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COMMERCE OF AFRICA.

(In two divisions, Northern and Southern.)
NORTHERN DIVISION.

Beginning at the Canary Islands and ending at the Gulf of Aden, the northern division of Africa embraces Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, and Egypt.

The total foreign trade of this division, according to the latest available statistics, is as follows: Imports, $100,945,000; exports, $102,328,000; imports and exports, $203,273,000, divided among the following countries and possessions :

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COMMERCE OF THE CANARY ISLANDS. The trade returns of the Canary Islands, as above given, imports $2,500,000, exports $2,850,000, are based on old reports from the consul at Teneriffe, no report from thence showing the foreign trade of these possessions having been received for some years. From analyses of the trade of the several countries with the islands, these estimates may be relied upon as very close approximations.

The British consular reports for the year 1879 show a rather depressed condition of the foreign trade of the islands, the imports for that year barely holding their own, while the exports show a decrease as compared with the preceding year. The official statistics of British trade for the year 1880, however, show a comparatively large increase in the imports from and exports to the Canaries. In fact, British trade with the Canaries for the last five years shows a steady increase, viz: Imports from the Canaries in 1876, $1,346,000; in 1880, $2,280,000; exports to the Canaries in 1876, $773,000; in 1880, $1,253,000. It is hard to reconcile this showing with the British cousular report for 1879, unless we are to assume that a large decrease took place in the commerce of the Canaries with other countries, something which is not very likely to bave occurred. It may be very well assumed, therefore, that the fig. ures given above, showing the total trade of the islands, are, if any. thing, underestimates.

According to the returns of the Bureau of Statistics for the year end. ing June 30, 1881, our direct trade with the Canaries was as follows: Imports therefrom, $162,000; exports thereto, $218,000. In 1876 our imports from the islaud amounted to $133,000, and our exports thereto to $89,000; this show's, comparatively, even a larger gain than the British trade during the same years. The trade of France with the Canaries is not specified in the French official publications, so there is no available method of arriving at any approximation thereof. If the French marine calling thereat be any criterion by which to judge of French trade therewith, it must be considerable, as will be seen further on.

The great bulk of the import trade of the Canary Islands is divided between England, France, and the United States-England having the lion's share thereof. The principal articles which enter into the import trade are cotton goods, linens, metals, hardware and cutlery, apparel and baberdashery, oil, spirits, sugar, cocoa, coffee, coal, leather, grain, flour, guano, tiiber, petroleum, wine, &c.

The principal exports from the United Kingdom to the islands during the year 1880 were as follows in round nunbers : Cotton goods, $500,000; inanures, $55,000; metals wrought and pwrought, $55,000; apparel and baberdashery, $15,000 ; linens, $35,000; coal, $30,000 ; bardware and cutlery, $30,000; earthen and China ware, $11,000.

The principal exports from the United States to the islands during the year ending June 30, 1881, were breadstuffs and provisions, petroleum, distilled spirits, leaf tobacco, wood and manufactures of, together with small lots of cotton goods, drugs and medicines, naval stores, paper and stationery, fish, starch, refined sugar, agricultural implements, and other manufactures.

It will thus be seen that while our export trade with the Canaries is yearly increasing in volume and variety, and that while, in the language of the British consul at Teneriffe, "the United States is each year elbowing for itself a larger space in the importation line” in the islands, our share in the principal manufactures which are consumed therein is very small when compared to that of Great Britain. The trade of the Canary Islands is principally with England and France, because of their direct and frequent steam communication therewith, and the further fact of their having agencies or branch houses upon the islands for the introducti n and enlargement of their trade. .

During the year 1880, there entered at the port of Las Palmas alone, according to the report of the British consul at that port, 127 British steamers, of 188,917 tons. Of these 99 belonged to the lines trading between Liverpool and the West Coast of Africa, 27 between London and the Canaries, and 1 of the line running between Southampton and the Cape.

The Britisb consul at Teneriffe, in a report dated May 21, 1881, gives the following interesting information concerning the total steam communication with the Canaries:

The British steam vessels, of which there are four lines frequenting the ports of the islands, two starting from London and two from Liverpool, run the two first between London and these island-, via Madeira, and home via Morocco, Gibraltar, and Lisbon. The Liverpool steamers carrying the mails all run down the West Coast of Africa to Fernando Po, and these lives have lately extended their operations to Hamburg. The French steamer's frequenting the islands belong to the Compagnie Transatlantique aud the Chargeurs Réunis lines, several of each calling at this port every month, but they come for little else than the passenger, or, more correctly speaking, the emigrant traffic to the West Indies and South America, which is not unimportant. But the facilities thus afforded for quitting the islands may be questioned as a doubtful boon. Those of the Compagnie Transatlantique start from Havre, touching at Carliz, then to Santa Cruz, and on to Havana, Vera Cruz, and New Orleans, and from Mar

seilles via Barcelona hither, and then onward to Puerto Rico, La Guaira, and Costa Rica. The Chargeurs Réuis boats sail between Havre, London, Hamburg, Bremen, and South America (Brazil and the River Plate), calling here. There is, besides, a third line belonging to M. Paquet, which trade between Marseilles and these islands up and down the cast of Morocco, calling at Gibraltar. The vessels of war, especially the French, canse a considerable business here in replenishing with fresh provisions and coaling.

The total number of steamers entered at the several ports of the islands during the year 1880 was 335. It is scarcely necessary to add that the American flag had no representation therein.

The direct trade between the United States and the islands is carried on wholly in sailing vessels; hence, to a large extent, we only sell thereto what cannot be well suipplied by other countries.

COMMERCE OF ALGERIA.

According to the very interesting report from Consul Jourdan, of Algiers, the foreign trade of Algeria during the year 1880 was as fol. lows: Imports, $60,687,000; exports, $33,767,000; imports of gold and silver, $1,429,000.

According to the same report, this trade was divided among the several countries as follows-gold and silver being included in the imports:

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In the foregoing table it will be seen that the consul credits France with $50,551,000 of the total imports. According to the French official customs returns the exports from France to Algeria- which were the imports at Algeria given to the consul—were valued at $37,294,000 for the general exports, and only $31,232,000 for the special or French exports proper. Unless the Algerian customs officials placed an unusual increased valuation upon the imports from France it is difficult to account for this great difference.

The consular returns also show that the imports from Great Britain amounted to $3,296,000, while the British official returns for the same year show that the exports to Algeria amounted to only $1,450,000, being considerably less than one-half the former. In the matter of exports from Algeria and their valuation by the French customs as imports, both returns substantially agree, the consular valuation being $23,111,000, and the French valuation $24,482,000, a difference of only $1,371.000, which can be very well accounted for by the increase in value from the time of export until the goods were entered as imports

in France.

Applying the European scale of valuation to the whole commerce of Algeria, it is safe to say that the imports for the year 1880 did not amount to more than $50,000,000, while the exports as given by the consul are comparatively correct.

The rule which applies to nearly all colonial trade, that the greater portion thereof is with the mother country, applies in a marked manner to the trade of Algeria. The volume and variety of the trade between France and this her greatest colony, will be seen by the tables of imports into and exports from France (from and to Algeria), translated from French official returns and reduced to American dollars.

The principal articles of import and export into and from Algeria, according to Consul Jourdan's returns, were as follows:

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Cotton goods ............
Woolens ......
Skins, prepared
Refined sugar ....
Iron and steel.....
Linen goods .....
Manufactures of metals
Wearing apparel ...
Wines....
Spirits and brandy.
Salted meats...
Cheese ...........
Flour.....
Butter and lard .......
Vegetables, preserved.
Fruite, green and dried.
Coffee ............
Tobacco:

Leaf

Manufactured .....
Olive oil ....
Seed oil
Rice..........
Raw sugar .....
Pepper and spices..
Lumber, sawed....
Coal.....
Soaps ...........
Acids ......
China and carthen ware
Glass and glassware.........
Silks .....
Paper and stationery ..
Mercury .............
Furniture .....
Wood manufactures.........
Timber .......
Petroleum and other mineral oils...
Cordage and netting........
Machinery ........
All other articles.....

$13, 551, 000 Cereals:

3, 226, 000 Wheat...
3, 134,000 Barley
2, 588, 000

Oats .....
2, 138,000 Wool ........
2, 000, 000 Esparto grass ..
1, 786, 000 Cork-wood ...............
3, 102, 000 Iron ore..........
1, 413,000 Live animals:

413, 000 Horses, mules, &c....
1, 566, 000 Oxen, cows, &c ....

239, 000 Sheep.....
467, 000 Raw skins.
137, 000 Fish, cured
132, 000 Flour of all sorts...
842, 000

Fodder ......
1, 173, 000 Wines . .....

Collections, antiqnities
687, 000 Dried vegetables.......
267, 000 Dried fruits....
311, 000 Fresh fruits..
725, 000 Tobacco, in leaf......
220,000 Tobacco, manufactured..
227,000 Vegetable hair .........
144, 000 Tanning materials ....
780, 000 Olive oil ........
293, 000 Ore:
668,000 Lead.
1, 245, 000 Copper............

277, 000 Iron.
502, 000 Rags ......
538, 000 Linseed, flax, &e....
928, 000 Wood manufactnres
627, 000 Cotton, raw....
216, 000 Silk, raw ...........
371, 000 Wax.......
168, 000 Tallow..
182, 000 Coral.
182, 000 Bones, hoofs, horns ...

590, 000 Fresh vegetables ...
12. 632 000 All other articles ...

315, 000

815, 000 1, 881,000 1, 121, 000

264, 000 151, 000 67, 000 87, 000 186, 000 236, 000 984, 000 336, 000 598, 000 259, 000 466, 000 537, 000 71, 000

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401, 000

298, 000 1, 909, 000

155, 000 373, 000 485, 009

5,000 36, 000 20,000 20,000 64, 000 45, 000

67, 000 2, 437, 000

Total ....

60, 687, 000

Total ....

33, 767, 000

According to French official returns, the following is the direct trade between France and Algeria:

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$10, 976, 000

4, 806, 000 1,800,000

968, 000 822, 000 417,000

$10, 976, 000

4, 803, 000 1, 800,000

968, 000 816, 000 419, 000

$1,880,000 3, 823,000 8, 309, 000 1, 325, 000 1, 458, 000

372, 000

$4, 860,000 3,814, 000 8, 244, 000 1, 318, 000 1, 444, 000

354, 000

Ores:

802, 000 301, 000 320, 000 442, 000 274, 000 106, 000 156, 000 264, 000

Raw hide
Fish ..........
Phornium tenax, abaca, and other vege.

table tibers
Tobacco (nnmanufactured)....
Cork, erude...
Table fruits ..
Tan bark....
Raw coral ....
Rags and paper.
Horses
Barrels, empty.
Olive oil
Canes, freds, &c.....
Linseed ..
Cork, manufactured
Potatoes and dried vegetables...
Green vegetables
Clothing and sewn undergarments. .
Bones apd cattle-boof's .....
Horn, crude ..
Wax, crude ...
Manufactures in skins and leather (boots and

shoes)
Tortoise-shell,
Grease .........
Forage .....
Tobacco, mannfactn
Copper scrap, old
Lead ore ......
Cacao....
Other articles..
Total ...

.....

434, 000
372, 000
324, 000
319, 000
264, 000
193, 000
191, 000
185, 000
179, 000
150, 000
107, 000
67,000
61,000
51, 000
48, 000
43, 000
42, 000
42, 000
38, 000

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402, 000 819,000 277, 000

310, 000 331, 000

335, 000 317, 000

451, 000 264, 000

274, 000 166, 000 132, 000 191, 000 156, 000 185, 000

267, 000 3, 000

89, 000 150,000

85, 000 104, 000

123, 000 70,000 126,000 61, 000

42, 000 51, 000

256, 000 48, 000 140,000 36,000 42, 000

41, 000 42, 000 34, 000 38,000 35,000 34, 000 33, 000

22, 000 29, 000 103, 000 13,000 20, 000 25,000 23, 000

5,000 444, 000 *** 863,000 23, 201, 000! 24, 855, 000

41, 000 34, 000

37, 000 34, 000 34, 000 29, 000 28, 000 25. 000 23, 000

5, 000 525, 000

24, 000 103, 000 15, 000

**** 781,000

24, 482, 000

23, 639, 000

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$2, 969, 000
2, 251, 000
2, 241, 000
1,581, 000
1, 492, 000

412, 000
1, 261, 000
1, 009, 000

951, 000 544, 000 900, 000

63, 000 660, 000 348, 000 586, 000

$4, 693, 000 2, 568,000 1, 922, 000 2, 256, 000 2, 219,000

480,000 1, 540,000 1, 067, 000 1, 170, 000 1, 7:5, 000

901, 000

$3, 243, 000
2, 259, 000
2, 250,000
1, 584, 000
1, 555, 000
1, 536, 000
1, 271, 000
1, 061, 000
1,030,000

956, 000
913, 000
686, 000
661, 000
634, 000,
604, 000
573, 000
491, 000
459, 000
447, 000
444, 000
432, 000
372, 000
358, 000
308, 000

$4, 583, 000 2, 518,000 1,898, 000 2. 099, 000 1, 849,000

91, 000 1,485, 000 1, 025, 000 1, 150, 000 1,056, 000

892, OCO

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sned.........

736, 000 280,000 899, 000

Fised oils, refined .......
Paper, cardboard, books, and engravings.
Coffee ....... and silver, and silver
Jewelry in gold and silver, and silverware
Glass, crystal, and pottery..........
Haberdashery.
Potatoes and dried vegetables.....
Raw silk.........
Cheese .....
Machines and machinery .........
Candles ........

490,000 416, 000 434, 000 427,000 429, 000 259, 000 256, 000 64, 000

736, 000 724, 000

930, 000 1,383, 000

148,000 618, 000 764, 000 469, 000 267, 000 550,000 635, 000 323, 000

144,000 550, 000 747, 000 4.56,000 267, 000 346, 000 379, 000 78,000

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