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Characters. PAG e. - p A G e. Major-general Close - - - 457 Memoir of Doctor J. Anderson - " - 458

Natural History.

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The Kustoora or musk deer The cow and shawl goat. - . . .462
Nepaul pheasant and partridge. - - ibid. Sheep of Tibet. - - - ibid.
- Useful Projects.
Memorandum on the commerce of Ne- Arts, manufactures, and commerce . . 468
paui. - - - . 463 Description of the Indigo plant. . . 469
Commercial deposit. • , . 467 Preparation of the Indigo. - • 479
Hydrography. -
Scarborough shoal, • " . 475 Cambrian's shoal. • - .ibid.
Paracels.
Extract of a letter from a gentleman on board the Discovery. 2 • , ibid.
Poetry.
Ode on the fall of Babylon, by George Hymn to the Sun. 81

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Saif Addaulet, Sultan of Aleppo to his 4
mistress. - - - - . . ibid.
On love of pleasure, translated from Ha-
fiz, by George Dyer. . . . . ibid.

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HISTORY OF BRITISH INDIA.
FOR 1809.

CHAPTER I.

Picsatory observations—general predilection for military achievements over-civil arrangements and details—brief comparison of the present, with antecedent enterprises, leading to the establishinent of the British influence in India—the recent expeditions from Bengal and Bombay do not partake of the feature of regular war—from the first presidency a large military force is sent against Lutchinun Dowah, the chief of Adjyghur, under the command of lieutenant-colonel Martindell, who attacks and carries the fortified hill of Regowley— Ajedeo Purshaud among the number of the enemy's killed, with twenty inferior Sirdars— Three of the gates of Adjyghur laid in ruins–Lutchmun Dowah professes a readiness to capitulate on terms, which are granted—description and history of the fort of Adjyghur– Tragical event, which occurred a short time subsequent to the surrender of the Fort.— Lutchmun Dowah withdraws himself privately from the fort—all the women and children of his family put to death, under an erroneous impression, by a relation of that chief— Expedition fitted out against Rurjeit Singh, under the command of general St. Leger– peace concluded with that chieftain without any act of hostility—Keire and Fride Koti, surrendered–free passage for merchandize and other advantages, granted to the East India company—an unfortunate dispute arises between the escort of the British negotiator, Mr. Metcalfe, and the Seiks, and occasions the loss of several lives—but does not affect the amicable arrangement just concluded—a rebel force dislodged from the fortress of Bhowannie —opprehensions entertained of the movements of Dowlut Rao Scindea—intelligence received in Calcutta of a revolt in the Madras army—notification of the governor-general of his intention to proceed to that presidency—return of the expedition from Macao to Calcutta -Embassy sent to Cabul- its progress—and favourable reception by the king at Peshour— Received and entertained on its return to the company's provinces by Runjeit Singh—address of lord Minto, on the examination of the students at the college of fort VVillam– introduction of vaccination among the Seiks—the arrival and presentation of Aerocke, princess of New Zealand, to the governor-general at Calcutta-Expedition from Bombay against the pirates in the Persian gulf, under lieutenant-colonel Walker—barbarity of those marauders to the crew of the Minerva—assault of the town of Millia—carried after three quarters of an hour's resistance—guns brought for ward to attack the fortress in the morning—the enemy evacuate the place during the night-second expedition into the golf, commanded by colonel Snith, of the army, and captain Wainwright of the navy—impediments encountered on the voyage—arrive at length at Rus ul Kimor-destroy the town, arenal of stoics, and the shipping of the pirates-proceed and accomplish the destruction of all the minor piratical settlements on the shores of the gulf-expedition sails from Bombay to the isle of Rodriguez—establishes itself there, and afterwards, aided by two of his majesty's ships, makes a successful descent on the isle of Bourbon-seizes the batteries: Vol. 1 1- * B

and defences, with an enemy's frigate, the Caroline, and ultimately retakes two Indiamen,

with a part of their valuable cargoes—troops afterwards re-embarked, but relanded on a de

monstration of an attack by a new body of the enemy—the public works destroyed, and stores

quietly removed under a capitulation to that effect—expedition returns to Rodriguez-capture of the Indiamen Streatham, Europe, Charlton, and United Kingdom—Asia founders in the Kooghley—loss of the Ardaseer by fire—numerous captures by the pirates and by the

enemy in the Persian gulf—some particulars attending the capture of the Indiamen-conclusion of the detail of occurrences in Bengal and Bombay. f

IN the year, now coming under review, the public were taught, by official promises and prognostications, in every possible form, to anticipate a period of profound peace ; while they, more immediately interested in the welfare of British India, had reason to expect some remission of expense, and a seasonable recruit of the exhausted finances of an almost inexhaustible dominion. But there is a feverish condition of things, not absolutely partaking of the character of war, that may involve and waste the resources of a state as effectually as that determined and positive evil, and without any of those brilliant events, that reconcile it to individual ambition or national pride. Such may not improperly be considered that state, in which our eastern possessions recently stood. In selecting the events worthy of historical notice, which have occurred during the period comprised in this volume, the attention is first attracted by military transactions. The work of destruction has, by a strange perverseness, so long occupied the first place in human estimation, that precedence is granted to it as a matter almost of course. But how different the military transactions of the present times, when compared with the wars of former, but not distant periods, in which we contended at once for empire and for existence. The enterprizes and actions of the present time appear much of the same description as those of the early times of our Indian achievements, but far different in their circumstances and magnitude. In those times, with forces few in number, but generally comprizing the whole or the greater part of our military power, we fought in stations not distant from the coast,

ter and in its consequences, for the maintenance of the precarious footing from which the present vast territory, population, revenue, and trade, have been ultimately attained. Now we fight far in the interior, at stations to which the founders of our original settlement never thought of penetrating, even in commercial expeditions, to repress the insurrections of subjugated Chieftains, or repel the incursions of predatory borderers upon the frontiers of the vast peninsula, the whole of which recognizes our sway, either in direct sovereignty, or under the qualified form of protecting alliance. Thus the importance, perhaps, of the military operations which are about to be related, should not be estimated by the numerical amount of the forces engaged, nor by the extent of territory actually acquired : but by the dangers which would have resulted to the British dominions in India if these last struggles of indigenous hostility had not been successfully resisted. Such are the reflections that most promptly present themselves on such comparison of the early stages and progress of British power in India, with the more recent periods where we had to contend with and for all the strength and resources of the vast territory we now possess under the guidance of a Hastings, a Cornwallis, and a Wellesley, against those formidable potentates Hyder Ali, Tippoo Saib, Jeswunt Rao Holkar, and Dowlut Rao Scindia. After these preliminary observations, we may proceed to make use of the slight and scanty materials which the local publications furnish for the current history of an empire, now as important to Britain as the oldest and nearest of her colonies.

Of the expeditions fitted out from the three presidencies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay, those from the first and the last do not appear to possess the extent and in portance attached to regular war, though they gave rise to many particular exploits worthy of record. The expeditions from Bengal were, in the first place, directed against the chieftain of Adjyghur Lutchmun Dowah, in the province of Bundlecund; under the command of lieutenant-colonel Martindell. The object of this enterprize was, (for what provocation is not explained, but for what object and intent is sufficiently obvious) to expel the chief from his dominions. With a view to this end, the operations of colonel Martindell commenced against the fortified hill of Regowley. This post, forming a most important defence of the fortress of Adjyghur, was most gallantly attacked, and carried by assault on the 22d January.

The force with which the enemy occupied the hill, consisted of 500 chosen men, under the command of Sirdar Sing, Kass Kullam, and Ajadeo Purshaud, a near relative to Lutchmun Dowah, regarded as the bravest and most attached of his adherents. The British camp was about two miles from the hill which lay a little to the right of the way from the camp to Adjyghur. Colonel Martindell, and Major Grant, took the command of the troops destined for the enterprize, and proceeded to the attack a little after noon. The enemy, sheltered behind rocks and breastworks, added to the strength of heir position a resistance dictated by despair. But the persevering valour of our troops prevailed, and the enemy were driven from the post with the loss of 60 killed, and about 100 wounded. Three British officers only were wounded, 2S rank and file killed, and 126 wounded. The assailing force consisted of the 18th regt. 4th light infantry batt. 2d batt. 1st Native infantry, and 3d regiment Native cavalry. The Native troops and officers distinguished themselves so as to merit the

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ing officer; and the promptitude with which the whole of the troops proceeded to the attack, the persevering toil with which they encountered all obstacles, the intrepidity with which they ascended the bill under a most galling fire, and the steady courage they displayed in the assault of a position so strong, and so obstinately defended, were all distinctly noticed in general orders, issued by the commander, as circumstances calling for “the most unqualified admiration and praise.” From the nature of the ground, the cavalry could not take any part in the action; but it did considerable service by covering the assailing force. Among the killed was the chief Sirdar Adjudeo, Purshaud, and twenty other sirdars of inferior note. The hill of Behontah, which commands the fortress of Adjyghur, was, with a like vigorous effort, afterwards carried by storm. The capture of this post enabled Colonel Martindell to form the siege of the fortress without interruption. Accordingly, having on the 9th of February offered terms which were rejected, he caused batteries to be formed on the summit, and in different places on the sides of the hill, whither the guns were dragged with great labour, but with such zeal and dispatch, that the whole were ready to open on the 11th, and so well directed a fire was kept p, that on the 13th three of the gates, with their defences, were laid in ruins, and there was a probability that the upper gate, against which the fire was then principally directed, would soon be in the same condition. Lutchinun now signified his readiness to accept the terms rejected on the 9th, -a capitulation was entered into, according to which the fortress was surrendered, and ceded to the company in consideration of a jagheer, or indemnity, as it is called in European diplomacy, to be assigned to him in some other quarter. Lutchmun and his garrison withdrew. The judgment and military skill of Colonel Martindell in effecting this _ _ _ _ _ ! 1 - - - 1 s

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