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misappropriates or converts to his own use that property, or dishonestly uses or disposes of that property in violation of any direction of law prescribing the mode in which such trust is to be discharged1, or of any legal contract 2, express or implied, which he has made touching the discharge of such trust, or wilfully suffers any other person so to do, commits 'criminal breach of trust 3.'
(a) A being executor to the will of a deceased person, dishonestly disobeys the law which directs him to divide the effects according to the will, and appropriates them to his own use. A has committed criminal breach of trust.
(b) A is a warehouse-keeper. Z, going on a journey, entrusts his furniture to A, under a contract that it shall be returned on payment of a stipulated sum for warehouse-room. A dishonestly sells the goods. A has committed criminal breach of trust.
(c) A, residing in Calcutta, is agent for Z residing at Delhi. There is an express or implied contract between A and Z that all sums remitted by Z to A shall be invested by A according to Z's direction. Z remits a lákh of rupees to A, with directions to A to invest the same in Company's paper. A dishonestly disobeys the directions, and employs the money in his own business. A has committed criminal breach of trust.
(d) But if A, in the last illustration, not dishonestly but in good faith, believing that it will be more for Z's advantage to hold shares in the Bank of Bengal, disobeys Z's directions and buys shares in the Bank of Bengal for Z, instead of buying Company's paper, here, though Z should suffer loss, and should be entitled to bring a civil action against A on account of that loss, yet A, not having acted dishonestly, has not committed criminal breach of trust. (e) A, a revenue officer, is entrusted with public money, and is either directed by law, or bound by a contract, express or implied, with the Government, to pay into a certain treasury all the public money which he holds. A dishonestly appropriates the money. A has committed criminal breach of trust.
(ƒ) A, a carrier, is entrusted by Z with property to be carried by land or by water. A dishonestly misappropriates the property. A has committed criminal breach of trust".
406. Whoever commits criminal breach of trust shall be Punishpunished with imprisonment of either description for a term mentor which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both1. breach of 407. Whoever being entrusted with property as a carrier, Criminal wharfinger, or warehouse-keeper, commits criminal breach of breach of trust by trust in respect of such property, shall be punished with carrier, imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine2.
408. Whoever, being a clerk or servant or employed as a Criminal clerk or servant, and being in any manner3 entrusted in such trust by capacity with property, or with any dominion over property, clerk or commits criminal breach of trust in respect of that property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine 4.
409. Whoever, being in any manner entrusted with Criminal property, or with any dominion over property, in his capacity trust by of a public servant 5 or in the way of his business as a banker, public sermerchant, factor, broker, attorney or agent, commits criminal banker, breach of trust in respect of that property, shall be punished merchant with transportation for life, or with imprisonment of either
their pay from B, dishonestly misappropriates the money. A has committed criminal breach of trust; Mayne, P. C. 323, citing R. v. Barnes, L. R., I C. C. 45. Z intrusts thirty tolas of silver to 4 for the purpose of making them into bangles. A substitutes copper for two of the tolas which he dishonestly misappropriates. A has committed criminal breach of trust, 4 Bom. H. C., Cr. Ca. 16.
4 mortgages Sultanpur to Z in the English form, and is allowed by Z to remain in possession. A wilfully makes default in payment of the Government revenue due in respect of Sultanpur. Thereupon the collector sells it, and at the sale A buys it benamí. A has committed criminal breach of trust, 5 Suth. Civ. R. 230.
1 If the evidence in support of the charge leaves it doubtful whether the offence which has been committed is theft or criminal breach of trust, the Court may nevertheless proceed to judgment. See sec. 72.
2 As to carriers by water who run their vessels ashore, intending to misappropriate the cargo, see sec. 439. If the breach of trust be proved, but not the entrusting as a carrier, the accused may be convicted under sec. 406 (Cr. P. C. sec. 238).
3 This shows that the legislature
5 See sec. 21, supra, and 2 N. W.
description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
Receiving Stolen Property.
410. Property the possession whereof has been transferred property by theft1, or by extortion2, or by robbery 3, and property which has been criminally misappropriated or in respect of which the criminal breach of trust has been committed, is designated as 'stolen property,' whether the transfer has been made, or the misappropriation or breach of trust has been committed, within or without British India". But if such property subsequently comes into the possession of a person legally entitled to the possession thereof, it then ceases to be stolen property.
Dishonestly receiving stolen
411. Whoever dishonestly receives or retains any stolen property 7, knowing or having reason to believe the same to be stolen property, shall be punished with imprisonment of property. either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both 8.
receives or retains any stolen
Money obtained on a forged moneyorder is not 'stolen property,' 24 Suth. Cr. 33, 35. Nor is a bull set at large by a Hindú on the occasion of a funeral ceremony, 8 All. 51; for it is then in no one's possession.
or with whipping, Act VI of 1864, sec. 2. Where the value of the property does not exceed Rs. 50, offences under sec. 411 may be tried summarily, Cr. P. C. sec. 260. A charge under sec. 411 should state that the articles found in the possession of the accused were the property of AB, the owner thereof, I Bom. H. C. 95. As to the evidence sufficient for a conviction under this section, see 2 N. W. P. 187: 11 Cal. 160. For the offence of dishonest receipt there must be guilty knowledge at the time of the receipt. The offence of dishonest retention may be complete without any guilty knowledge at the time of receipt, 4 Mad. H. C. Rulings, xlii.
A man cannot be said to receive or retain' (within the meaning of this section) property of which he has already got possession by committing a criminal breach of trust, 2 N. W. P. 313.
property, the possession whereof he knows or has reason to receiving believe to have been transferred by the commission of dacoity, stolen in or dishonestly1 receives from a person whom he knows or has commission reason to believe to belong, or to have belonged to a gang of dacoits, property which he knows or has reason to believe to have been stolen, shall be punished with transportation for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine 2.
413. Whoever habitually receives or deals in property Habitually which he knows or has reason to believe to be stolen property, stolen prodealing in shall be punished with transportation for life, or with impri- perty. sonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine 3.
414. Whoever voluntarily assists in concealing or disposing Assisting of or making away with property which he knows or has in concealreason to believe 5 to be stolen property, shall be punished stolen prowith imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both ".
415. Whoever, by deceiving any person, fraudulently or Cheating dishonestly 1 induces the person so deceived to deliver any property to any person, or to consent 10 that any person shall
sidered as two distinct offences within
7 Where Z knowingly bought
8 Sec. 25.
It seems that only moveable
retain any property 1, or intentionally induces the person so deceived to do or omit to do anything which he would not do or omit if he were not so deceived, and which act or omission causes or is likely to cause damage or harm to that person in body, mind, reputation or property, is said to cheat".'
Explanation. A dishonest concealment of facts is a deception within the meaning of this section.
(a) A, by falsely pretending to be in the Civil Service, intentionally deceives Z, and thus dishonestly induces Z to let him have on credit goods for which he does not mean to pay. A cheats.
(b) A, by putting a counterfeit mark on an article, intentionally deceives Z into a belief that this article was made by a certain celebrated manufacturer, and thus dishonestly induces Z to buy and pay for the article. A cheats 3.
(c) A, by exhibiting to Z a false sample of an article, intentionally deceives Z into believing that the article corresponds with the sample, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to buy and pay for the article. A cheats.
(d) A, by tendering in payment for an article a bill on a house with which keeps no money, and by which A expects that the bill will be dishonoured, intentionally deceives Z, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to deliver the article, intending not to pay for it. A cheats.
(e) A, by pledging as diamonds articles which he knows are not diamonds, intentionally deceives Z, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to lend money. A cheats.
(f) A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A means to repay any money that Z may lend to him, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to lend him money, A not intending to repay it. A
(g) A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A means to deliver to Z a certain quantity of indigo plant which he does not intend to deliver, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to advance money upon the faith of such delivery. A cheats; but if A, at the
1 See note 9, p. 251.
9 Bom. H. C. 448. A passenger travelling by railway in a carriage of a class higher than that for which he has paid fare does not 'cheat,' though he is guilty of an offence under the Railway Act IV of 1879, sec. 32, cl. (b).
3 A, by marking a reel of cottonthread as if it contained 300 yards, when in fact it only contained 250 yards, dishonestly induces Z to buy
and pay for the reel. A cheats. (Mayne, P. C. 388.)
Hence a false statement as to a future fact may constitute a deception within the meaning of sec. 415. The obvious inconveniences resulting from such a doctrine can only be avoided by cleaving to the rule that mere breach of contract is not even primâ facie evidence of an original fraudulent intention, Mayne, P. C. 350; 9 Bom. H. C. 448.