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orders of the rajah ; and what remained to be done required not, it should seem, any fresh promise from the king, his majesty having given the most positive assurances of a disposition to disband his troops, and of his intention not to oppose the progress of the British detachment, both in his communication with colonel Sentleger, and the resident himself. And with the two pieceing conditions, it must have been known by the resident, judging from his own representations, and those of his government, that the king had it not in his power to comply. If the Dewan had usurped, as asserted, the sovereign authority of the state, and had made the King a secondary personage within his kingdom, it was in vain to seek from him the delivery of the usurper into the custody of the resident. Nor can any ground be conceived for so preposterous a proposition, connected with the dignity of a mighty state with another independent power, or any other inotive be imputed for it, than one which would degrade the high sentiments of the British government to a level with the dictates of the lowest and worst passions of individuals. It is impossible to form any notion, if the King should have been able to place his minister in the power of the British government, of the purpose for which it insisted on the demand. With whatsoever heavy and detestable crimes that individual might have been charged or chargeable, it is not to be fancied that the British government could in cool blood, have proceeded to punish that wicked minister, without the means or authority of enquiring into his offences. And it may be imagined that such government had victims enough of this description in its possession, wasting

their lives and strength in dungeons, where the light and air of Heaven is not allowed to visit their eyes, or refresh their frames. It inust be left for others, in their more refined policy to explain, for we confess that we cannot, the hidden reason and wisdom of the extraordinary condition here insisted on. The unpossibility of the surrender of the British prisoners, surprised on the coast, has been shewn in a preceding page, that recounts the horrid and most melancholy end which attended them. It is, under present information, as impracticable to devise an excuse for the barbarity that marked it, as to descry a possible cause for it; but the expression of our grief, in respect to the sufferers, would be as unavailing at this period, as the tardy concern exhibited by the government for their relief; a concern, however, which cannot be accounted for, when shewn, on any other ground, than as raising up another perplexity, to confound the party with whom a desire at least was signified to negotiate. The answer of the King to these strange proposals having not been received at the British camp on the 27th, colonel Sentieger, made a movement with the main body of his detachment, towards Travandal unn, and on the same evening advanced about six miles beyond the ancient city of Travancore. This march of the troops was probably intended to quicken the determination of the Rajah, and was well directed to that effect. , For a long period, nothing had been heard of the designs or the operations of the Dewan: but it was about this date known, that after the event of the defeat of the Travancore troops at Cotar and Nagrecoil, the unhappy minister had precipitately fled to the capital, whence, hearing of the success and progress of the British detachment, and the brave and noble resistance of the subsidiary force in another quarter, he again took to flight in a north-west direction, among unassailable fastnesses, and in a country scarcely inhabitable ; there hoping to find a temporary asylum, rather than expecting to

HISTORY OF

raise the means of opposition to the British arms. On the 28th the British commandant, taking personally on himself the command of the flank companies of the army, the cavalry, and loyal artillery, with their light guns, made a rapid march, and encamped at night within three miles of the rajah's palace at Travandaruin ; where the remainder of his detachment joined him on the following day. In this

commanding position, overawing the

palace and the capital, we will for a while leave the southern army to take a cursory view of the proceedings of the subsidiary force, under its distinguished and able leader. It has already been shewn, that the enemy had made several unsuccessful attacks, on the first demonstration of hostility, on the subsidiary force at Quilon; the last of which, that has been noticed, occurred on the 15th of January, and was attended with a loss on the part of the enemy of 700 men. It was long after the occurrence of this signal repulse, that he could inspire enough of courage into his troops to venture on a new assault, which was however at length repeated, and with the like result attendant on the previous attack, on the 31st of January. The fresh loss experienced by the enemy is not described, but his defeat was so remarkable, that it seemed to have checked all idea of further enterprise on his part, and to have introduced such dismay into his camp, as to induce almost a daily desertion and diminution of his numbers. Perceiving from this time the inactivity and the despair of the foe opposed to him, colonel Chalmers saw that only One vigorous, offensive measure, was Wanting for the entire dispersion of the hostile army, in his vicinity, and he otermined on urging it without delay. Having inade all the necessary arrangements for the assault of the enemy's lines, colonel Chalmers himself superintended the event of that operation on the 21st of February, a day before the receipt of colonel Sentkger's last dispatches. The attack was made in two co

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| BRITISH INDIA. 65 lumns, moving simultaneously upon the batteries and works thrown up in front of the enemy's position. The right column, commanded by lieutetenant-colonel Picton, of his majesty's 12th regiment, and the left by the honourable lieutenant-colonel Stuart, of his majesty's 19th regiment, were led on with such an irresistible spirit and gallantry, that the batteries were almost instantly silenced and carried, and the works every where possessed by one bold exertion, and, it is with much pleasure added, with inconsiderable loss; the enerny quitting his posts at every point, without daring to encounter the experienced danger, and almost certain slaughter, of the British bayonet. The right column captured three of . the enemy's guns, and the left four, which were removed without opposition to the encampment of the subsidiary force. Captain J. Grant, attached to the residency, and captain Foote, of his majesty's frigate La Piedmonteise, with a party of seamen, volunteered their services on this distinguished occasion, and partook of the honour of the day. From this and the preceding gallant operations of colonel Chalmers, the enemy lost all confidence in himself and in his cause, and was on the point of deserting the call of his country in his despair, when he received the command of the king to discontinue his exertions; by the same hands that brought the letters of his majesty, and of colonel Sentleger to the British residency and the subsidiary force. The Travancore camp in consequence broke up, and military parties, in small detachments, repaired to their several homes, in peace with themselves, and without molestation from others. It is impossible to close this part of the history of the war, without expressing our sincere admiration not only of the repeated acts of galantry achieved by this portion of the British forces; but of the cautious and wise system of the leader of the subsidiary force, which enabled him, against fearful odds, unforeseen accident, and a most treacherous assault, not only to sustain his post with honour, but to

turn the multiplied evils, meditated by the enemy, on his own head. On the happy termination of hostilities in this quarter, colonel Chalmers prepared for moving forward to the capital, under similar orders from the resident, communicated to colonel Sentleger, to co-operate in the same design, and to effect a junction, if necessary, with the latter officer. Colonel Chalmers moved from his encampment at Quilon on the 20th of February, and arrived at the high ground, within twelve miles of the opposite side of Travandarum, much about the same time that the last-mentioned officer took up his position near that city ; having received instructions also, like colonel Sentleger, not to proceed nearer to the capital until further orders. Possessed of all the strong positions in the country, and of the immediate keys to the capital, without any remaining resistance, and without any fear of future attack, it is to be supposed that no reasonable obstacle can present itself to the solicited negotiation of peace; which is suffered now to proceed, but still after a tardy pace, and in 2 maintier not promising any speedy determination, one of the negotiators carrying on this desirable work on board a frigate, laying off the coast; subjecting it of course to interruptions, from the want of constant means of communication. Pending the protracted negotiation, the different British detachments observed a pacific demeanour; and, as it proceeded, colonel Sentleger embraced thre opportunity of disburthening himself of such parts of his force and his equipments, as the occasion would allow. His arrangements in this respect, though not so showy or interesting, were, nevertheless, not less judicious and important to the interests of his government, than those rapid measures planned and executed by him on his approaching and entering the Travancore lines, that had effected the business of a common campaign, by a continued series of glorious and successful operations, in the very short yeriod of ten days. In what is the

government and his employers not indebted to him, and his gallant colleagues, for services so singularly distinguished 2 Nothing would now seem to be wanting to complete the full satisfaction of the government, but the possession of the object, that had been made the ostensible cause of the war; the pursuit of which is not delayed, though enough advantages are in its power, to leave it nothing to apprehend from private design, or private enmity. The unfortunate Dewan, if not of terror, is still the cause of another passion ; which is not to be quieted, often, but with the ruin of its object. A sharp and close search is instituted after the ill-fated minister; stimulated by a large and tempting reward; but not one of the followers of his fallen fortunes can be prevailed upon to be. tray his solitary retreat. In the wild scene, chosen as his place of refuge, he has less to fear from the savage and ferocious herds, continually howling around him, and watching for their casual prey, than from merciless man, his unappeasable and never-ceasing pursuer ; the constant dread of whose approach, and the knowledge of whose unforgiveness, preying always on his heart, makes it meditate on the certain means of destruction, to get rid of the haunting, lingering apprehensions of death, and the pollution that may attend it through the hated hands of an insatiable foe; but who might be expected, if he had not the magnanimity to forgive the living, that he would not profane, with his unhallowed touch, the sanctity of the dead. Misguided man stay the impious instrument upraised against thy life, and know, that the grave is not always a security against the thirst of mortal Revenge . The steel, alas ! has entered his soul, and the minister, lately commanding an empire, lies now a clod upon his fellow clay, whence he sprung; and to which even his unrelenting conqueror shall, in his turn, be reduced : a lesson that should purge the pride, and the still ignobler passions, rankling in the human bosom 1 Intelligence of the death of the

Dewān soon reaches the residency,
when new rewards are offered to him
who shall bring in the still-persecuted
remains of the now unconscious minis-
ter; and the blood hounds are warmly
laid upon the scent. The lifeless
trunk is discovered, drawn from the
cave that concealed it, and delivered,
a precious gift to hungering ven-
geance That gibbet! erected in the view
of the palace, speaks the rest; where the
wasting body of the minister, swing-
ing to and fro with the wind, shall, so
long as the elements spare it, appal
the eye, or grate upon the ear of his
master, keeping constantly alive the
sense of his own dependance on his
magnanimous ally, and scaring away
from his employment the honest ser-
vices of his subjects.
The seal is now put to the treaty.*
Some future historian, with more

ample materials before him, and with feelings more subdued by time, may be led, perchance, to speak of these transactions, and to characterise them as they deserve : it is the humbler office of the annalist to place them before his readers, in the imperfect light in which they appear to him ; happy if his limited account, or his incidental observations, shall awaken curiosity, or excite an interest to events, that would seem to call for a most serious and seasonable enquiry; which may remove the slander, if it be such, of the reports that have reached our shores; and, with it, the reproach that they would seem to cast upon the national character; or that the country, in its express disavowal and abhorrence of the act, may not suffer its general fame to be stained by the crimes of indivi-. duals.

• Since the preceding sheet was sent to press, the editor discovered accidently, in a

very recent report, laid on the table of the House of Commons, the following particulars of the treaties of the rajah of Travancore with the East India Company, inaccurately stated at the commencement of this chapter.

“In the year 1795, a permanent treaty was concluded with the rajah, subject to the ratification or approval of the court of directors, in which it was stipulated that a subsidiary force should be furnished by the company for the service of the rajah, consisting of three battalions of Sepoys, one company of European artillery, and two companies of Lascars, for which a sum was to be paid annually, equivalent to the expense of the $2nne. t

“No payment was made under this treaty till 1798-9. From 1798-9, to 1806 the amount of the subsidy fixed at 42,914 has been annually realized in the way of set-off in the accounts with the rajah for pepper furnished by him under contract. It is to be remarked, that in January 1805, another treaty was entered into with the rajah increasing the subsidiary force by one complete regiment of Native infantry and adding to the subsidy to the amount of 45, 1861, for the expense of it; but no payment was made on account of the additional subsidy for nearly two years subsequent to the conclusion of the treaty, notwithstanding the remission of half of it for that period.”

- £d report of the select committee.

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CHAPTER ] W.

Policy of Sir George Barlow not altered in the interval, or by the events of the war—disaffection most prevalent in Travancore—examination of the causes of discontent, and dispatches of government in relation to it—explanation given to the army on the 6th of February—orders of that date examined—abortive attempt at private conciliation with major Boles—lieutenant-colonel Martin detained in India—loses his passage—allowed to embark on a succeeding ship—major Boles not permitted to proceed to England—ships sail—permission granted to him—Secretary of Military Board suddenly removed—Sir George Barlow's private invitations generally refused—removal of officers on that account—favourable reports made by Sir George Barlow to Lord Minto, who inclines in consequence to the subordinate government—on the 20th of February his lordship approves of the release of lieutenant-colonel Munro, and suspension of general Mac Dowall—silence as to major Boles—memorial to the governor-general prepared, but abandoned—address to major Boles—these acts resented, and made the grounds of the order of the 1st of May, suspend'ing numerous officers, and femoving many others from their commands and staff offices— this order considered—orders of the 2nd of May, directing several other removals on summary grounds—resentment shewn by the Hydrasad subsidiary force, of the compliment paid to it, in the order of the 1st of May—declaration of that force—general irritation of the army acknowledged by Sir George Barlow, who solicits the interposition of the governor-general to allay it, which produces the letter of the 27th of May, approving all the foregoing measures of Sir George Barlow, and vindicating the reasons of them—ordered to be printed—the grounds of the vindication examined—the impression of this letter on the army and the government-general combination at the different stations of the army—the honourable colonel Sentleger, major Boles, and captain Marshall, ordered to embark, at a few hours notice, for Calcutta-removal of officers at Masulipatam from the staff—others, with detachments from the European regiments, ordered to serve as marines on board the fleet—regular committees formed here, and at other places—undisguised revolt of the offcers at Hydrabad, Masulipatam, Scringapatam, and other stations—the Native troops not acquainted with the existence or cause of the revolt-colonel Malcolm sent by Sir George Barlow to Masulipatam-tails in his negotiation—colonel Close fails in a like manner at Hydrabad—lord Minto hears of the revolt of the garrison of Masulipatam, on the 1ch of July– resolves on proceeding to the coast—on the 20th, publishes an order to the Bengal army— leaves Calcutta the 5th of August—attempts of Sir George Ballow to procure addresses— suggests a test to the officers of the company's service—generally refused—officers removed from their employments-replaced by the king's officers civil and military—measures devised for subduing the revolt-the latter not generally carried into effect—attack on the Chittledroog battalions—operation of lord Minto's order of the 20th of July—submission of the Hydrabadsubsidiary force, and of the troops generally—amnesty granted by general Pater to the garrison of Masulipatam—lord Minto arrives at Madras on the 19th of September– developes the Policy which he means to adopt-publishes, on the 25th of September, his

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