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Erports from France to Algeria-Continued.

Articles.

1878.

1880. ---- - - ---- - - General ex. Special ex- General es. Special exports. ports. ports.

ports.

Silk manufacture ...
Rice ....
Table fruits..
Grease........
Furniture....
Wood manufactures ..
Straw hats. .....
Arms and war ammunitions
Toys ......
Building materials...
Butter ..........
Chemical matches...
Woods ...........
Meat (fresh and salt)..
Cordage (hemp)........

$141, 000
187, 000
200,000
536. 000
173, 000
275,000

160, 000
1,063, 000

138, 000 354, 000 220,000 147, 000 323, 000 313, 000 185, 000 150,000 243, 000 144, 000

91, 000 100, 000 74, 000 78,000 131, 000 126, 000

$294, 000 $282, 000
290, 000

19,000
276, 000

218, 000 272, 000

271, 000 248, 000

237, 000 230, 000 228, 000 227,000

215, 000 210,000 182, 000 185, 000

182, 000 175, 000 175,000 158, 000

153, 000 139, 000

14, 000
133, 000 132, 000
132, 000

57, 000
126, 000 122, 000
119,000 118, 000
107, 000
103, 000

100,000
90, 000

102, 000 90,000

45,000 89, 000

89, 000 83, 000

82.000 83, 000

82, 000 €0, 000

54, 000 66, 000

51, 000 63,000

49, 000 62, 000

61,000 61, 000

60, 000 55,000 55,000 52, 000

52, 000 51, 000

48, 000 51, 000

48, 000 44. 000

43, 000 39,000

36, 000 37, 000

37, 000 37, 000

36, 000 1, 254, 000 1, 293,000 29,938, 00024, 871, 000

$129,000

22, 000 244, 000 534, 000 292, 000 267, 000 152, 000 998, 000 124, 000 354, 000 207, 000

44,000 306, 000 61,000 180,000 146, 000

7,000 121, 000 9!, 000 63, 000 74, 000 77, 000 123, 000 67,000

Fish ...........

Tobacco (unmanufactured) ......
Thread.
Felt hats...
Cigars and tobacco
Semoules ......
Chocolate ........
Colors ...........
Sirups, preserves, and candy.
Prepared dyes .....
Clocks and watches...
Raw bides ......
Prepared medicines
Buttons ...
Almonds, nuts, &c
Musical instruments...
Perfumery ............
Basket work ....
Cutlery .........
Millinery and artificial flowers,
Chestnuts, prepared, ground, and whole
Other articles ...

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BRITISH TRADE WITH ALGERIA.

According to British official returus the trade of the United Kingdom with Algeria during the year 1880 was as follows: Imports from Algeria, $3,503,000, exports to Algeria, $1,456,000.

The principal imports from Algeria consisted of esparto and other vegetable fibers ($2,000,000); wheat, barley, pease, and beans, $1,079,000; zinc ore, tap-bark, copper, and iron ore.

The principal British exports to Algeria were, cotton goods, 12,243,000 yards, valued at $670,000; coal, $200,000; machinery and millwork, iron, wrought and u wrought, and refined sugar. About $10,000 worth of the exports were composed of foreign and colonial produce and mamufactures.

AMERICAN TRADE WITH ALGERIA.

(From a report by Commercial Agent Jourdan.)

The direct imports from the United States during the year 1881 consisted of petroleum, timber, and wheat, and are valued at $124,300. The direct imports of petrolenim are of small amount, considering the large quantity used in this country, but the most part is introduced from Marseilles, Gibraltar, and other ports. Many other articles could be imported with advantage from the United States were it not for the want of a spirit of enterprise among the merchants of this colony, who stick to their old way of business. It will require time to bring about a change. Ilowever, I hope to induce them to increase the direct trade with the United States.

The exports, amounting to $199,810, consisteil chiefly of iron ore, which is shipped to New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia in a large quantity, and no less than 108 vessels cleared during the year with full cargoes from Algiers, Bone, and Oran. The actual working of new mines will increase the shipments.

The inineral wealth of Algeria is immense, but the most valuable is its iron, which is found close to the sea throughout nearly the whole littoral. . The qnality is rich and good, and especially adapted to the manufacture of Bessemer steel. The mines which are worked now are in the hands of British companies, who have introduced considerable capital into this country.

There are other articles which coulıl be exported to the United States to a much larger extent than at present. The principal are the fiber called vegetal hair, made from the leaves of the dwarf palm, coming into great demand in the European markets; alfa fiber or esparto, very abundant in Algeria, and largely exported to England for the maunfacture of paper; and cork, of which trees there are more than a million of acres in this colony.

The time is not far distant when wine will also be an article of large exportation. The cultivation of the vine is progressing every year, and has received a great stimulus since the płıylloxera is making such havoc in France.

Algeria is not yet so prosperous as it ought to be, but the colonization is increasing every year, agriculture is improving, and with a rich soil and a larger extent of railroads this country is called to a brilliant future.

COMMERCE OF THE BARBARY STATES.

COMMERCE OF MOROCCO.

According to the very interesting report from Consul Mathews, which will be found in its proper place in this volume, the total foreign trade of Morocco during the year 1880–81 was as follows: Imports, $3,639,000, a decrease of $1,076,000 from the preceding year; exports, $3,382,000, a decrease of $360,000 from the preceding year. In both imports and exports this is the lowest trudle-showing for any year since 1870–71, and is the result of bad harvests and the want of confidence of foreign traders, who, according to Consul Mathews, find it almost impossible to get any returns for their goods from the Moors, “who are so ground down by exorbitant taxation as to find all their products have disap. peared before they receive their value in hand. The poor agriculturist is, on the one siile, dunned by his government for taxes, and on the other side by his foreign creditor, who also suffers from the rapacity of public officials."

l'uder such a prevailing system it is no wonder that Morocco, one of the richest countries in the world, makes so poor a trade exhibit.

According to Consul Mathews's returns, the distribution of the foreign trade of Morocco during the year was as follows:

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The principal articles of imports into Morocco are as follows:

Cotton goods.-Gray, bleached, and printed, T-cloths, bleached long cloths, dyed bafts, and muslins of all sorts, $2,011,000, of which $1,923,000 were imported from England and $83,000 from France.

Woolen manufactures.-Germany and Austria have supersedel England in the lower priced goods, but in the better grade England still controls the market.

Silk goods.-France controls the market.

Iron and hard care.- Birmingham and Sheffield wares control the market, notwithstanding the competition of German and Belgian manufactures in the cheaper grade of goods.

Loaf sugar.-Marseilles has driven Belgian and Dutch sugars completely out of the Moorish markets. Nearly one-half of the entire imports into Morocco from France consists of sugar. The manner in which the French Government protects and fosters its sugar industry gives the French manufacturers an advantage over nearly if not all other countries.

Coffee.-Rio coffee is imported from London and Havre and Marseilles.
Drugs and chemicals are imported from England and France.
Cotton-yarns are imported from Manchester.

Petroleum.-The natives consume oil of their own manufacture, although petroleun is coming into use more and more among the better classes.

Planks.—Previous to our civil war Morocco imported her boards and lumber from the United States principally; since then from Sweden. Consul Mathews, however, says that preference is given to American pine, whenerer it can be obtained.

The minor imports of Morocco are: Candles, $59,000; matches, $15,000; bagging, benzoin, brassware, bricks, canvas, copper, raw cotton, crockery, dyes, eartbernware, flour, fruit, furniture, glassware, leather, cotton seed oil, olive oil, paints, paper, provisions, soaps, spices, steel, tobacco, wine and spirits, &c.

The principal exports of Morocco are almonds, beans, bones, carpets, citron, dates, dyes, eggs, esparto, goat-skins ($397,000), gums, hides, leather, hair-cloth, maize ($217,000), wheat, oranges, ostrich feathers, horned cattle, chick-pease ($144,000), raisins, sheep-skins, slippers ($308,000), wool, in grease ($228,000); wool, washed ($172,000), &c.

There is no direct trade between the United States and Morocco. The amount of American products and manufactures reaching that country through the courtesy of nations having direct shipping communications therewith cannot be ascertained. Consul Mathews does not deal with the question of the possibility of introducing American products and manufactures into Morocco. An examination of the articles which enter into the foreign trade of that country would lead to the belief that our merchants could, under more favorable shipping auspices, win a fair share thereof. The disadvantages and irritations referred to by Consul Mathews, being applicable to the merchants of all nations alike, should not deter American any more than English and French merchants from taking business risks.

COMMERCE OF TRIPOLI AND TUNIS.

Tripoli.According to the returns of Consul Robeson, the foreign trade of Tripoli during the year ending June 30, 1881, was as follows: Imports, $2,260,000—a decrease of $181,000 from those of the preceding year, caused by the decreased imports of wheat and barley consequent upon the poor harvest. Exports, $1,877,000-an increase on the preceding year of $344,000, which was due to the increased exports of esparto and ostrich feathers.

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The principal import into Tripoli is cotton goods, which amounted during the year under review to over a million of dollars, being a large increase on the import of the preceding year.

The exports of ostrich feathers amounted to $991,000, and of esparto grass to $648,000.

The only direct trade between Tripoli and Tunis and the United States during the year, according to Consul Robeson's report, was a small shipment of ostrich feathers. It is certain, however, that many of the ostrich feathers exported to England reach the United States ultimately.

Tunis.-Not having received auy recent commercial report from the consulate at Tunis, I am unable, from this source, to give any statistics concerning the foreign trade of the regency, which may, however, be estimated as follows: Imports about $2,250,000; exports about $2,600,000.

According to our consular reports, the total foreign trade of the Barbary States is as follows:

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As far as the imports are concerned, the foregoing statement of the trade of the Barbary States is correct, but the exports must be somewhat greater, the value of the imports into France and England alone during the year under review—which imports represent the Barbary exports_amounting to over $9,600,000, viz: France, $5,480,000; England, $4,133,000.

The nature and extent of the trade of England and France with the Barbary States will be seen in the following statements, prepared from French and British official reports :

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OMMERCIAL

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$461, 000 376, 000

3,000

69, 000

4, 000 45, 000 47, 000 39,000

59,000 14, 000

Sugar ...........

$625, 000 $598, 000 $461, 000 Silk ..............

588, 000
360,000

434, 000 Flour and bran. ...

250,00)

8,000

74, 000 Cereals (grain) ...

201, 000 197, 000 Wool manufactures ..

93, 000
62, 000

98,000 Candles .. ... ......

85, 000

3, 000

141, 000 Cotton manufactures

77,000 55, 000

73, 000 Dressed hides .......

77,000 70,000 56, 000 Silk manufactures ....

58,000
29, 000

70,000 Pottery, glass, and crystal ......

52, 000

44, 000 Paper, cardboard, books, and engravings.

47, 000
39,000

63,000 Brandy, spirits, and liqueurs...

45, 000
14, 000

65,000 Manufactures in skins or leather...

42, 000 41,000 Mercery ........................

. 38, 000

32, 000 Jewelry in gold or platinum ...

37, 000

37.000 Matches ......

34,000

2,000 63,000 Saffron........

25, 000

25,000 Indigo ......

24,000 18,000 All other articles ...

1, 034, 000 551, 000 1, 255, 000

355 000 Total ...

3, 432, 000 2, 185,000 : 2,853, 000 - - - - - -- ----- - --- ---- - -

Imports into Great Britain from the Barbary States.

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Cotton manufactures......
Iron, wrought and unwrought....
Coal.......

....................................................
Refined sugar ....................
Cotton yarn.... .............................................
Foreign and colonial goods .......
All other articles....
Total

.........

$1,41:3, 000

13,000 5, 000 8,000 12,000 273, 000 176,000

1,900,000

Navigation.—There entered at the port of Tripoli during the year ending June 30, 1881, 866 vessels, of which 291 were steamships, of a total tonnage of 225,532 tons. The large number of vessels for such comparatively small tonnage was due to the entrance of 471 Ottoman vessels of only a gross tonnage of 21,971 tons. Ninety-seven British steamships of about 80,000 tons; 57 French, 103 Italian, and 1 Austriau entered. Not a single American ship entered during the year.

During the same year there entered at and cleared from the sev. eral ports of Morocco 1,360 vessels of 370,000 tons. Consul Mathews refers to the withdrawal of three small Spanish steamers from the

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