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they would have been detained another year at college. It is the united influence of these two considerations which has led, in the instance of these individuals, to a decision, in which is has, after all, been necessary, that both justice and indulgence should conspire. Of the remaining five gentlemen, to whom the resolution of the college council lately read, applies, there is one precisely in the situation which has been described as insufficient to claim the extension of this indulgence. He is retarded in his studies by an impediment of speech; but his study has not been slow and limited alone; it has been wholly unproductive. If it were admitted, as it cannot be, that his infirmity could account, without some defect in diligence, for a total want of all progress in a period of no less than two years and a half, it would not be the less true that he remains unqualified for every branch of the public service. I should certainly lament extremely any mortification, or any detria,ent to his fortune, which should fall upon his infirmity alone. But, in truth, these regulations are not framed on a penal principle, to chastise the individual who may have failed in the full discharge of his duty. The rule and practice of this college, which require a specified proficiency in some of the Eastern languages, from those, who are candidates for public employment, have two important public objects in view. To provide qualified servants to the company; and to discourage the want of industry in those studies which can alone furnish the qualifications required. A firm and even rigorous adherence to this regulation is deemed, therefore, essential to the interest both of leatning and of the public service; and it is my duty to announce to the five gentlemen alluded to, that they are not permitted to leave college. I very cordially regret, but I should regret yet more deeply, the disappointment of the individuals, against whom a point of discipline is enforced upon a principle of public convenience and henefit. if I were not
ASIATIC ANNUAL REGISTER, 1809.
persuaded, that the decision, which gives present dissatistaction, is likely to prove the most beneficial for them. selves as well as the public. If a just impression is made upon the minds of these gentlemen ; if this state of temporary discredit should awaken a generous desire to shake it off, and to cover even the nemcry of it by future honour, an opportunity, ungracious indeed in form, but invaluable, if happily improved, is presented to convert their present regrets into a source of permanent satisfaction and comfort. Examples are furnished in this very year to prove that lost time is not irrecoverable ; and that a late commencement of study may soon be compensated by the celerity of future progress. The period of their attendance on college has not yet been extremely long, and if the present disappointment should fortunately, as in some instances, at least, I am happy to be convinced, it will be put to profit in the manner I have described, I will venture to assure those individuals, that the chagrin of the present hour will soon make room for more grateful reflections, and will ultimately be effaced by the consolatory consciousness of desert, confirmed by the esteem and approbation of the world. I cannot believe that we should have even one amongst us so estranged from the honourable principles, with which he is surrounded, as to pursue deliberately the opposite course, and to stiffen his mind equally against the discipline of authority, and the admonition of kindness, solicitious for his own welfare. Candour and justice, however, required that even to such, a seasonable warning should be given, that they must not be surprized if at the expiration of another year of fruitless attendance on the college of Fort William, the company, to whose favour they aspire, should pronounce on them a sentence of iucapacity, and to refuse to entertain unprofitable servants, who have not failed in acquiring, but have indulged a sullen determination not to acquire those qualifications which are essential to render their useful. It has been usual to notice on this occasion the most esteemed works, either in the languages of the East, or connected with oriental literature, which have appeared in the course of the year. The year which we are now commemorating has not been barren, and enables me to congratulate the learned world on a valuable addition to the stock of Eastern knowledge. The Moontukhub-ool Loghat, an Arabic lexicon explained in Persian, has been printed by the Native proprietors of the Persian press. It is a work held in great estimation for its acknowledged accuracy and convenient arrangement, and the publication of a collated and corrected edition of this useful work must afford important aid to the students of the Persian as well as of the Arabic language. It may be expected to be followed by other publications, equally conspicuous for accuracy and neatness, through the persevering industry and enterprise of Native printers. The types which have been employed for the publications, now noticed, are in a great measure logographic, and are adapted to imitate more nearly the written characters than any before attempted. From this successful endeavour to improve the Persian type, further progress may be reasonably anticipated, and it may be hoped, that ultimately the press may be enabled to vie with manuscripts in beauty and cheapness, as it surpasses them in accuracy. The degree of perfection already attained is due to the professor of Arabic and Persian, who gave particular countenance and encouragement to this interesting undertaking. The types were executed under the immediate direction and superintendance of natives attached to the college. The professor of Arabic and Persian has entered on a more arduous task ; that of preparing for the press, with the assistance of learned natives attached to this department, a correct copy of the celebrated Shanamah. This poem, the boast and pride of
services in any degree acceptable or transcendant genius, will no doubt be
restored by their labours to the purity, in which so classic a poem should be exhibited. Considerable progress has been made by the professor in publishing a correct copy of the Mukamat-Hariti, a classical work in the Arabic language of great merit. By this publication, an essential service will be rendered to the students of that language, and to the learned in Europe as well as in India. At the recommendation of the council of the college, government has extended its patronage to the Dubistani-Muzahib, a Persian work of celebrity, containing much curious information on the ancient religions of Persia and of India. It has been revised from the collation of numerous manuscripts by a learned native, Moulavee Nuzur Ashrof, and will be published by the native proprietors of a press, which was established in a former year under particular encouragement afforded to it by the college. The native proprietors of the Sanscrit press have, with the improved Nagree types, which were noticed on a former occasion, printed several popular works, generally admired by those who cultivate Indian literature. At the recommendation of the council of the college, those publications have received encouragement from government, and the publisher has been able to afford them at so moderate a price, as to furnish a strong confirmation of the hope entertained, that the press may be rendered instrumental to the general diffusion of knowledge among the natives of the country. The songs of Jayadeva and the Bhagvatagita, which are known to the English readers by the translations of Sir William Jones and Mr. Wilkins, are among the works already published. Vocabularies, Persian and Hindoostanee, and Sanscrit and Bengalee, prepared with the view of collecting materials for a comparative vocabulary of the various Indian languages, as mentioned on a former occasion, have been completed, and are in the course of circulation. It is hoped that considecollecting accurate and copious vocabularies of the numerous languages and dialects of India, and of contiguous countries. In the mean time, a comparative vocabulary of twelve principal languages, to the same extent, and in the same order with the Sanscrit dictionary, termed the Amera Cosha, has been compiled, by persons employed for that purpose, by Mr. Colebroke, and a copy of it has been prepared to be deposited in the library of the college. The languages comrized in the compilation, are those of }. Orisia, Tirhoot, Hindoostan, Penjah, Cashmeer, Nepal, Guzrat, Canara, and Telirgana, with the Mahratta and Tamul or Malabar. In prosecution of the design of making an extensive collection of dialects spoken in countries contiguous to India, it is intended to print and distribute a vocabulary of the Malay and Burmah languages, corresponding to the Persian and Sanscrit vocabularies already printed. The numerous original languages of the vast Archipelago in which the Malay language is used, may be obtained through this medium ; and the languages of the countries on the continent, between the east of Bengal, and west of China, will be collected through the Burmah language. By means of both, provided the design be seconded by those, who have the opportunity of promoting it, a fund of curious and useful information will be obtained, tending to illustrate, by the comparison of their languages, the connexion and affinity of nations at present but little known. The practical utility of a copious collection of languages and dialects in use in countries, with which an intercourse is maintained, is obvious. The undertaking has been assisted by the preparation of types of the Burmah character, recently for the mission press; and is the first instance of the application of the art of printing to the characters of a language of the eastern parts of India. It may be expected in time to become the vehicle of making known, not merely the scanty literature of those coun
tries to the learned of Europe, but even of diffusing in those countries some portion of the light of European science. The 2d volume of the Ramayana, translated under the joint patronage of the college and Asiatic society, has been published from the press of the missionaries at Serampore. The same persons continue to be engaged under the patronage of the college on a translation of a Hindoo system of philosophy, which they intend to publish, like the mythological poem above-mentioned, with the original text. A Dictionary, Hindostance and English, which has been several years in the press, has been completed by Dr. Hunter, the secretary of the college, according to the original plan, in two volumes, of which the second has been recently published. This work will no doubt greatly facilitate the acquirement of that useful language. An appendix to this work has been announced by the editor, which promises to be no less useful than the original publication. Further progress has been made by the professor of the laws and regulations in the preparation of his audlysis of the regulations enacted by the government of Bengal. The second part, including the Mohammedan system of criminal law, the modifications of it, and the additions to it, by the regulations of the British government, the rules for the guidance of the courts of criminal jurisdiction, and the provisions for the police, is completed, and the publication of this sequel of a useful and important work may be soon expected. Connected with the laws of the Mohammedans, which are founded on the Koran, and the traditions of their prophet, is a work undertaken by an officer of the military establishment under this presidency, Captain Matthews. This is a translation from the Arabic language of the Mishcat ul Musabih, a work of high authority among the Mussulmans, and which may be said to hold among them the same place which the Taimud does among the Jews. It is a voluminous collection
of all traditions deemed authentic. The translation has been some time ready, and the task of printing it has been commenced. Before 1 close the enumerations of the valuable gifts made this year to the literature and knowledge of the east, I am induced to speak with the honor which I think is due, of the progress that is making in the vicinity of our college in a field of oriental knowledge, which has been left hitherto to the zeal and resourses of individuals. I allude to the little, but respectable Chinese school at Seran pore. I had occasion to advert to this institution and its performances, with the approbation that I felt, in my last discourse. On the one band the interest, which this insulated but commendable undertaking inspires, will not let me be silent on the laudable advancement of Chinese learning and proficiency, which the industry and talents, both of master and scholars, have operated during the past year; on the other hand this subject is not so closely connected with the college of Fort William, or with the proper occupations of this day, as to admit of my enlarging, in as much detail as I should, perhaps, be inclined to do, on the growing improvement of this singular institution. I will not withhold the particulars, however, of its labours from those who may think them acceptable, and shall in that view take the liberty of annexing to this discourse a report of the examination, which was held at Serampore in last September, and which redounded highly to the honour of Mr. Marshman and his pupils; I will not refrain, however, even now, from reading the satisfactory testimony of the learned persons, connected as they are with our own body, before whom the trial of Chinese proficiency were on that occasion exhibited. After describing the exercises of the young Chinese student, Mr. Marsham, Mr. Jab. Carey, and Mr. J. C. Marsham, the report proceeds, “Specimens of Chinese types, now cutting in wood, were then exhibited, and so, e of the first sheets of the Lum , or first book of Confucius,
now in the press, with a large single sheet, containing the whole of the Chinese radicals, or elementary characters, according to which the Chinese characters are arranged in their dictionaries. “On the whole, we beg leave to express the highest satisfaction with tie, progress of the seminary, and the acquirements of the Chinese students. We beg leave, likewise, to state, that the manner in which the publication of the works of Confucius is commenced, is entitledto the highest approbation, and of the most obvious utility for communicating to the European world, a knowledge of the Chinese language and literature, to which little more seems to be absolutely necessary than the publication of the five books of Confucius, and the imperial Chinese Dictionary, in a similar manner. (Signed) “ J. H. HARINGton. * “ J. LEY DEN.”
In closing this discourse, it only remains for me, in addressing the junior part of my audience, to remind them, that in their hands is deposited the honour of the coming year. On their strenuous efforts, on their unabating diligence, hangs the credit of their own period. The season that is gone has bequeathed to them a fair example. I know it will be followed, and that in the race of emulation, the candidates for distinction will neither turn aside, nor faint ; that I shall yet have victors to crown with our annual honours, and that the next discourse need not be barren either in acknowledgments to the College of Fort William, or in congratulations to the public on the high and still rising reputation of that useful and important institution.
Gf N e RAL ORDERs, Feb. 23. — The detachment of the honourable company's European regiment, and the corps of Native volunteers, which proceeded to Macao, under the command of Major Weguelin, having returned to the presidency, the right honorable the governor-general in council, deems it tion of his sentiments regarding the meritorious conduct of Major Weguelin, and of the officers and men under his countmand, during the period of their employment in China. Numerous are the occcasions on which the British government has discharged the satisfactory duty of publicly expressing its admiration of the distinguished zeal and gallantry of the European and Native troops, serving in India, in the most arduous contests of the field; of their perseverance in surmounting accumulated difficulties, and of their patience under the severest hardships and privations of a state of war. But it is only on the occasion of the late service in China that British troops have been required, by the peculiar circumstances of their situation, to practice the less brilliant but severer military virtues of patient forbearance, rigid discipline, and exact subordination, under the repeated provocations to which they were exposed by the characteristic jealously, and by the mistaken prejudices, of the government and people of China. The highest praise is due to major Weguelin, for the judgment and ability manifested by him in the precautionary measures which he adopted to prevent the evil consequences of irritation, so justly excited among the European and Native troops under his command, by the unfriendly and often injurious conduct of the Native inhabitants; for his uniform vigilance, attention, and exertion, to which is materially ascribed the preservation of tranquillity at Macao, for his indefatigable endeavours to promote the comfort, and relieve the wants of the troops, in a situation in which they were exposed to all the inconveniences of restraint and privation, and for the professional skill wiich he displayed in the defensive arrangements, which it was judged necessary to adopt. The governor-general in council also deems it his duty to express his acknowledgments to captain Muller, commanding the volunteer battalion, captain Nixon, commanding the coast artillery, captain Beaumont, of the detachment of his Majesty's 30th re
giment, and captain Blakenhagen, in
charge of the companies of the Bengal.
European regiment, and to the officers under their respective command, for their zeal and alacrity in promoting the object of the public service, and in regulating their conduct by those maxims of prudence, which the circumstances of their situation so peculiarly required. The governor-general in council has great pleasure in expressing the just sense which he entertains of the merits of captain-lieutenant Stuart, of the European regiment in the department of supplies, the duties of which, under the pressure of extraordinary difficulty, he conducted with equal credit and success. The governor-general in council also discharges a satisfactory cbligation of his public duty in acknowledging the services of captain Robertson, of the Bengal engineers, not only in the command of the first division of troops, which devolved upon him by the death of Major Wright, and imposed on him the duty of conducting their disembartion at Macao, but also in the support and assistance which he afforded to Major Weguelin, when relieved from his command by the arrival of that Officer at Macao. The governor-general in council further desires to convey to the whole of the European and Native non-commissioned officers and privates of the detachment under major Weguelin's command, the expression of his lordship in council's high approbation of their meritorious conduct, in fulfilling, under very trying circumstances, and in a manner so exemplary, the essential duties of good order and forbearance, enjoined to them alike by the rules of discipline, and the interests of the public service.
Occurrences for March. CALcutt A, MARch 2. — A letter from a gentleman attached to the emr bassy to Cabul, contains a short accou:t of their progress to the camp proper to direct a public communica