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(2) make any publication hereby the data furnished by any particular establishment or individual under this title can be identified; or

(3) permit anyone other than the sworn officers and employees of the Department or bureau or agency thereof to examine the

individual reports. No department, bureau, agency; officer, or employee of the Gorernment, except the Secretary in carrying out the purposes of this title, shall require, for any reason, copies of census reports which have been retained by any such establishment or individual. Copies of census reports which hare been so retained shall be immune from legal proc. ess, and shall not, without the consent of the individual or establishment concerned, be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial or administrative proceeding.

(b) The prorisions of subsection (a) of this section relating to the confidential treatment of data for particular individuals and establishments, shall not apply to the censuses of governments provided for by subchapter III of chapter 5 of this title, nor to interim current data provided for by subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this title as to the subjects covered by censuses of governments, with respect to any information obtained therefor that is compiled from, or customarily provided in, public records. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1013, amended Oct. 15, 1962, Pub. L. 87–813,76 Stat. 922.) 10. Repealed. Pub. L. 86-682, 812(a), Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 708,

eff. Sept. 1, 1960 $11. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated, out of the Treasury of the United States, such sums as may be necessary to carry out all provisions of this title. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1014.) $ 12. Mechanical and electronic development

The Secretart is authorized to have conducted mechanical and electronic development work as he determines is needed to further the functions and duties of carrying out the purposes of this title and may enter into such developmental contracts as he may determine to be in the best interest of the Government. (Added Pub. L. 85–207, § 5, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 481.) § 13. Procurement of professional services

The Secretary shall have authority to contract with educational and other research organizations for the preparation of monographs and other reports and materials of a similar nature. (Added Pub. L. 83–207, $ 5, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 481.) § 14. Repealed. Pub. L. 89-473, $ 2(a), June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 221 $ 15. Leases for 1980 decennial census

The 15 percent limitation contained in section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932 (47 Stat. 412; 40 U.S.C. 278a) shall not apply to leases entered into by the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out the 1980 decennial census, but no lease may be entered into for such purpose at a rental in excess of 105 percent of the appraised fair annual rental of the leased premises, or a proportionate part of the appraised fair annual rental in the case of a lease for less than a year. (Added Pub. L. 96-52, $ 1(a), Aug. 13, 1979, 93 Stat. 358.)

SUBCHAPTER II-OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES

821. Director of the Census; duties

The Bureau shall be headed by a Director of the Census, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director shall perform such duties as may be imposed upon him by law, regulations, or orders of the Secretary. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1014.) $ 22. Qualifications of permanent personnel

All permanent officers-and employees of the Bureau shall be citizens of the United States. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1014, amended Sept 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–769,8 1,74 Stat. 911.) 8 23. Additional officers and employees

(a) The Secretary may establish, at rates of compensation to be fised by him without regard to the Classification Act of 1949, as many temporary positions as may be necessary to meet the requirements of the work provided for by law. Bureau employees who are transferred to any such temporary positions shall not lose their permanent civil service status by reason of the transfer. The Secretary may make appointments to such temporary positions in conformity with the civil service laws and rules.

(b) In addition to employees of the Department of Commerce, employees of other departments and independent offices of the Government may, with the consent of the head of the respective department or office, be employed and compensated for field work in connection with the work provided for by law without regard to section 301 of the Dual Compensation Act.

(c) The Secretary may utilize temporary staff, including employees of Federal, State, or local agencies or instrumentalities, and employees of private organizations to assist the Bureau in performing the work authorized by this title, but only if such temporary staff is strom to observe the limitations imposed by section of this title. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1014, amended Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86-769, § 2, 74 Stat. 911: Aug. 19, 1964, Pub. L. 88 448, title IV, $ 401(p), 78 Stat. 492; Oct. 17, 1976, Pub. L. 94–521, § 12(b), 90 Stat. 2465.) § 24. Special employment provisions

(a) The Secretary may utilize the services of nontemporary employees of the Bureau (by assignment, promotion, appointment, detail, or otherwise) in temporary positions established for any census, for not to exceed the period during which appropriations are arailable for that census. Whenever the Secretary determines that the services of an employee which have been utilized under this section are no longer required in such a temporary position, he may, without regard to the provisions of any other law, return the employee to a continuing position, with rank and compensation not less than that which he held in his last permanent position in the Bureau: Provided, That no employee shall, by reason of his service in a temporary position under this subsection, lose the protection of any law or regulation with respect to his separation, suspension, furlough, or reduction in rank or compensation below the level held in his last permanent position in the Bureau. Service by a nontemporary employee in a temporary position under this subsection shall be creditable for step increases (both periodic and longevity) under title VII of the Classification Act of 1949, as amended, as though it were a continuation of service in his last permanent position.

(b) .ls used in this title rith respect to appointments or positions, "temporary" shall be constried to menn not in excess of one rear, or not in excess of the specific period during which appropriations are arailable for the conduct of a particular census, whicherer is longer. No employee of the Bureau who holds only a temporary appointment within the meaning of this section shall be considered as other than strictly temporary for purposes of any other provision of law relating to separations. suspensions, or reductions in rank or compensation.

(c) The enlisted men and officers of the uniformed services may be appointed and compensated for service in temporary enumerator positions for the enumeration of personnel of the uniformed services.

(d) The Secretary may fis compensation on a piece-price basis without limitation as to the amount earned per diem, and parments may be made to enumerators for the use of private automobiles on official business without regard to section 4 of the Trarel Espense Act of 1919, as amended (5 U.S.C. 837), but at rates not in excess of the rates provided by that Act.

(e) The Secretary may authorize the expenditure of necessary sums for travel expenses of persons selected for appointment for attendance at training courses held by the Department of Commerce with respect to any of the work prorided for by law.

(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of law prohibiting the expenditure of public money for telephone service, the Secretart, under such regulations as he shall prescribe, may authorize reimbursement for tolls or charges for telephone service from prirate residences or private apartments to the estent such charges are determined by the Secretary to hare been incurred to facilitate the collection of information in connection with the censuses and survers authorized by this title. (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1015, amended Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. I.. SG-769, § 3, 7+ Stat. 911; Aug. 31, 1964, Pub. L. 88–535; 74 Stat. 744.) § 25. Duties of supervisors, enumerators, and other employees

(a) Each supervisor shall perform the duties imposed upon him by the Secretary in the enforcement of chapter 3 of this title in accordance with the Secretary's orders and instructions.

(b) Each enumerator or other emplovee detailed to serve as enumer. ator shall be charged with the collection in his subdivision of the facts and statistics called for on such schedules as the Secretary determines shall be used by him in connection with any census or survey prorided for by chapter 5 of this title. (Aug. 31, 1954. ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1015, amended Aug. 31, 1964, Pub. L. 88–530,78 Stat. 737.) $26. Transportation by contract

The Secretary may contract with field employees for the rental and use within the continental limits of the United States of means of transportation, other than motorcycle, automobile, or airplane, and for the rental and rise outside of the continental United States of any means of transportation, which means may be owned by the field employee. Such rental contracts shall be made without regard to section 4 of the Travel Espense Act of 1949, as amended (ö U.S.C. 837). The rentals shall be at rates equivalent to the prevailing rental rates of the locality. The rental contracts within the continental United States may be entered into only when the use by the field employee of such other means of transportation is safer, more economical, or more advantageous to the Government than use of his motorcycle, automobile, or airplane in conducting the census. (Added Pub. L. 83–207, § 6, Aug. 28, 1957,71 Stat. 482.)

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