« 이전계속 »
has been without authentic hierarchies, or true ecclesiastical institutions. I do not see what reasonable fault is to be found with either the Jewish worship, or with that of the Christian church, if they are to be roplaced only by other external worship. The Jewish priests reflected, no doubt, the prevalent arrogance and selfishness of the national hope, but, I presume, were otherwise a superior class of men. And the Christian priesthood, although the temptations incident to their conventional elevation have served to develope among them many of the subtler forms of evil latent in the undisciplined human heart, lave yet, on the whole, been lustrous with many virtues. You will occasionally find one among them with a conscience like the hide of a rbinoceros, and a lust of dominion able to surinount the tallest star, and annex it to the bishopric of his conceit. And, what is remarkable, the smaller the sect, the plentier you find this sort of men, as if the divine Providence purposely limited a stomach so gigantic to the meagerest possible pasture. Bat, on the whole, what sweetness has baptized the clerical function in the past! What forutude, what self-denial, what patience, what labor in season and out of season, have been the beritago of the great mass of these men! What stores of learning they have accumulated; what splendid additions they liave made to the best literature of every land; how they have enriched the sciences by their observation and studious inquiries; how they have kept the flame of patriotisin aglow; how they have encouraged the generous ambition of youth, and directed it to worthy and usetal ends; how they have dignified the family altar, and cherished the purity of woman, and diffused through society the charm of bonest and gentle manners; all these things must be cordially acknowledged by every one competent to speak on the question. Where would be the sense of ousting such a body of inon, native, as it were, and to tho manner born, inheriting a grace and dignity from their time-honored places, embalıncd in the kindly reverence and good will of the community, only for the purpose of introducing a new and undisciplined body, honest and well-intentioned, no doubt, and in many respects intelloctually well qualitied, but aggressire by the very necessity of their birth, contemptuous and insulting by the inseparable theory of their oflice?
*All the world will bid God-speed to the new aspiTants, provided they will honestly and inodestly apply such teaching-faculty as they possess to the dissemination of original truths on the subject of man's relations to God and his fellow-man. But if they aro not content with this--if they iinmodestly claim to be a newer and more authentic priesthood as well; if, instead of simply shedding new and grateful light on previously insoluble problems, they seek a private end also, which is the exultation of their own order in priblic regard, and to this end represent baptism and the LorIs Supper to possess a different virtue, e dipiner unction, under their administration than under that of the existing priesthood; then the insulted common sense of the public will conclude that truth informed and urged by such a temper can hardly be worth a reasonable man's attention; and that if we can never attain to a newness of spirit in religious matters without necessitating a corresponding newness of letter also, the sooner we abandon all hope of spiritual progress the better, and so get well rid for ever of the interminable quarrel and fatigue."
what rational uses it inevitably points ; but our space will not allow us to follow him in the inquiry. But we most cheerfully commend the whole pamphlet to our readers; not because we concur in the views of its writer ; but because it is written in such a noble and generous spirit--with so easy a mastery of all the depths and bearings of the subject-and in a style which, for purity and beauty of language, might serve as a model in any literature. Indeed, we are disposed to regard Mr. James as the ablest rhetorician in this country; one whose rhetoric is not a mere vehicle of display, but the graceful and proper expression of his profound thought and his deeply poetical and religious nature.
A large volume is put forth by Mr. ANDREW Brown, whose title is, perhaps, the best account of it that we can give. It runs as follows: “ The Philosophy of Physics, a process of creative derelopment, by which the first principles of physics are prored beyond controrersil, and their effect in the formation of all physical things made comprehensible to all intelligent minéls, as in phenomenal nature." The author seems really to suppose that he has solved the great enigma of creation, and made it plain to the commonest apprehension. But let us say to him, that either on account of our own stupidity or his want of clearness, we have read some one or two hundred pages out of his five hundred, without finding ourselves a whit the wiser. The physical world is no more intelligible to us than it was when we began, and we shall therefore dismiss the remainder of his volume, as not presenting us any very alluring hopes. On the other hand, we are convinced by Mr. Brown's attempts, if we were not before, that the iš priori process of dealing with nature is not likely to lead to any substantial results. It is casy enough to imagine a scheme or philosophy of pature, if you are allowed to assume what first principles you please, which shall be consistent and even beautiful.-which indeed shall seem to explain all the ordinary facts of nature; some of the ancient philosophers and many of the German physicians have done that time and again ; but the question will be, after all, Is it true? Thus, Mr. Brown assumes certain attributes of Deity, as he calls them, or first principles which he naines, “mind, matter and energy," and by means of the action and interaction of these, he deduces an explanation of natural phenomena ; but his explanation, as far as we have followed it, is no more satisfactory than a dozen
Our author next inquires into the meaning of “ the great phenomenon which we call a church,” showing in what sentiments of the human soul it takes its rise, and to
others that we have read in books of me- spiral, its latitude and longitude will detaphysics. It strikes us as nothing more pend at any particular time, 1st, on the than an arbitrary fancy of the inventor, relative mass of the moon ; 2d, on the who would be at much better work if he inclination of the axis of the vortex to the were studying nature, instead of trying earth's axis ; 3d, on the longitude of the to explain it, and to arrive more speedily ascending node of the vortex on the lunar too at a sound philosophy. Hegel thought orbit; 4th, on the longitude of the ascendout the entire development of the universe, ing node of the lunar orbit on the ecliptic; and Andrew Jackson Davis dreamed it; 5th, on the eccentricity of the lunar orbit and we do not see but that their views of at the time; 6th, on the longitude of the matter are quite as authoritative and the perigee of the lunar orbit, at the complete as Mr. Brown's. How long will time; and 7th, on the moon's true anomit be before men learn that these conjec- aly at the time. But all these circumtural philosophies—these systems spun stances can be approximately determinout of the brain, and on the meagerest ed, and, consequently, the physical cause basis of facts-are a dreadful waste of which disturbs the equilibrium of our time, patience and printing ink? If they atmosphere, and is the principal agent were put forth simply as hypotheses, as in the production of storms. As a proof tentatives, as modest suggestions, they of this. Mr. Bassuett gives the calculations might, perhaps, answer a purpose; but for several of the most violent storms that presented in huge tomes, and with all the occurred during the past year, made by pretension and positiveness of absolute him before their occurrence, but adduced systems of truth, they provoke either pity now simply as examples of the method or a smile--a smile at the author's vanity, of calculation. We are not sufficiently or pity for his delusion.
familiar with the subject to decide upon Another work on a branch of physical the degree of his success, but are still not science-Mr. T. BASSETT'S “ Outlines of so ignorant as not to know that his little a Mechanical Theory of Storms,"—is book deserves the attention of scientific not open to these objections. It is a modest presentation of a new theory of An excellent edition of the “ Poetimeteorology, which the discoverer believes cal Works of Thomas Campbell” has to contain the most important practical been prepared by Eres SARGENT, who truth. He says that his theory has been has also prefixed an agreeable memoir. tested by a large number of experiments, It is chiefly taken froin the materials of which show it to be perfectly sound, and Dr. Beattic, but is most skilfully and enauthorize him in propounding it to the tertainingly put together, with incidents world. He has repeatedly predicted the from other sources of information. About time and place of the occurrence of great fifty poems not contained in any previous storms, and is enabled by means of it to edition are included, having been sent to instruct navigators how to calculate the the editor by Dr. Beattie. Campbell is coming change of wind and weather, for any not anong our most favorite poets, and given day, and for any part of the ocean. we think only a few of his poems destined
The elements of the theory are these: to a long life, and yet he was so graceful Mr. Bassuett supposes, 1st, that space is a versilier, and so thorough and consistfilled with an elastic fluid, possessing in- ent a lover of liberty, that we are glad to ertia without weight; 2d, that the parts possess any thing that he wrote. of this fluid in the solar system, çirculate, - Professor Hitchcock has performed after the manner of a vortex, with a direct an acceptable service in his “ Outline of the motion ; 3d, that there are also secondary Geology of the Globe and of the United vortices in which the planets are placed; States in particular," for he presents with4th, that the earth is also placed in a in the compass of a small volume, a general vortex of the ethereal medium; and 5th, statement of an important science, which that the satellites are passively carried almost any intelligent reader can comprearound their primaries with the ethereal hend. It is founded on the labors of M. current, and have no rotation relative to Boné, a distinguished French geologist, but the ether, and, therefore, they present the with corrections as to the geology of North same face to their primaries and have no America. But the most valuable parts of vortex.
this little work are two colored maps,-the Now, assuming that the dynamical axis one representing the geology of the globe, of our tenal vortex passes through the and the other, the geology of the North centre of gravity of the earth and moon, American continent,—which teach more and that it continually circulates over the at a glance than could be got out of whole earth's surface in both hemispheres in a reams of letter-press.
Such of our readers as adopt the Homeopathic system of medicine will find the series of manuals and elementary books, recently translated and prepared by Dr. CHARLES JULIUS HEMPEL, invaluable assistants. The first consists of Jahr and Possail's New Manual, which has been received with most distinguished favor by the French and German practitioners. The first part is a compendium of the Materia Medica Pura, including all those symptoms that are known to yield to the action of drugs, and the second is a repertory of the leading general indications. Another work, is Jahr's Manual, in a larger form, intended as the repertory and third volume of the Symptomencodex, which appeared some time since. It is the most comprehensive and thorough digest of the Homeopathic system that has been prepared; Dr. Hempel has spared no pains in the translation and editorship, and deserves the thanks of his branch of the profession for his unwearied industry, intelligence, and faithfulness.
ENGLISH.-Now that the great "beardquestion” is the question of the day in England, Mr. ALEXANDER ROWLAND has published a work on The Human Hair, which is a complete and systematic treatise on the subject, anatomical, physiological, ethnological, and esthetic; giving not only accurate views of the structure and uses of hair, its diseases and history, but narratives of the fashions which have prevailed in regard to the wearing of it, both on the head and face. The author is a decided advocate of the beard and moustache, and looks upon it, as a kind of insult to the Creator, to apply the razor to the “human face divine." - No man in the world, he argues, would shave himself, if he were not an arrant coward, afraid of the apparent singularity of the beard, and the world's dread laugh. In England, before the time of George the First, no full grown man ever thought of smoothing his chin, and then it was done in imitation of the practice of that monarch, who had some special reason for it, -perhaps an ugly beard, or a handsome mouth. A beard grows naturally on the face, and for some good and wise purpose, and ought no more to be removed than the hairs brows or the head. Furthermore, adds our author:
“There is one certain fact I would mention with regard to beards.
As a general rule, every man with a beard Is a man of strongly-inarked individuality-frequently genius-bas formed his own opinions-is straightforward to a certain degree, frequently reckless-but will not fawn or cringe to
The very füct of his wearing a beard, in
the face, as it were, of society, is a proof that his heart and conscience are above the paltry aid of a daily penny shave.
* If men would not share from boyhood up, they would find their beards would be flowing, their moustaches light and airy, both adding a dignity to manhood and a venerableness to age, to wbich shorn bu. manity must be strangers,
“But the beard is not merely for ornament, it is for use. Nature never does any thing in vain; she is economical, and wastes nothing. She would never erect a bulwark were her domain unworthy of protection, or were there no enemy to invade it, I shall proceed to show that the beard is intended as a bul. wark, and designed for tho protection of the health. The beard has a tendency to prevent diseases of the lungs by guarding their portals. Tho moustache particularly, as we have already seen, prevents the admission of particles of dust into the lungs, which are the fruitful cause of disease. It also forms a respi. rator more ethicient than the cunning hand of min can fabricate. Man fashions his respirator of wire, curiously wrought; nature makes hers of hair placed where it belongs, and not requiring to be put on like a muzzle. Diseases of the head and throat are also provented by wearing the beard.”
In this country, since the Mexican war and Californian adventure, the beard is quite generally worn,—at least in the cities and large towns,—and we have no need of formal treatises to commend it to public favor.
Besides, as every man among us does pretty much as he pleases, the fashion of wearing the hair is quite as infinitely varied as the tastes of the people.
This writer gives some curious accounts as to the trade and commerce in hair, which we extract from for the entertainment of our readers:
“ Formerly, the manufacturers of artificial hair into wigs, ladies' curls, &c., obtained a considerable por tion of their supply at home from hospitals, prisons, and work houses; but now the hair is not cropper compulsorily, as was formerly the case, and the poor and distressed, or criminal, are not deprived of their fair and valued tresses. It must be understood that female hair alone is of any use to the hair-worker, from its length and curling properties. That most prized, is the gray hair of aged persons, which can be prepared to any shade.
"Light hair all comes from Germany, where it is collectod by a company of Dutch farmers, who come over for orders once a year. It would appear that either the fashion or tho necessity of England has, within a recent period, completely altered the relative demands from the two countries. Forty years ago, according to one of the first dealers in the trade, the light German hair alone was called for, and he alınost raved about a peculiar golden tint which was supremely prized, and which his father used to keep very close, only producing it to favorite customers, in the same manner that our august sherry-lord or hock-herr spares to particular friends-or now and then, it is said, to intluential literary characters fexx magnums of some raro and renowned vintage This treasured article he sold at St. an ounce-nearly double the price of silver. Now all this has passed away, and the dark shades of browu from France are chietly called for.
It is this
"So constant and regular is this traffic, that the hair-cutters in France know exactly where to go for their year's crop.
"Keeping an acconnt of the villages from which they gathered their supply for a certain year, they know that they will not be able to cut in the same places till the arrival of another given year. And not only can they calculate as to quantity, but the value of each local harvest is also well known, and almost fixed; for within a space of from ten to fifteen leagues, the quality varies, as we are told, so much as to make a difference of from ten to twenty sous per pound weight
** The original price of the hair, as purchased from the village inaidens, is, as we bave seen, about five shillings per pound. The tradesmen engaged in the preparations of sorting, curling, and dressing it, purchase it at a price of ten shillings per pound; and after it has gone through their hands, it acquires a value of from twenty to eighty shillings per pound weight; and this is at the rate it is purchased by the bair-dresser.
* By the skill of the hair-dresser, the price is again raised to an almost indefinite extent, and must be calculated by the degree of labor and dexterity enployed on it.
* Thus a peruke, containing only three ounces of hair, originally costing less than a shilling, is frequently sold at a price of twenty-five to thirty shillings.
* The quantity of bair produced by the annual harvest is calculated at two hundred thousand pounds' weight. The sales of one house alone, in Paris, which supplies four hair-cutting establishments in the western country, amount to four hundred thousand francs annually."
more interesting, than as originally published! Would it not be a useful discipline then for all popular writers to be required to read their works to a public audience ? It is commonly supposed that that which is prepared for verbal communication, is more diffuse than what is intended for the closet; but our experience has been different. There is nothing that more leadis a writer to condensation and vigor, than the consciousness that a large audience is to sit for an hour or two under its delivery. It forces him to leave out all unnecessary passages, and to say as much as he can as well as he can, within the time prescribed to him. Extemporary speakers, it is true, get into loose habits of thought and utterance, but speakers who prepare their addresses with deliberation and judgment do not; and it is remarkable, that among the best specimens of composition on the records of literature, are those dramas and orations which were put together to be read or spoken to popular audiences. For condensed energy of expression, à vivacity of style, we possess nothing superior to the tragedies of the Greek Dramatists, and the orations of Demosthenes, which were originally delivered to the most popular of all audiences—those of the Agora and the Games. A man who writes for the closet merely, is apt to get prosy and dull: he allows many sentences to remain that would be extremely tedious in a public assembly ; and he is controlled, too, in the estimate of his own powers, very much by the opinions of the coterie to which he belongs. On the other hand, if he were forced to come personally with his production before a miscellaneous tribunal, he would impart to his style all the grace and power of which he was capable. It is for this reason that we look with some degree of hope to the influences of the system of lecturing in which so many of our literary men are engaged, believing that it will be a benefit to them no less than to the community at large.
A Magazine mania seems to rage in England just now, for we have to chronicle the appearance during the last month or two, of some half dozen new periodicals. First comes the National Miscellany, which, however, has reached its eighth number; then the Home Companion, an illustrated magazine; then Cruikshank's Magazine, with sketches from the pencil of the great caricaturist; then the Family Friend ; and then Our Circle of the Sciences. In short, new magazines in England appear to be as plentiful as almanacs in France.
-It is an evidence of the feeling which prompts a great deal of the English criticism of America, that a late Athenaeum reviews a miserable catch-penny pamphlet, giving an account of the rich men of Boston, as a specimen of “transatlantic publications," and calls the fellow who put it together an American author." We shall next expect to see the catalogue of some dry-good auctioneer quoted as the latest form of American journalism.
- Are the times of the old Grecian rhapsodists or the northern scalds to be revived, or are the tale-tellers of the East, and the improvisatores of Italy, to be transplanted into England ? Mr. Dickens, we see has been reading one of his Christmas stories before immense audiences at Birmingham, and with great success. No lecturer, it is said, ever commanded so complete and rapt an attention. But there is no research made by the newspapers, which has struck us. He lopped off instinctively, in the reading, under the pressure of a public ordeal, everything to which the knife of the critic would be applied; curtailing his needless amplifications, omitting passages of mere description that have nothing to do with advancing the main purpose, and subduing the exaggerations, and over-colorings, so that the story as received was shorter, and far
I'RENCH.-A work of rare utility and M. de Mirecourt's larger book shall have interest is the M. P. FROUSSACS “ De La
made its appearance. Meteorologie dans scs rapports avec la -The history of the Girondists and of Science de l'Homme, et principalement the Restoration, have been followed up by avec la Medecine et l'Hygiene Publique, Lamartine. with a History of the Conor, of the Influence of Meteorology on the slituent Assembly. It is of the same Science of Man. It is an elaborate trea- general character as his previous works; tise on the whole subject as far as our not very precise, and disclosing no new knowledge of it extends, showing how the facts or variety, but full of popular effects. condition of man and society is affected by On the whole, however, it must be rethe air, the water, electricity, galvanism, garded as inferior to the Girondists, and climate, and all other external physical in- not better than the Restoration. Lamartine fluences, and giving the most precise and was never meant for a historian, or if he valuable details in respect to the entire was, is either too idle or too much occuseries of meteorological phenomena. The pied, to devote to his task the necessary author is favorably known by his previous labor. It is not easy to be an historian, works on climate, animal magnetism, gym- to possess a captivating style, to abound nastics, &c.
in sentimentality, or to be able to draw We trust that we have no occasion striking pictures. Some research is also of calling to the mind of French scholars required. But Lamartine seems to dein this country the Revue des deux Mon- spise all research. He catches up a few des, one of the ablest of the Parisian pe- of the best known authorities on the epochs riodicals. It is published twice a month, he is writing about; tells their stories and is one of thd best depositories of the over again; puts in a charming bit of rocurrent literature of France that we know. mance here and there, and then sends forth A large number of the most accomplished his book as a history. He is diffuse, inscholars contribute to it. Such men as accurate, theatrical, and wholly superCousin, Guizot, De Rémusat, St. Marc ficial. We suspect, indeed, that he does Girardin, Henry Heine, Madame Rey baud, not much care whether his representaAmpère, Lettre, Leon Faucher, and oth- tions are correct or not, and that he adopts ers, and it embraces among its topics, po- and discards views of historical personlitical economy, literature, religion, science ages and events, just as they may be and art, besides occasional fictions. telling or not, and quite without reference
- A gentleman who calls himself Mon- to their truth. If he can produce a sensieur A. BELLEGARRIGUE, has written a sation, can drape his figures picturesquely, book on "American Women" (Les Femmes or describe a transaction with dramatic d'.Imerique), in which he treats of our point, he accomplishes his purpose. Yet, poor benighted females, and America gen- in spite of these drawbacks, we confess to erally, as something newly discovered; a certain fascination which we find in his as we might treat of the women of Pata- pages. He is seldom guilty of the besetgonia, or the Aleutian islands. Concurring ting sin of historians-dulness: his narraentirely in the belief that American men tive is always animated; he contrives to are wholly absorbed in the tout-puissant invest whatever he touches with a deep écu, vulgarly rendered the “almighty interest, –a romantic interest, it may be, dollar," he finds the women of course des- and yet powerful. Even in the volume titute of all moral elevation, and only a before us, which opens with the convocaslight degree raised above the sex of the tions of the States-General, and ends with primitive inhabitants.
This is an ex- the destruction of the Bastile,-though aggerated representation, indeed, and yet, there is no want of histories in regard to as there is something to be learned out of that period—though we have read all every opinion, there are certain classes of
Mignet, Thiers, Michelet, Louis Blanc, women who might profit by a perusal of and Carlyle have to say of it: -- we find its unfriendly criticism.
our attention at once riveted. The stir- M. EUGENE DE MIRECOURT proposes ring and earnest nature of the events may to write a history of the literature of the account for some of this interest, and the Nineteenth Century, and as a specimen political treatment of these by the author brick out of the edifice, has presented for the rest. the public with a small volume on some - An imperishable curiosity attaches,-at contemporary men of letters (Les Con- least, in the French mind. -- to every thing temporains Hommes des Lettres, Publi- that relates to Napoleon. In order to cistes, etc). His first selection is Méry, gratify it, M. Keimozan has commenced an inconsiderable French poet, whose works the publication of all his letters, proclawe suspect will be forgotten, long before mations and state papers, under the name