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was published in 1892, and has been translated into many languages.

), poet and

MARKHAM, EDWIN (1852writer, is a native of Oregon. He taught school in California, and is now a resident of West New Brighton, New York. He has written poems since early boyhood, and is honorary President of the Poetry Society of America. His best-known poems are "Lincoln, the Man of the People," and "The Man With the Hoe."

MARSHALL, EDISON (1894- ), author and magazine writer, is a native of Indiana. He was educated at the University of Oregon, where he wrote, while a student, his first short story. He is a contributor to the American Magazine, Everybody's, Metropolitan Magazine, and to the Saturday Evening Post. He is the author of The Voice of the Pack, The Snowshoe Trail, and The Strength of the Pines. Mr. Marshall was awarded the first prize in the O. Henry Memorial Short Story Collection for 1922.

Miss Maria White turned his attention definitely from which the selection in this book is taken, away from law and resulted in the publication of his first volume of poems, A Year's Life, in 1841. He also published a series of papers on the early English dramatists, and started, with a friend, a literary magazine which lasted only three months. A second volume of poems appeared in 1844 and also a volume of prose entitled Conversations on Some of the Old Poets. In 1848 "A Fable for Critics" appeared; this was a rimed review of American literature. "The Vision of Sir Launfal" belongs to the same year, and also a volume of miscellaneous poems. He went abroad in 1851, and after his return succeeded Longfellow as professor of Modern Languages at Harvard. In 1857 he became the first editor of the Atlantic Monthly, which has long exerted a powerful influence on the development of American literature. His own contributions to this magazine and to the North American Review, of which he later became an associate editor, were papers of distinction on politics and literature. He was, in fact, interested almost equally in these three fields: poetry, literary criticism, and politics. Some of his poetry is of a political nature, such as the "Bigelow Papers" (first series, 1848; second series, 1862-1866). His great "Commemoration Ode" (1865), read in honor of Harvard men who had died in the war, is an example of poetry of lofty vein united to a political idealism thoroughly expressive of America. His public services, aside from his writings, were very great. He was for three years minister to Spain, and afterwards became one of the most distinguished of all ambassadors sent by the United States to England. Some additional biographical details will be found on pages 449-450.

LUBBOCK, SIR JOHN (1834-1913), the son of Sir John Lubbock, was a famous astronomer and mathematician; he was born in London and educated at Eton. At the age of fourteen he was taken into his father's bank and, in 1856, became a partner. He says, "Though I was thus early brought into harness, I had plenty of holidays," and these holidays he spent in studying natural history long before it was taught in the schools. It was due to Darwin, the great scientist, who was much interested in the boy, that he was given a microscope, with which to pursue his scientific studies. In later life he was a member of many famous societies and served on many public commissions. He is best known for his scientific writings. His book, Ants, Bees, and Wasps, ran through five editions in less than a year, and The Pleasures of Life, the most popular of his books, had an even greater sale. The Beauties of Nature,

MONROE, HARRIET, poet and writer, author of "April-North Carolina," is editor of Poetry, A Magazine of Verse. She lives in Chicago and is one of the foremost poets of the new school of modern verse.

NORRIS, FRANK (1870-1902), a journalist and novelist, was born in Chicago. He was educated at the University of California and Harvard University. During the Spanish-American War he was war correspondent for McClure's Magazine. He gained distinction as a promising member of the group of younger novelists through The Octopus, which was the first of a series of three novels in which he planned "the epic of the wheat." The second story, The Pit, followed, but the third one, The Wolf, was not written.

NOYES, ALFRED (1880- ), an English poet, lives in London. He was educated at Oxford University, and has since devoted himself to literature. He is a contributor to the leading British and American magazines, and has written many beautiful poems and ballads. In 1918-1919 Mr. Noyes lectured in the United States and taught literature at Princeton University.

POE, EDGAR ALLAN (1809-1849). Born in Boston, of Southern parentage. His parents were actors who died when Poe was very young, and he was adopted by Mr. Allan, a merchant of Richmond. From 1815 to 1820 the Allans were abroad, and Poe was placed in school in England. On his return he spent a year at the University of Virginia, but his college course was not completed because of a break with

Mr. Allan. The remainder of Poe's life was
one of poverty and struggle, despite his pos-
session of literary and editorial gifts that should
have insured him success. His first poems
appeared in 1827, and other volumes were
published in 1829 and 1831. In consequence
of the reputation gained by these poems, he
was appointed editor of the Southern Literary
Messenger, published at Richmond; later he
edited periodicals in Philadelphia and New
York. He desired most of all to found a lit-
erary magazine in the South and went back to
Richmond to start the project. For this he
had been prepared by his reputation not only as
a poet but as the greatest writer of short stories
America had produced; he was also a literary
critic whose work, though not large in amount,
was of high quality. The project, however,
was not destined to come to reality, on account
of his untimely death. Collections of his
prose tales appeared in 1839 and 1845, and his
last volume of poems in 1845. Poetry he
defined as "the rhythmical creation of beauty";
he preferred the lyric to other forms of poetry,
because he held that a true poem represents a
moment of intense emotional experience. The
same idea runs through much of his comment
on the meaning and art of the short story,
which he preferred to the novel because of
greater compactness and unity. Further de-
tails on some points connected with the life
and work of Poe will be found on page 76.

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE (1858-1919), twenty-
sixth President of the United States, was born
in the city of New York. He was graduated
from Harvard University and soon afterwards
was elected to the legislature of New York.
He was appointed Assistant Secretary of the
Navy by President McKinley, a position which
he resigned to enter the Spanish-American War.
In 1898 he was elected Governor of New York
and in 1900 Vice-President of the United States.
Upon the death of McKinley, Roosevelt be-
came President. He was a vigorous American,
basing his theory of politics on honesty, courage,
hard work, and fair play. His writings cover a
wide range, but particularly helpful are those
dealing with the ideals of citizenship.

SCHERER, JAMES A. B. (1870- ), was born
in Salisbury, North Carolina, and was educated
at Roanoke College, Virginia. He has written
a number of books on Japan, having spent
several years in that country. Mr. Scherer has
been President of Newberry College (South
Carolina) and of Throop College of Technology
at Pasadena, California. He was made a
member of the California Council of Defense
and also of the Council of National Defense.

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SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE (1792-1822). Born
in Sussex, England, in a wealthy family,
Shelley did not have the heart-breaking struggle
with poverty that was the fate of many other
young men who desired to enter a literary
career. Before he was ten years old he wrote
a play, and as a student at Eton, one of the
great English preparatory schools, he wrote a
novel and sold it to a publisher for forty pounds.
He was a lover of science, especially chemistry,
and his room at Oxford was filled with all kinds
of material used in his experiments. He was
forced to leave Oxford without completing his
course, had a quarrel with his father, and for
a time lived only on the small sums his sisters
gave him. After a time he was reconciled to
his father, and went on with various schemes
for reform. He hated tyranny of every sort,
and many of his best poems are devoted to the
praise of liberty. He was a great student of
philosophy, of ancient literature, and of the
Italian poets. In 1818 he went to Italy, where
he passed the remainder of his life. While
he wrote several dramas and some narrative
poems, Shelley's genius was chiefly lyrical.
He could not tell a story well because he was
often so carried away by some vision of beauty,
some scene that he wished to describe, or by
intense emotion, that the thread of the story is
lost. But his songs, his poems of Nature de-
scription (such, for example, as "The Cloud,”
"The Skylark," "The West Wind") and such
philosophical poems as "Prometheus Unbound"
and the "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty," are
among the finest in English literature. Perhaps
the greatest of all his poems is "Adonais," a
lament for Keats.

SILL, EDWARD ROWLAND (1841-1887), was
born at Windsor, Connecticut. He was grad-
uated from Yale and lived most of his life in Cal-
ifornia, being for some years professor of
English language and literature at the State
University. Sill was a true poet, but the
whole of his literary output is contained in
two slender volumes. His poems are noted
for their compressed thought. The selection
here given shows this quality.

SOUTHEY, ROBERT (1774-1843). Before he
left school Southey had planned to portray
"all the more prominent and poetical forms of
mythology which have at any time obtained
among mankind, by making each the ground-
work of an heroic poem." He did not live up
to these ambitious ideals, but the number of

his works is very great, and most of his poems are very long. His first epic was devoted to Joan of Arc, as with Coleridge and Wordsworth he was an enthusiastic admirer of France. A long series of metrical romances deal with oriental subjects, and he also wrote many ballads. His verse-narratives preceded those of Scott, and were well received, though Southey did not attain the enormous popularity afterwards won by Scott. Southey translated romances from the Spanish, and was a scholar of distinction. His prose includes histories, notably a history of Brazil, and a series of excellent biographies, of which the life of Nelson is the most famous. In 1813 he became poet laureate.

SPENCER, WILLIAM ROBERT (1769-1834), English poet and wit, was educated at Harrow and Oxford, and was commissioner of stamps from 1797 to 1826. His wit and accomplishments made him very popular in London society, but natural indolence prevented his winning prominence in public life. His works include a translation of Bürger's Leonore, Urania, a Burlesque, and Poems. Owing to financial embarrassment he withdrew to Paris in 1825, and remained there until his death.

STEINER, EDWARD A. (1866- ), was born in Vienna, Austria, and was graduated from the University of Heidelberg. Himself an immigrant, later a naturalized citizen of America, he has been active in Americanization work in the United States, both through his lectures and his writings. Among his bestknown works are From Alien to Citizen, from which "America" is taken; On the Trail of the Immigrant; Nationalizing America; and The Immigrant Tide.

STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS (1850-1894). For biography see pages 79-84.

TARBELL, IDA MINERVA (1857- ), author and magazine writer, was born in Pennsylvania. After being graduated from Allegheny College she studied in Paris. Some of her best-known works are: Life of Abraham Lincoln; Short Life of Napoleon Bonaparte; He Knew Lincoln; History of the Standard Oil Company; New Ideals in Business.

THOMAS, LETTA EULALIA, one of the younger group of writers of the Middle West, lives in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Much of her lyric verse has been given musical setting and has been produced in the larger cities of the United States. Her poem, "What America Means to Me," was awarded the Theodosia Garrison Poetry Prize at the Biennial Convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs in

1920, in a contest open to all members of women's clubs of the United States.

THOREAU, HENRY DAVID (1817-1862). Born at Concord, Massachusetts; his father, a pencil maker; educated at Harvard, where he began his practice of keeping a journal. All his writings, covering thirty manuscript volumes, were in this form, and most of his books have been made up after his death by selecting passages from different places in these journals. As a whole, they show the great amount of interesting material that may be gathered by one who keeps his eyes open to things that surround him every day. Most of Thoreau's life was devoted to "endless walks and miscellaneous studies." In 1845 he built for himself a hut on the shore of Walden Pond, a small lake near Concord, where he lived for two years a life of meditation, study, and simple work. He says his total expense for the two years was seventy dollars. He kept a record of his observations "on man, on Nature, and on human life" that was published under the title of Walden in 1854. This is his most widely known book. It is filled with minute observations on insects, birds, the waters of the pond, the weather, and many similar subjects. Besides these observations of Nature, there are many comments on life and politics, on literature and various philosophical subjects, but it is as a book about Nature that Walden will live. It is marked by the simplicity and sincerity that characterized the man.

TIMROD, HENRY (1829-1867), was born in Charleston, South Carolina. He was educated at the University of Georgia. His father was the author of a volume of verse, and the son became a contributor to Russell's Magazine and The Southern Literary Messenger. He was engaged in journalism as correspondent and editor of South Carolina newspapers during the war. His poems were published in 1859; they were edited in 1873 by his friend, Paul Hamilton Hayne, and later, by J. P. Kennedy Bryan.

TWAIN, MARK (SAMUEL L. CLEMENS, 18351910), was born in Missouri and passed his boyhood in the river town of Hannibal, where he learned much about the sort of life that he depicts in several of his best-known books. He was of a roving disposition. At twelve he was apprenticed to a printer; later he went East and worked at his trade in New York and Philadelphia. In 1856 he secured work on the Mississippi River and in two years was a licensed steamboat pilot. His experiences here he used in his book entitled Life on the Mississippi (1883). With his brother he went to Nevada, worked at mining and lumbering, and finally edited a paper at Virginia City.

After a short experience here he went to San Francisco and secured a position on a daily paper, which he soon gave up in order to travel in the Sandwich Islands. In 1867 his story about the "Celebrated Jumping Frog," published in a New York paper, attracted attention, and a series of letters written while on a trip to Europe and Palestine was published under the title of Innocents Abroad in 1869. On his return he did editorial work on a paper in Buffalo, and in 1871 moved to Hartford, Connecticut. Most of his later life was spent in Connecticut and New York, but his most distinctive literary work is identified with the West, which he knew thoroughly. His fame rests on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Huckleberry Finn (1885). For additional details about these books see page 16.

WHITE, GILBERT (1720-1793), English writer on natural history, was born in Selborne, England. He was educated at Oxford and in 1747 was ordained to the ministry. He spent most of his life in or near the little Hampshire village of Selborne. His daily life was unbroken by great changes or incidents and left him free to indulge his strong naturalist tendencies. The Natural History of Selborne, from which "The Tortoise" is taken, has been said to be the first book which raised natural history into the region of literature.

WHITTIER, JOHN GREENLEAF (1807-1892). Born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in a family of Quaker farmers; the house in which he was born had been occupied by the Whittier family since 1688. His boyhood was passed in work on the farm and in short terms of study in the country school. At fourteen he came upon a volume of poems by Burns and these inspired him to try his hand at writing poetry. A little later he was able to attend Haverhill Academy for two winters, earning his expenses by shoemaking. In 1828 he edited a Boston paper for a short time and later on was connected with weekly papers at Haverhill and at Hartford, Connecticut. In 1836 he moved to Amesbury, which became his home for the remainder of his life. He published a collection of poems in 1837, and other volumes appeared at frequent intervals throughout his life. "Snow-Bound," the best-known of his longer poems, appeared in 1866. This poem is often compared with "The Cotter's Saturday Night" because of its pictures of life in a rural community. Whittier wrote many ballads and lyrics; it is chiefly as a lyric and descriptive poet that he is remembered. His subjects were drawn from early New England history, Indian legends, and

Nature and life in rural Massachusetts. He is remembered also as a writer of hymns and other poems of religious faith. Books had little influence on him; he sang of the dignity of labor and of simple faith.

WILSON, WOODROW (1856- ), twentyeighth President of the United States, is a native of Virginia. He was educated at Princeton University, and later became president of that institution. He has written many books on history and government, which are models of good English. In 1911 he became Governor of New Jersey, and in 1913 he entered upon his duties as President of the United States, serving throughout the difficult period of the World War.

WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM (1770-1850). Born in Cumberland, England; his boyhood passed amid scenes of great natural beauty, which had a deeper influence on him than the formal education he received in school and at Cambridge University. While a college student he went on a walking tour on the Continent and was powerfully impressed by the revolutionary movements then going on. For a time he was an ardent sympathizer with the Revolution in France; after his return, however, he settled down to a life of study and meditation, broken only now and then by foreign travel. His friendship for Coleridge led to the publication in 1798 of a small volume written by the two men and named Lyrical Ballads. To this Wordsworth contributed a number of poems about Nature in which he sought to show the beauty and mystery in common scenes. His poetry, like that of Coleridge, was very different from what was then regarded in England as true poetry; it used only simple words, preferred simple themes, and found in ordinary aspects of Nature and life abundant material for expressing emotion and interpreting beauty. Because of the difference in subject and form from the standards of the time, this poetry was not at first well received. Later in his life, however, Wordsworth was widely recognized as one of the greatest of English poets. His poems, which are very numerous, are on a great variety of subjects: stories, Nature poems, and poems giving his ideas on many aspects of life and thought.

Wyatt, Edith FRANKLIN (1873- ), was born in Wisconsin and educated in Chicago and at Bryn Mawr College. Among her writings are Everyone His Own Way, True Love, Making Both Ends Meet, Great Companions, and The Wind in the Corn, from which "On the Great Plateau" is taken. Her home is in Chicago.


Accent (stress), 290, 300. In general, emphasis on a syllable or a word. In prose, these stresses come at irregular intervals, just as the words of the sentence happen to be arranged. Test this with the sentence you have just read, marking each stress with an "x." In most verse, the words and syllables are so arranged as to bring the accented syllables at regular intervals, thus producing that regularity of sound and movement which we call meter. Note that words of one syllable, if important, may receive stress in poetry. See Rhythm, Meter, Iambic, etc.

Alliteration, 245, 300. The repetition of initial consonants, as in "A mighty fountain momently was forced." The device is common in poetry, and adds the music of sound to the verse. In older poetry, syllables beginning with vowels were regarded as alliterative.

Appositives, 234. Nouns in apposition. In poetry, especially the epic, single adjectives, or adjective phrases, are used in apposition with the proper noun they describe.

Autobiography, 379.

Ballads, 211-214, 236-239, 269, 279, 442. folk, 212, 238, 239, 270. heroic, 238, 245.

humorous, 238, 253.

incremental repetition in, 239, 240-241, 242, 243.

literary, 239, 270.

refrain in, 242, 243.

romantic, 238, 253. supernatural, 238, 255.

Biography, 212, 378-379.

Canto, 290. Literally, a "song." In poetry it is a division or unit of a long narrative poem, somewhat like a "chapter" or a "book" in prose narrative.

Climax, 53, 76, 458.

Comparison, 277, 349, 479, 523. See Simile.

Coronach, 319. A lamentation for the dead; a dirge.

Couplets, 290. Two lines of verse that rime with each other.

Drama, 211-214, 381-382, 436-437, 441. comedy, 382.

heroic, 214, 441. tragedy, 382.

Epic, 212, 215-218, 236, 238, 290, 441, folk, 212.

Essay, 22.

Figure of speech, 300. Any use of words that is not literal, but which suggests comparison or picture. See Simile, Metaphor, etc.

Gloss, 270.

Iambic Tetrameter, 300. Verse in which four accents occur in a line, each accented or stressed syllable being preceded by an unstressed syllable. An iambus is composed of an unstressed syllable followed by one that is stressed, as in the word compel.

Imagery, 528. The work of the imagination or fancy in decorating or making vivid oral or written composition; the use of images or figures of speech in composition. See Figure of Speech.

Incremental repetition, 239. A technical term used to describe a method of repetition of words or phrases, especially in ballad poetry, in which a small increment or addition is made to the story with each repetition.

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