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two shoulders on the upper arbor, and its lower end is connected with the frame by a pivot. Its use has already been explained. There is a sliding gauge for the purpose of holding in proper position flaring articles, such as the pan, where the bottom needs to be thrown out from a perpendicular with the arbors, in order to bring the body of the pan parallel with them. This gauge consists of a shank that is attached by a screw to the frame, and is terminated by a head that is just under the lower head. The bottom of the pan is held out by this gauge resting against the inside thereof, which keeps the work steady while being acted on. This is found to be indispensable when the work is made flaring. The gauge is fastened, when set or placed right, by a thumb-screw, and the end thereof is also provided with a soft surface, which prevents its rubbing the tin to scratch or mark it. When it is not desirable to move the gauge, the work will rest against the lower head, which is faced nearly to the edge with leather, (although other materials may be used,) to prevent its rubbing the tin. There is a collar, with a lever attached thereto. The collar part of it is fitted upon the arbor, allowing the arbor to turn freely in it, while the upper end passes through a loop in the frame to keep it in an upright position, and below the collar is fastened upon a pivot the little roller. “The only use of the loop is to bring the roller to bear properly upon the work; and to secure this the better, the lever is made crooked at the top, so that by pressing it down, this part of it is brought towards the frame, and consequently the roller is moved up, and vice versa. A spring is applied to throw the collar back as it rises up. In order that the screw may not only keep down the upper arbor by acting upon the box, but may also have such a connexion with it as to raise it up when its own action is reversed, a bow is provided, which receives the arber and passes up through the box and the frame, and is connected by a yoke to the top of the screw, of which the crank turns freely in the yoke. The object of raising and lowering the upper arbor has already been explained.” One patent has been granted for a mode of punching sheet metal, particularly adapted to punching sheathing for vessels. Short punches in sufficient number, and in proper position, are attached to the convex surface of a sector of a cylinder, and openings to correspond are made in the convex surface of a similar sector; these sectors are placed together upon shafts ; the sheet to be punched is laid upon the bed sector, and by a partial revolution about their axes the sectors carry the sheet between them, and thus punch it. Letters patent have been granted for an improved mode of manufacturing spoons from sheet silver; for a new mode of casting wire into the handles of spoons; and for an improvement in machinery for polishing cutlery. These inventions all appear to be useful and ingenious. Letters patent have been granted within the year for an improved device for holding plates of metal while undergoing the process of polishing: it is equally calculated for holding plates for filing. Every worker of metal is aware of the extreme difficulty of filing a surface perfectly flat or plane; and the same difficulty is found in polishing plane surfaces without wearing them off more at one point than at another. The mechanic who can do either must be master of his business—indeed, it is matter of such difficulty that it is never attempted except in cases of imperious necessity; and, when necessary, it requires a degree of care and skill which belong to few, and is of course always very expensive. The device alluded to
seems to remove every obstacle, and filing or polishing a flat surface is ... rendered so simple and easy that it may be performed by an apprentice, with no more care than is necessary in ordinary filing. The patented device is as follows: The holder of the plate to be polished rests upon the hollow side of a bell crank, which is supported in a horizontal position by gudgeons revolving freely in vertical supports. The holder has various adjustments to adapt it to the size, &c., of the plate to be polished. The plate is so adjusted in the holder that its surface is in the horizontal plane assing through the centres of the gudgeons of the bell crank, and that a ine passing through the centres of the gudgeons will divide the plate into equal parts. As the polishing tool or file is applied to the plate crosswise, : its pressure must be the same on both edges of it, because any inequality of pressure would be immediately equalized by the motion allowed by the bell crank; and thus if the file or polisher is not properly brought to the plate, the plate immediately adapts itself to the tool. The principle is capable of very extensive application, and comprehends much more than has yet been developed, The last subdivision of this extensive class which I shall mention comprehends / Locks, fastenings, &c.—Nineteen patents have been granted during the year for improvements in this branch of metallic manufacture, several of which are well worthy of notice. Eight patents have been granted this year for locks, but unfortunately they are generally of a character too complicated to be understood without elaborate drawings and descriptions; and I shall therefore be compelled to pass over several possessing great merit and novelty. Of those locks which are deemed worthy of notice, there is but one whose characteristics can here be made intelligible. The
lock in question is intended principally for chambers in hotels, &c., where
it promises great usefulness, with less expense than those heretofore used for similar purposes. Several devices have been resorted to for the purpose of preventing the keyhole, on the outside of the door, from being used for picking the lock, looking into the room, &c. Two locks in one case have been used, whose inner and outer keyholes are not opposite; plates have been used to cover the holes—these plates being operated by independent devices; but those who understand the lock could remove them. In the lock above mentioned, a plate is so connected with the inside of the lock as to lie against the plate through which the outer keyhole is made; and when the door is locked from the inside, the slide moves forward, entirely covers the outer keyhole, and prevents it from being used for any purpose. When the door is unlocked the plate slides back. When the door is locked from the outside the plate remains stationary, Several very perfect locks have been patented during the year, and the improvements made are highly creditable to their inventors. Six patents have been granted for latches and other similar fastenings for doors, windows, blinds, &c. A latch for the doors of houses has been patented, which recommends itself by its simplicity, compactness, and the ease with which it may be attached to and removed from the door. It can be understood by a perusal of the following extract from the patent: “In making mortise latches, much difficulty has been experienced in giving a form to the case to suit their doors, and at the same time adapted to the reception and working of the mechanism, and the fitting of a mortise made entirely by boring, to avoid the labor of mortising with a chisel. “This end has been sought by substituting the cylindrical for the square form; but to adapt this to the reception of a properly formed tumbler, requires too great a diameter to suit a medium thickness, or thin doors. “But by one of my improvements I attain this desideratum by forming the cross section of the case of three circles; one in the middle to form the thickness of, and two small ones—one on each side of and bisecting the middle one, to form this width of the case, so that a hole formed by boring one large hole and two small ones will receive the latch case, the diameter of the large one being sufficient to give to the axle of the tumbler the required length, and the two small ones giving sufficient width for the working of the levers of the tumbler and the wings of the latch bolt on which the tumbler acts to operate it. - “My second improvement consists in so locating the helical spring, which protrudes the bolt within a recess therein, as to have one portion of it rest on a flanch connecting the two sides of the bolt, and the other end on a shoulder of the stud against which the permanent end of the spring rests; by means of which arrangement, much of the friction and consequent wear of the spring against the case is avoided.” “From the foregoing it will be perceived that when the case is let into the door, the whole strain on the wood of the door is along the surface of the small circles, and near to their junction with the large one, thus leaving a much greater thickness and strength of wood than if the strain were: along the surface of the large diameter, and that therefore the wood of the door will retain much more strength than if the latch were round or square; for, in the former, to attain the required room for the working parts, the entire diameter of the case would necessarily be equal to the diameter of the three circles united in mine, and in the latter (the square) the thickness of the whole case would be equal to the diameter of the large circle, so that the strain would of course come on the wood at the corners of the mortise, where there would of course be, less thickness than on each side of the small circles in mine, besides the inconvenience of making the mortise with a chisel instead of by boring it simply.” it is well known to carriage makers that the fastenings used ordinarily for carriages are very liable to be broken, particularly during their transportation from the factory to those parts of the country where they are to be used, in consequence of the protrusion of the knobs or handles of the fastenings. And when thus broken, the broken fixtures cannot be removed and new ones substituted without considerable difficulty and injury to the carriage. Letters patent have been granted this year for a new device for fastening, which removes the liability to breakage, by removing the handle, and leaves the permanent parts of the fastening in such condition that if broken they are removed and others substituted with great facility. The following extract from the patent will sufficiently explain the invention : “In the common carriage-door lock, the bolt which, when turned, projects from the door plate into the hasp has two journals, one turning in each plate, with the spring attached to the case, and acting on the cam-like form of the back of the bolt to hold it when either turned in or out, the spindle passing through a square socket in the bolt. The lock-case is made of two parts, the front plate and the end and two side plates, in
which the journals of the bolt turn, the three latter being made of one piece of sheet metal, bent and secured to the front plate, the spring being secured between the two side plates. The defects in this lock are the imperfect working of the spring on account of the limited room in the - door frame, the standard of which is always made very narrow. The liability of breaking or otherwise injuring the handle by transportation, because it cannot be removed conveniently on account of being secured on the inside of the door, and within the lining, and the difficulty of re. pairing the lock which can only be taken out after the spindle has been : removed ; and, finally, the difficulty of making the case of cast metal, which would greatly reduce the cost of manufacturing locks—these defects are avoided by my improvements; which consist, first, in casting the lock-case in one piece, with the exception of one of the side plates; sec'ond, in making the bolt with a journal on one face only; third, in securing the spindle of the handle in its place by making it with a projection on the inner end, which, after passing through a groove in the bolt, and a corresponding one in the lock-plate on that face of the bolt which has no journal, and then turning the spindle partly round, is retained by the lock-plate; and, fourth, making this last-mentioned plate with camlike projections, and providing the spindle with a spiral spring, the tension of which draws the projection on the inner end of the spindle towards the plate, and causes the spindle and bolt to turn around in either direction from the highest part of the said cam-like projection on which the to projection slides.” . . . . Å very simple device has been patented for holding down the ordinary , thumb-latch for fastening, by a cam lever, bearing upon the upper screw of the keeper in such manner as to operate with certainty in fastening and unfastening the door, and in either position to give an ornamental finish to the latch. : Several improvements have been patented for improvements in doorknobs, and in the manner of connecting them with their shanks and with the locks to which they belong. The inventors of these improvements have successfully aimed at neatness, simplicity, and economy; and the results of their labors are valuable additions to this branch of manufacture. I must dismiss the subject of metallurgy and manufactures in metals. A glance only is necessary at the developments made this year at this .#. to satisfy the most skeptical that rapid strides towards perfection have been taken in this comprehensive and important class of manufactures.
FIBROUs AND TEXTILE SUBSTANCES AND FABRICs.
• In this branch of the arts inventive genius is still active, vigorous, and successful. Its range is so extensive, and its details so numerous and minute, that a host of inventors find ample scope within its circuit, and its variety furnishes gratification to every diversity of inventive taste and skill. Such inventions as revolutionize a department of the arts are rarely - to be expected; but those which evince great ingenuity, and promise extended usefulness, are almost daily coming to light, and entering upon : their course with a steady step. Enough has been developed within the year to stimulate the hopes and sustain the high reputation of the gifted and persevering inventors whose exertions are devoted to this department.
This class has many subdivisions, which will be noticed in their order.
Breaking and dressing hemp, flaw, 3-c.—Three patents have been granted this year for preparing hemp and flax for the manufacturer. They possess but little novelty. In breaking hemp and flax there is great danger of injuring the fibre by breaking it in bundles which are too thick and strong, the fracture being so sudden as to break the fibre with the woody part of the stock; and if this be avoided in the old-fashioned machine, with stationary, and vibrating knives working between them, the fibre is much injured by being dragged over the several edges of the knives as it is forced by the vibrating down between the stationary knives. Letters patent have been granted this year for a machine whose object is to obviate both these difficulties. The first is obviated by giving a convex curve to both sets of knives, the effect of which is to spread the bunch of hemp towards both ends of the knives; and the other, b causing the centre knives of each set to stand out further towards eac other and the hemp than the outer ones, so as to strike the different points of the hemp in detail. The object of breaking the hemp is to loosen the woody parts from the fibres, so that the fibres may be retained, and the woody part shaken out. It will readily be perceived that if this refuse be dragged or scraped out of the fibre in the direction of its length, the refuse will, to some extent, rub and break the fibres. This inconvenience is, to some extent, obviated by a machine patented this year, constructed as follows: A series of arms are arranged around the circumferences of two parallel circular revolving dies; and at equal distances from these dies, and at equal distances from these disks, and between, is another disk, whose edge is cut out into cams; a rest over which to break the hemp is placed in front of these armed dies, and as they revolve the hemp is broken by the arms. Directly below the rest is a series of spring whippers extending from the ends of it to the centre; and as the breaker revolves, and breaks the hemp, it hangs down between the breaker and the whippers, and the cams on the central disk cause the whippers to operate rapidly against the broken hemp, and, without scraping, to shake out the refuse. Further notice of hemp-dressing machines is unnecessary. Cotton gins.—Two patents for improvements in cotton gins have been granted within the year, both of which deserve notice. The one is for an improvement in one of the nicer points, and the other for general improvements upon , the cotton gin, considerably modifying and changing its character and operation. The following extract from the first above-mentioned patent sets forth with sufficient clearness the evil which the improvement is intended to obviate, and the remedy applied by the inventor: “Many efforts have been made so to improve the saw gin, as to separate from the fibres of cotton motes and other impurities. By some this has been essayed by means of rotating brushes, which act on the fibres as the saws carry them from the grate to the stripping brush, the mote brushes rotating in the reverse direction of the saws; and others have substituted for the rotating mote brushes stationary brushes, through which the saws carry the fibres to be stripped of the motes and other impurities. The objection to these methods is, that the mote brushes act on the fibres when held by the teeth of the saws only; and, therefore, instead of separating the motes and other impurities from the fibres to which they adhere, (sometimes with considerable force,) the fibres are drawn out with the