to pro-3
Sjust pride of patriotism, more than any appella- duce, but which opposite foreign alliances, at-
Stion derived from local discriminations. With tachments and intrigues would stimulate and
S slight shades of difference, you have the same embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid

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