« 이전계속 »
ing the first log, and so on for any number of logs. The saws are kept constantly in action, losing no time for running back, and the boards are entirely separated from each other. Several patents have been granted for improvements in the feed of sawmills. The usual mode of feeding by a hand acting upon a ratchet wheel is somewhat imperfect, as the hand will in some instances slip, and the pawl will also allow the ratchet wheel to slip. The several improvements patented this year are intended to remedy these imperfections. One of these inventions will be understood by reference to the following extract from the patent: “These clamps are not formed in the ordinary manner, but are mathematically formed by striking a rectangular line across the direction of the motion, at the centres of motion of the clamps, and two longitudinal lines in the same points; then protracting lines, in an angle of about fifteen degrees from the centre of motion of the clamps, towards the centre of the machine, diverging in the same direction with the motion of the material operated on ; and at the point where the diagonal line intersects the intended faces of the clamps, a line parallel to the centres of motion, and intersecting the two longitudinal lines, will give the centres from which to strike segments of circles forming the faces of the clamps. When so formed and thus applied, however the thickness of the material may vary, a line drawn as a radius from the face of the clamp at the point of contact with the material will always make nearly the same angle with the direction of the feed, and thus maintain a nearly equal pressure upon each side of the material that is to be fed in. “By making the clamps according to these directions, they will act uniformly to slip the material, and progress it to the tool. But if a larger angle than about fisteen degrees is taken, the clamps will pass forward without holding the material, and if a much less angle is used they will slip by from not having sufficient hold. In some cases a single eccentric clamp, thus formed, may be used on one side of the material, with a fixed fence on the opposite side.” Several patents have been granted for improvements in head and tail blocks, which are intended to facilitate the setting of the log for each successive cut. They are, however, very much like those in common use. One of them, however, I will notice. When the dogs which hold the log are attached to a ratchet slide, operated by a lever and pawl, to set the log, irregularities sometimes arise from the fact that the slide is held only from retiring against the pawl, but is not prevented from moving in the other direction. The patentee obviates this inconvenience by combining two pawls and levers with each other in such a manner that at the moment one of them has carried the slide the proper distance for the set, the other rises and catches into an inverted ratchet wheel, where it remains; and thus the two pawls hold the slide from moving either way, insuring the equal thickness of the boards, and preventing such accidents as might arise from unsteadiness in the log. The precise details of the machine used cannot be here presented in such a manner as to be understood; and the same is true of other improvements in head blocks patented this year, which I am therefore compelled to pass over. Shingle and lath machines.—One patent has been granted this year for an improved shingle-cutting machine. The improvement consists in so arranging the knives upon the gate that two shingles will be cut at each downward motion of the gate—the shingles being separated from the block by a drawing cut from butt to point, the butt coming from alternate ends of the block. - One patent has been granted for improvements in lath-cutting machines, which, however, does not possess the kind of novelty which would entitle it to notice here. Barrel machinery.—Three patents have been granted this year for improvements in machinery used in the manufacture of barrels, &c. One of these is for an improvement in jointing staves by bending them over a bed-piece and applying to the edges a plane having two cutters, each cutting from the centre to prevent cutting against the grain. Another of these machines is for dressing staves; possesses considerable novelty, and deserves particular notice. Its characteristics are fully set forth in the following extract from the patent, to which reference is made : “The dressing and jointing on rived staves by machinery are operations which have heretofore presented much difficulty, and of the various attempts to attain these important ends by means of rotating planes none have, so far as Ioam informed, been successful. The difficulty arises from the fact of the uneven and crooked condition of the rived bolts, which must be dressed with the grain of the wood, and of equal thickness, and the necessity of jointing the curved edges of the staves to give the bulge to the barrel or cask by a continuous movement. The dressing of staves has been essayed by two rotating planes—one to plane or dress the coneave, aid the other the convex surface; the planes being placed one forward of the other, so that the staves pass from the one to the other; but in this there is no method by which the planes can adapt themselves to the bends and crooks of the bolts. Attempts have also been made to joint the edges with rotating planes by placing the stave, after being dressed, on a reciprocating carriage, provided with guides to cause the rotating planes to approach towards and recede from each other, to give the required bulge to the staves. “The improvements which I have made, and which I wish to secure by letters patent, remove these difficulties, and consist, first, in hanging the two rotating planes one above the other in a vertically sliding frame, to receive the bolt from the feeding or guide and pressure rollers, and pass them to other rollers which deliver or conduct them to the jointing operation, the frames sliding up and down to adapt the planes to the bends or crooks of the bolts, the sliding of this frame beiyg effected by two sets of rollers hung in the frame, one forward and the other back of the rotating planes; and, second, in giving to the frames in which the jointing-cutter heads are hung, and run, reciprocating movements towards and from each other by means of cam-grooves, eccentrics, cranks, or other analogous device, as the staves are fed forward by a positive motion; the continuous feeding and reciprocating motion of the cutter-heads being made to correspond.” Planing machines.—But two patents have been granted this year for improvements in this department. One of them is for an improved mode of holding and adjusting plane-irons, and will be understood from the following extract: “The method of fastening plane-bits or irons to their stocks (now generally in use) is by means of a wedge, which requires hammering to drive it in or draw it out, which in a short time injures the stock and disadjusts the set of the cutting edge. Various other devices have been suggested and essayed to avoid this difficulty, but they have so far all failed, either in consequence of complexity and cost, or the occupying of too much room in the throat of the plane, and therefore impeding the discharge of shavings. But by my improvement, which is simple, cheap, and not liable to derangement, I avoid all these difficulties. It consists in the employment of an eccentric metallic roller, which has its bearings in the sides of the throat of the stock, and is situated immediately over the bit or iron; so that by turning it the bit is either liberated or fastened. Its diameter is so small as not to afford the least obstruction to the free discharge of the shavings; and by the turning of this eccentric to fasten the bit, if it be turned in the direction of the cutting edge, it will tend to set for the cutting of a thicker shaving, and by turning it the other way the reverse effect will be produced.” The other patent is for an improved mode of planing slats for windowblinds, &c. It is unnecessary to set forth its details. The great object of the inventor is to avoid planing against the grain. He therefore places his slats in a kind of hopper, from which they are fed in a proper direction to the plane, which planes one side with the grain; the slat then falls down into another hopper, and is fed to another plane in the opposite direction to plane the other side. These motions insure the planing of both sides with the grain. Boring and mortising.—Four patents have been granted within the year for improvements in this variety of machinery; but these are slight modifications of machinery in common use, and need not be described. Veneering.—Letters patent have been granted this year for improvements in veneering, which, for various purposes, promises to be very useful. Its character will be learned by reference to the following extract from the patent: “The nature of my invention consists in interposing between the veneers, or veneer and body to which it is to be attached or united, or layers of wood to be united, a cotton or linen canvass, or other cloth, (the cloth and parts of the wood to be adjoined being first covered or prepared with glue or other adhesive material,) and then placing the parts to be united in
juxtaposition; the cloths prepared as aforesaid being interposed, and uni
ting them by any of the known or suitable modes of compression. The cloth thus interposed adheres firmly to every part of the adjacent wood, and prevents the veneer from splitting or cracking with the grain of the wood, or leaving the body to which it is attached; renders two veneers minutely thin, thus united, stronger and more durable than if united in the usual mode, and than solid wood of many times its thickness or size.
“This invention is peculiarly adapted to the veneering or formation of unequal surfaces, or to cases where the veneering wood is required to be bent or compressed out of its natural inclination. It is especially adapted to the construction of wooden tubes or pipes. The mode I adopt in the constructing of tubes or pipes is the following: A veneer or layer of wood is first rolled around a rod or shaft attached to a crank, and turning with it and compressed by a cord, (I have used,) or other compression, into the required shape. The cloth, saturated with glue or other adhesive substance, is then rolled tightly around the veneer thus shaped as above, and then another veneer, or layer of wood, is applied upon the cloth and compressed, by the means above stated, into contact with every part of the cloth; by turhing upon which, the veneers are shaped or rolled over a furnace, and the glue or adhesive matter is made to penetrate every part of the fabric.”
Nothing further has been developed this year connected with lumber, which is worthy of particular notice.
CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE.
. A considerable number of patents have been granted within the year for improvements belonging to this class, some of which deserve notice. Excavators.—Eight patents have been granted for machinery used in making various kinds of excavations. One of the patents is for improvements in machinery for facilitating the operation of the scoop in dredging machines. The invention is not of a radical character, but is one of those modifications which need not be described. Several patents have been granted for ditching and embanking. On the western prairies these ditches and embankments are resorted to as substitutes for fences, and as such have become very important, and given exercise to much ingenuity, and improvements are constantly in progress of development. Those patented this year are generally but slight deviations from the inventions of former years. There is one of them, however, which I will notice. The machine is so constructed as to cut two parallel ditches, and deposite the turf which is removed between them in the form of an embankment, in such a manner that the whole is covered with grass. The following extract will more fully elucidate the operation and the structure : “It has heretofore been sound difficult to. form a fence of earth that would stand without a complicated and expensive process of throwing up the dirt from trenches on each side, and then sodding it over ; the mound being formed by spading or ploughing, or both. The process of sodding being slow and expensive, has rendered this kind of fence objectionable, and often prevented its coming into use. By my machine, two ditches are cut parallel to each other, and a mound or ridge of earth raised between them all perfectly sodded, and more compact than the old method. “The construction of my machine is as follows: On each side of a centre beam there is a mould board or twisted plane, so formed as to receive the sod and earth from the ditch from which it is cut, and thence gradually raising it up till the under and inner side is perpendicular, at which point both mould boards join and terminate. Therefore, as the sod leaves the mould board, that on each side meets the other, and is thus supported. Just beyond the front edge of the mould board there is an oblong frame attached across the beam, having four runners attached to it parallel with the beam, on which it bears. From this frame two knives incline downwards and back to the lower corner of the mould board, where they join these knives, cut out the sod and form the ditch, the fence being elevated between them. Along the lower edge of the mould board there is a rim or sole attached nearly at right-angles thereto, on which the edge of the sod rides as it is lifted; and again the upper edge of this sole has a ledge on it, which serves to keep the sod in #: and gradually direct the lower edge inwards as it rises to a perpendicular po
sition. The front edge of this last-named piece is armed with a cutter to cut off any projections on the surface of the sod; the cap between the mould board projects a little over them. A suitable frame work is added to the above described parts to strengthen it, which may be varied with the size of the machine and the soil it is to be used in. When put into operation, it is drawn along by a capstan connected with the front end of the beam, and moved by any suitable power. The sod is cut by the knives, and then elevated by the mould board on to the space between the ditches, when it is deposited in an upright position and left with the grass out, forming a perfect sod bank or ridge.” Two snow excavators have been patented this year. One of them has a double series of mould boards—one above the other—which, where the snow is deep, very much facilitates its removal. It is often observed that banks of snow accumulate upon railroads in such a manner that one side of the ordinary snow plough scarcely operates at all, while a heavy bank presses against the other; thus endangering the position of the locomotive upon the track, and producing injurious strains. To obviate this inconvenience, an improvement has been made and patented in the snow plough. The apparatus consists of an inclined plane for scraping up and elevating the snow, in combination with two vertical inclined planes meeting and forming a vertical edge in front, and firmly fixed together. These inclined planes are for crowding the snow, as it is elevated, to the side of the track. They are connected with the scraper by a pivot, so that when the bank is more on one side of the road than the other, they may immediately be so adjusted as to divide it in such proportions as may be deemed expedient. A patent has also been granted for an apparatus for cutting and removing ice from channels. The ice is cut by any convenient cutters; as the boat progresses, the ice is aided in the ascent of an adjustable inclined plane in front of the boat, by rollers having points upon them, which take into the pieces of ice. After the ice is sufficiently elevated, it is allowed to slide off over lateral inclined planes on each side of the channel, leaving the channel entirely clear. Mining.—One patent has been granted for an improvement in .# augers. It consists of a combined borer and screw, properly constructe for removing stones or earth. One patent has been granted for improvements in fences, and another for a weather strip for doors, which do not require notice. Boom derricks.-The difficulty everywhere met with in machines of this kind is, that they are either insufficient in strength to resist the powerful torsive strains to which they are subjected, or that they are too heavy and unwieldy to be conveniently moved from one place to another and set up. Letters patent have been granted this year for a boom derrick, which is intended to obviate one of these evils, without falling into the other. Its chief characteristic consists in substituting for the mast a tripod trussel, and braced in such a manner as to give the particular kind of strength required, as the patentee alleges, with a less amount of timber than has heretofore been used, and at less expense. The machine is said to have been tested, and to give great satisfaction. Letters patent have been granted for improvements in building cisterns, improvements in coffer dams, improvements in dry docks, and improvements in stump extractors, which it is deemed unnecessary to describe.