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exertions of the detachment he commanded, deserved, and obtained the highest testimony of approbation from the governor-general in council When the British first entered the fort, they were particularly struck with the objects that presented themselves. Here were seen three large reservoirs, of very fine fresh water, cut with wonderful labour out of a solid rock : there the ruins of three most magnificent Hindoo temples, built of stones, laid without cement, but most nicely fitted to each other, and adorned within and without with sculpture of chaste design, and the most exquisite workmanship. The aera of the erection of these venerable buildings is lost in antiquity —but they are evidently much older than the fortress, which was built by an ancient rajah, called Ajygopaul, and after him called Adjyghur ; the latter adjunct signifying a fortress. Ajygopoul himself lived beyond the reach of any known record. The temples have two large tables with inscriptions ; but the language and characters are unknown. The letters are in relief, the stone being cut away from them according to the frequent custom of antiquity. At a remote period Adjyghur was reduced, after a siege of ten months, by famine, the only means by which it could be taken before artillery was introduced Alie Behauder who took it, in conjunction with Himmat Behauder, defeated the Boondelahs close to the town, and slew their chief, Lui Arjun Sing, a famous warrior, who is the theme of many national songs. In our own times, Shumshir Behauder confined in this fort his cousin, Gunnee Behauder, who, after the British forces defeated Shumshir at Rospah, on the 12th of October, 1803, was poisoned by the Mahratta kile jar, in consequence of an order from Shuinshir. This kiledar subsequently sold the fort to Lutchmun Dowah for 15000 rupees; but from some valuable jewels, and particularly a diamond necklace, formerly the property of Gunnee Behauder, seen in the pos
session of Lutchmun, it is probable, that he more than repaid himself the expense of his purchase by plundering the Mahrattas when they marched out. A spring, situated on the north side of the Bihontah hill, and within the defences of the lowest of the gates of Adjyghur, of which there are five, produces a fine stream of water, and is asserted, by the Biraggies, to be the source of the Jumna and the Ganges; but the Biraggies of a neighbouring hill of stupendous height, called Dio Gong, dispute that honour for a spring in their region. Adjyghur is about five miles distant from the foot of the Paunah Ghauts, and fourteen from Callingu. The country altogether is the strongest in the world—every hill is a fortress, and all, from their great height and steepness, extremely difficult of access. From this description it may be inferred of how much importance it was
to dispossess a bold chieftain of a for
tress of such strength, and in a country so difficult. A horrid transaction which took place at Adjyghur, a few months subsequent to its surrender, serves strongly to mark the extraordinary character of the native people, and to evince the firmness of their invincible prejudices. About the commencement of the month of June, 1809, Lutchmun Dowah suddenly disappeared from the place of his residence near that fortress; and no traces of him being found for several days after, apprehensions were entertained that he had gone off in pursuance of some hostile design. As a security against any enterprize of this kind, the representative of the government in the province of Bundlecund, sent instructions to major Cuppage, commanding in Adjyghur, to so oce in safe custody Lutchnun's family, left behind in the village of Tirawaney, just under the fort. A party was accordingly sent to the house for this purpose, and a few males were removed to the fort. An old man, the father-in-law of Lutchmun, was the only male left behind, and he was directed to prepare the
women and children for their removal. Having entered the apartment of the women, in conformity with the instruction, the door was closed on him; and after he had remained a considerable time within, those in waiting proposed to open it and quicken his proceedings; but the door was found firmly fastened, and though repeated calls were made, no answer was given, no sound was heard. Upon this attempts were made to force open the door, but without success. It was then thought right to uncover a part of the roof, and a man was let down through the aperture, who opened the door. Upon the entrance of the party, a most tragical sight presented itself. The entire family, including the women, children, and the old man himself, were found weltering in their blood . It appeared that the old man had first cut the throats of the women and children, and afterwards his own; and from the perfect quiet and silence with which the slaughter was executed, it could not otherwise have been done than with the consent of all. The women themselves must have supplied the instrument of death, (a talwar) for the old man was perfectly unprovided with any when he entered. From these circumstances it was at first conjectured that Lutchmun, previous to his departure on his presumed enterprize, had given instructions to put these unfortunate persons to death, in order to save them from the pollution which, according to the Hindoo doctrine, is necessarily consequent upon their falling into the power of an European enemy. It was inferred also that the women, from a principle of pride and faith, which imposed the sacrifice upon them as a duty, had submitted to the order, according to their custom in such cases, with promptitude and cheerfulness. A nephew of Łutchmun, who was brought into the fort, also attempted suicide; but the accomplishment of his object was prevented, thoughnot till he had given himself a severe wound. The most lamentable part of this shocking relation still remains to be told ; all these tragic deeds, and the calculations and reasonings. thus connected with
them, were soon proved to have their foundation in error.—For Lutchmun Dowah, far from absconding for any hostile purpose, had merely repaired in private to Calcutta, with the intention of complaining to the supreme government of some harsh treatment, which he conceived that he had suffered ; and there is every reason to think, that he was entirely ignorant of the dreadful stroke, till it was communicated to him, on his arrival at the seat of government The only measure of reparation, in the sad consequences of his disappearance, which it was in the power of the government to make, was the immediate liberation of that part of his family which was still kept in custody. Lutchmun himself, after the surrender of Adjyghur, had taken up his residence at Bandah, under the protection of the British government, receiving a liberal maintenance, till a convenient jabghire could be allotted to him, conformably to the terms agreed upon, in lieu of the possessions ceded to the company by the previous capitulation. His departure from Bandah without any notice or explanation, and the measure of common precaution adopted in consequence, involved him in caiamities as lamentable as unforeseen. From the private interest excited by this sad catastrophe, the mind is glad to relieve itself by the contemplation of a public and more general scene. The next and important expedition in Bengal had the district of Sirhind, inhabited by the Seiks, for the theatre of operations, situated between the provinces of Delhi and Lahor, and separated from Cashmire by the mountains. There was not in this case, any more than in the preceding, a formal declaration of war,<-nor any very observable cause of hostility; though it would appear from the terms and quality of the peace, which succeeded, that it had been undertaken at the request of some neigbouring chieftains, under the protection of the British government. But definitive treaties, and more especially in India, though they afford very satisfactory evidence of the ultimate state of things, are not always th:
purest sources to which we may look for genuine information of the causes that led to it. But from the force that was employed, as well as from the regular treaty with which the history of the expedition closes, there is reason to infer that Runjeit was a prince of high and established authority, as well as of great power. The forces employed on this expedition were commanded by general St. Leger, and under him by colonel Ochterlony. The troops acted in two seperate bodies. The first and principal body, under general St. Leger, consisted of his majesty's 24th regiment of light dragoons, the 17th regiment of foot, the 6th and 8th regiments of Native cavalry, the second and third light infantry battalions; and a strong detachment both of heavy and light artillery. The division under colonel Ochterlony, consisted of the 4th regiment of Native cavalry, 1st battalion of the 10, n, 1st battalion of the 23d, and 1st battalion of the 27th Native infantry. Colonel Ochterlony's division took post on the 11th Februarv at Loodehannah ; and general St. Jeger's corps was stationed about eighto en miles eastward of that place. Whether the magnitude of the force o' avanst him terrified Runjeit into concession, or that he yielded tial reflection, or from the influence of an event, about to be described, is difficult to be decided. * , , , ever ay have been his moto - he greed, without conflict, to the terms proposed to him, and reHiroished his claims to the chio's who had solicited the compano - protection. At the time when the trooosal was made for the adjustment o, doerences, the forces on both a or d quiet in face of each of the news of the defeat of * * * : ... of Abrantes) at Vimeira,
ther it be attributed to politeness towards the British commanders, with whom he was in treaty ; or to a general condemnation of the system of Buonaparte, was felt equally agreeable. As a preliminary step to the proposed pacific arrangement, the forts of Keire and Feride Koti, on the left bank of the Sutledge, were demanded of Runjeit Sing, and were immediately given up and taken into possession by British troops about the middle of March. On our side preparations were made for withdrawing the army, with the exception of a corps of eight thousand men, which was to remain in Ludehauna under colonel Ochterlony. Mr. Metcalfe, the British negotiator, met Runjeit at Imrutsir, and the ceremonious exchange of visits having been immediately made, the treaty was expedited with equal promptitude. The provinces subject to the chiefs of Suhrund and Malwa were by this treatyceded to the English company by Runjeit ; and, by a subsequent article, these chiefs were restored to the exercise of their former independent authority, exempted from tribute, and all other vexatious impositions. The advantages stipulated for the company, were a free passage for British merchants and their goods, the liberty of purchasing stores for the use of the army, and certain facilities in procuring forage and provisions in the event of the protecting forces being called again into this country. By the 4th of April, the stipulations agreed upon were completed, with the formal delivery of such other forts and grounds, as were required of Runjeit Sing, in addition to the two forts already mentioned. These forts and territories, it was at first supposed, would be permanently garrisoned by British troops, under cover of some of those pretexts in the invention of which ambition is so fertile, but with a moderation, and a sense of justice of which it is to be lamented there are so few examples, it was declared, that the inten ion of holding them had never been entertained, that they had been forcibly seized by Runjeit Sing, and chief was to restore them to the rightful owners which object was immediately carried into effect. The terms agreed upon with Runjeit Sing, being thus executed without loss of time or effusion of blood, Colonel St. Leger broke up with the army from Loodahaunah and the troops were distributed into different cantonments. In the course of these transactions an incident took place, not unworthy of notice, though somewhat out of place, as illustrative of the superstition which forms so striking a part of the character of the Hindoos. Shortly after Mr. Melcalfe, the British negotiator, met Runjeit Sing at Imrutsir, for the purpose of concluding the treaty, Mr. Melcalfe's guards, consisting of two companies of Sepoys, under captain Popham, being Mussulmans, were engaged, according to annual custom. in celebrating the Mahommedan festival Moharrem, (or New-year's day) which fell in the first week of March. The Seiks are extremely bigotted, generally detesting all other sects, but above all the Mahommedalis. They therefore, would. under any circumstances, have been shocked and enraged at the celebration of the rites of Islamism on their soil, and in their presence ; but Imrutsir being rendered a place of peculiar sanctity in their estimation, because the remains of their prophet Nanock Shah, are buried there, Mahommedan ceremony was considered nothing short of profanation and sacrilege; the fury of the Seiks broke through all restraint. They sallied from the town to the number of four or five hundred, in battle array, and advancing towards the guard, then on parade, they took post behind an adjoining hill, whence they commenced an irregular fire. Captain Popham knew not how to interpret this proceeding, and could scarcely believe it seriously hostile till lieutenant Ferguson and one of his men were wounded : he then ordered his men to advance, and, when they had come sufficiently near to the fanatics, to fire a volley and charge. This order was instantly carried into execution, and the Seiks were immediately dispersed and driven into the
ditch of the town. Runjeit Sing, who knew nothing of the transaction, ran to the spot as soon as the alarm reached him, and made every effort to restrain the Seiss, and to send away the Sepoys in security under the escort of a strong force. They had, however, sufficiently shewn their ability to defend themselves ; for they had killed five of the Seiks, and wounded twenty-five, whereas their own casualties did not exceed seventeen wounded. The ratifications of the treaty being exchanged in the stipulated time, Runjeit again paid a complimentary visit to Mr. Metcalfe an interchange of presents took place, and every appearance of friendship was manifested. Mr. Metcalfe soon after took his leave, and returned to Calcutta. In the month of August preparations were set on foot at Rewarree for the march of a very considerable detachment of the army against a fortified town, (Bhowanuie) in the Hurrianah country. This town is situated on a long tract of dependent country, lying between the Jumna and the Sutledge. The inhabitants of this strong post had for some time past laid the travellers through the district under daily contributions; and had the audacity, in a very recent instance, to plunder the baggage of a British detachment, on their march in that direction. A proper representation of the depredation was made to the chief of the place, which was followed by a peremptory denial of reparation in terms of insolence and hostility. To revenge the insult, and to prevent future aggression of a similar nature, the armament at Rewaree was ordered, and promptly and expeditiously executed. The command of it was given to colonel Bell, who marched on the 20th of that month, and arrived before Bhowannie, and summonued it on the 27th. The besieged garrison had 24 hours to consider of the terms proposed-- which were absolutely rejected. Colonel Bell immediately consulted means for the reduction of the place, and on the 28th the whole British detachment was drawn out in front of Bhowannie, consisting of four battalions of Native infan
try, one regiment of cavalry, 600 irregular horse, and a powerful train of artillery. The enemy's force was estimated at 4500 men. Butteries were so quickly erected by the British troops, that they were ready to pour their fire into the town by six o'clock on the following morning. By noon on the same day a practicable breach was made in the walls, and an injunediate assault was ordered.
The storming party moved down in two columns, one advancing from the right, and the other fi on the lett of the camp, the first commanded by lieutenant-colonel McGrath, and the second by major Solith. Before these parties could reach the ramparts, the enemy had the confidence to sally out and attack the column under heutenant-colonel McGrath, sword in hand, but was repulsed with great slaughter, by the coolness and intrepidity of the British grenadiers. The Sopoys tollowed the fugitives closely into the town, clambering over the breach and scalini, the walls in every quarter, and, after a severe contest, completely succeeded in driving out the enemy. So many as escaped the bayonet within the wails, were cut down by the cavalry, surrounding the town, so that scarcely one escaped. The troops had been twelve hours under arms before the garrison was fully in their possession, and the defence is said to have been as re-olute, as any in the recoilection of the oldest soldier present, continning, without interruption, for three bours and an half.
About this time, or a little subsequently, son,e apprehensions were raised by the adherents of the Maharaiah, Runjeit Lund Sing, a Seik Chieftain, on the banks of the Jamna; and by Dowlut Rao Scindia, who had began to levy contributions on the Rajahpoot country. But these were put to rest on the one sile by the prompt measures of colonel Ochterlony, who had been stationed at Loodehounah, on the return of general St. Leger into the company's provinces : and on the other, by the Mahratta Chieftain having confined his predatory attempts and ^ monstrations to the Rajah of Jey
pore. The determination of these af. fairs so speedily and so fortunately, allowed time to the governor-general to attend to some q m stic events, which threat, red more than any of the circumstances already noticed, to disturb the tranquility and safety of the country. These originated in the insubordination of the goea el part of the company's troops, serving under the presidency of Fort St. George. To such a height had it a rived in the month of July, that the governor-general had thought it prudel, t to issue a proclamation declaratory of his intention to proceed to fort St. George for the purpose of interposing the supreme authority to repress the spirit of revolt. As it will be necessary, in a separate place, to speak of the causes and progress of the military discontent at that presidency, and the measures taken by the supreme, and the local, government, for the suppression of it; it does not seem requisite to advert more particularly to it here, where the detail is principally confined to an enumeration of the military transactions in Bengal. Of these nothing remains to be noticed, but the return of an expedition, fitted out in the year preceding, for the occupation of the Portuguese settlement of Macao, in consequence of the events which had occurred in Europe, through the design and attempts of the emperor of France, to make himself master of Spain and Portugal. This expedition, comprehending a body of troops under the command of . major W. guelin, embarked, as will be recollected, on board admiral Drury's squadron, and proceeded to Macao, with the intention of occupying that place, to prevent its being possessed by the French, in virtue of their presumed conquest of Portugal. But this stroke of precautionary policy, however consistent with the recently recognized system of Europe, was not at all understood by the Chinese, who conceived themselves principal parties in regulating the occupancy of the settlement, and possessed of a right to determine whom they would admit to hold it instead of being bound to