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Might fire the blood of ordinary men,
And turn pre-ordinance and first decree
Into the law of children. Be not fond,
To think that Cæsar bears such rebel blood
That will be thaw'd from the true quality
With that which melteth fools, I mean, sweet

Low-crooked court'sies and base spaniel-fawning.
Thy brother by decree is banished:
If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him,
I spurn thee like a cur out of my way.
Know, Cæsar doth not wrong, nor without cause
Will he be satisfied.
Met. Is there no voice more worthy than my

To sound more sweetly in great Cæsar's ear
For the repealing of my banish'd brother?

Bru. I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Cæsar ; Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may

38. first decree, what has been me wrong," he replied, “Cæsar already decreed once for all. did never wrong, but with just

39. law; Johnson's correc- cause," and such like ; which tion of Ff lane.'

were ridiculous.' Jonson was 47. Know, Cesar doth not an exact man, and is not at all wrong, etc.

It is probable that, likely to have misquoted; while as first written and performed, the speech, paradoxical merely this passage ran :

on the surface as it is (since Cæsar did never wrong but with

wrong' could mean “injury'), just cause,

is by no means one that cannot Nor without cause will he be have escaped from Shakespeare's satisfied.

pen. The reading of the Folio In this form it is quoted by Jon- text was thus not improbably son in a well-known criticism of due to

Jonson's criticism. Shakespeare (Discoveries, $71): Whether Shakespeare or some • His wit was in his own power,

reviser made the change we would the rule of it had been cannot determine ; certainly we so too. Many times he fell in- have no right, with some editors, to those things could not escape to decide that he did not, or to laughter : as when he said in restore to the text the reading the person of Cæsar, one speak- which Jonson ridicules. ing to him, “Cæsar, thou dost 51. repealing, recalling.


Have an immediate freedom of repeal.

Cæs. What, Brutus !

Pardon, Cæsar; Cæsar, pardon:
As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall,
To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber.

Cas. I could be well moved, if I were as you ;
If I could pray to move, prayers would move me :
But I am constant as the northern star,
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament.
The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks,
They are all fire and every one doth shine,
But there's but one in all doth hold his place :
So in the world ; 'tis furnish'd well with men,
And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive ;
Yet in the number I do know but one
That unassailable holds on his rank,
Unshaked of motion : and that I am he,
Let me a little show it, even in this :
That I was constant Cimber should be banishid,
And constant do remain to keep him so.

Cin. O Cæsar,-
Cæs. Hence! wilt thou lift up Olympus ?
Dec. Great Cæsar,-

Doth not Brutus bootless kneel? Casca. Speak, hands, for me! [Casca first, then the other Conspirators and


Marcus Brutus stab Cæsar.


54. freedom of repeal, free

Doth ; so F1 Some recall.

modern edd. follow F, which 61. resting, stable.

has 'do not Brutus bootless 67. apprehensive, endowed kneel,'-a flat remark for this with understanding.

supreme moment ; and it is 69. holds on his ank, stands incredible that Shakespear firm in his determined place. should have meant • Brutus

70. Unshaked of motion, here only to stand for Decius.' stirred by no motion.

Such trifling was not his way.

Cæs. Et tu, Brute! Then fall, Cæsar! [Dies.

Cin. Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead ! Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets.

Cas. Some to the common pulpits, and cry out 80 Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!'

Bru. People and senators, be not affrighted;
Fly not; stand still : ambition's debt is paid.

Casca. Go to the pulpit, Brutus.

And Cassius too.
Bru. Where's Publius ?
Cin. Here, quite confounded with this mutiny.
Met. Stand fast together, lest some friend of

Cæsar's Should chance

Bru. Talk not of standing. Publius, good cheer; There is no harm intended to your person, Nor to no Roman else : so tell them, Publius. Cas. And leave us, Publius; lest that the

people, Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief.

Bru. Do so: and let no man abide this deed But we the doers.



Where is Antony ?
Tre. Fled to his house amazed :
Men, wives and children stare, cry out and run
As it were doomsday.

77. Et tu, Brute! These Richard, Duke of York, where words, though not clearly trace- Edward appeals to the hostile able to a classical source, were Clarence with Et tu, Brute, assigned by popular tradition in wilt thou stab Cæsar too?' Shakespeare's day to the dying (2) in Nicholson's Acolastus' Cæsar,-a consideration which After Wit (1600), where the apparently overcame Shake- same line is quoted. speare's habitual avoidance of Latin scraps. They are found 80. the common pulpits, the (1) in the True Tragedie of public platforms.



Bru. Fates, we will know your pleasures : That we shall die, we know ; 'tis but the time And drawing days out, that men stand upon.

Cas. Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life
Cuts off so many years of fearing death.

Bru. Grant that, and then is death a benefit :
So are we Cæsar's friends, that have abridged
His time of fearing death. Stoop, Romans, stoop,
And let us bathe our hands in Cæsar's blood
Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords :
Then walk we forth, even to the market-place,
And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads,
Let's all cry 'Peace, freedom and liberty!'
Cas. Stoop, then, and wash.

How many ages
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over
In states unborn and accents yet unknown !

Bru. How many times shall Cæsar bleed in sport,
That now on Pompey's basis lies along
No worthier than the dust!

So oft as that shall be,
So often shall the knot of us be call'd
The men that gave their country liberty.

Dec. What, shall we forth ?

Ay, every man away: Brutus shall lead ;, and we will grace his heels With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.


Enter a Servant.
Bru. Soft! who comes here? A friend of Antony's.

100. stand upon, concern 115. on Pompey's basis, at themselves about.

the base of Pompey's statue. 101, 102. Ff give this speech This was the actual scene of to Casca (* Cask.'), but he takes the murder, according to Plutpart nowhere else in the dis- arch. Shakespeare appears to cussion of the leaders. Pope

that it was by the first gave it to Cassius.




Serv. Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me

Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down;
And, being prostrate, thus he bade me say:
Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest;
Cæsar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving :
Say I love Brutus and I honour him ;
Say I fear'd Cæsar, honour'd him and loved him.
If Brutus will vouchsafe that Antony
May safely come to him, and be resolved
How Cæsar hath deserved to lie in death,
Mark Antony shall not love Cæsar dead
So well as Brutus living; but will follow
The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus
Thorough the hazards of this untrod state
With all true faith. So says my master Antony.

Bru. Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman;
I never thought him worse.
Tell him, so please him come unto this place,
He shall be satisfied, and, by my honour,
Depart untouch'd.

I'll fetch him presently. [Exit. Bru. I know that we shall have him well to

Cas. I wish we may: but yet have I a mind
That fears him much, and my misgiving still
Falls shrewdly to the purpose.

Bru. But here comes Antony.


Re-enter ANTONY.

Welcome, Mark Antony.
Ant. O mighty Cæsar! dost thou lie so low?
Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,
131. resolved, informed.

purpose, 'comes wondrous near 143. to friend, as our friend. the mark,' is pretty closely 146. Falls shrewdly to the fulfilled. VOL. VIII



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