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NORMALIZATION OF RELATIONS WITH THE PEOPLE'S

REPUBLIC OF CHINA: PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

NINETY-FIFTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

SEPTEMBER 20, 21, 28, 29; OCTOBER 11, AND 13, 1977

Printed for the use of the Committee on International Relations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1977

98-666

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington, D.C. 20402

COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI, Wisconsin, Chairman L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina

WILLIAM S. BROOMFIELD, Michigan DANTE B. FASCELL, Florida

EDWARD J. DERWINSKI, Illinois CHARLES C. DIGGS, JR., Michigan

PAUL FINDLEY, Illinois ROBERT N. C. NIX, Pennsylvania

JOHN B. BUCHANAN, JR., Alabama DONALD M. FRASER, Minnesota

J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL, New York CHARLES W. WHALEN, JR., Ohio LEE H. HAMILTON, Indiana

LARRY WINN, JR., Kansas LESTER L. WOLFF, New York

BENJAMIN A. GILMAN, New York JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, New York TENNYSON GUYER, Ohio GUS YATRON, Pennsylvania

ROBERT J. LAGOMARSINO, California MICHAEL HARRINGTON, Massachusetts WILLIAM F. GOODLING, Pennsylvania LEO J. RYAN, California

SHIRLEY N. PETTIS, California
CARDISS COLLINS, Illinois
STEPHEN J. SOLARZ, New York
HELEN S. MEYNER, New Jersey
DON BONKER, Washington
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts
ANDY IRELAND, Florida
DONALD J. PEASE, Ohio
ANTHONY C. BEILENSON, California
WYCHE FOWLEI JR., Georgia
E (KIKA) DE LA GARZA, Texas
GEORGE E. DANIELSON, California
JOHN J. CAVANAUGH, Nebraska

JOHN J. BRADY, JR., Chief of Staff

SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS

LESTER L. WOLFF, New York, Chairman L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina

J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida
GUS YATRON, Pennsylvania

TENNYSON GUYER, Ohio
HELEN S. MEYNER, New Jersey
ANTHONY C. BEILENSON, California

EDWARD J. PALMER, Subcommittee Staff Director

Jon D. HOLSTINE, Minority Staff Consultant
CHRISTOPHER D. W. NELSON, Subcommittee Staff A880ciate
JAMES J. PRZYSTUP, Subcommittee Staff Associate

ARLENE M. ATWATER, Staff Assistant

(II)

CONTENTS

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APPENDIX

1. U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty with the Republic of China..

2. Text of joint communique issued at Shanghai, February 27, 1972---

3. Remarks to the press by Hon. Lester L. Wolff at press conference on

August 4, 1977, to report on 1975–76 hearings on “United States-So-

viet Union-China: The Great Power Triangle”.

4. PRC response to Wolff press conference entitled "Hsin Wan Pao Ex-

amines Wolff Plan for Taiwan Security” as reported in FBIS, Au-

gust 11, 1977----

5. Address by Hon. Edward M. Kennedy, a U.S. Senator from the State

of Massachusetts, "Toward Normal and Enduring U.S. Relations

With China,” August 15, 1977-

6. Address by Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher at Occi-

dental College on June 11, 1977, on "Normalization of Diplomatic

Relations" -

7. Statement submitted by the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong

Kong

8. Article from the Washington Post, September 7, 1977, entitled "Teng:

Vance Trip Was Setback in United States-China Ties”.

9. Article from the Wall Street Journal, October 3, 1977, entitled "Formu-

las for Taiwan Accord With United States Flatly Rejected by High

Official in China".

10. Article from the Wall Street Journal, October 4, 1977, entitled “China's

Vice Premier Reaffirms Rigidity on Taiwan, Calls Use of Force Inevi-

table"

11. Article from the Wall Street Journal, October 20, 1977, entitled “View

From China-Accord by Peking, United States on the Issue of

Taiwan Appears Unlikely Soon".

12. Article from the Christian Science Monitor, November 2, 1977, en-

titled "China-Soviet Quarrel Is Far From Over".

INTRODUCTION AND INTERIM REPORT BY HON. LESTER

L. WOLFF, CHAIRMAN, SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIAN AND PACIFIC AFFAIRS

During the closing months of 1976 and into the summer of 1977, the issue of normalization of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China came increasingly before the Congress and the American people.

An informal but on-going China debate, which was reflected in hearings by the predecessor to this subcommittee (the Future Foreign Policy Subcommittee) in 1975–76, gradually moved beyond the question of whether or not to normalize, and began to coalesce into the thought, as it was expressed by Prof. Victor Li to us this fall, that, "The issue is no longer whether to normalize, but when and how.”

Several people and events have helped fuel this consensus: President Carter and former President Ford, during their campaign, endorsed the Shanghai Communique (see appendix) as setting the spirit, if not the course, favoring normalization between the two nations.

The change of leadership in China, and a possible trend away from internal disruption, offered the possibility of negotiations with the PRC leadership-particularly regarding the future of Taiwan and the Mutual Defense Treaty (see appendix)—free from some of the constraining factors of the past.

Initiatives in our country, such as the call for prompt normalization by Senator Edward Kennedy (see appendix) helped set the stage for Secretary Vance's mission to Peking.

During the summer, the staff of the subcommittee was engaged in organizing the present set of six hearings and inviting the 22 witnesses whose expert testimony addresses many, if not all, of the major questions raised by the normalization issue.

The hearings were developed and carried out with this overriding principle in mind; the stated policy of the last three administrations has been to normalize relations with the People's Republic of China. The task of the subcommittee, therefore, was and remains to examine as closely as possible the practical implications of a policy of normalizing with the PRC.

The hearings emphasized that the issue of normalization interacts with our policy throughout Asia, as well as with the Soviet Union; it is an issue in which the Congress and the American people must have all the information they need to assess whether initiatives and advances may be made by the administration.

It is my hope that these hearings, when complete, will help the Congress and the American people avoid the divisive sort of debate presently taking place on the Panama Canal, where a fait accompli of sorts has created uncertainty and mistrust.

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