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TRADE OF ZANZIBAR.
As no statistics of the foreign trade of Zanzibar are kept by the gov. ernment, Consul Bachelder is only able to give the returns of the direct trade between the island and the United States as taken from the books of his office.
The following statement shows the direct trade with the United States during the year 1881 :
Imports from the United States.
We can only arrive at an approximation of the total trade of Zanzi. bar from a comparative analysis of its navigation and of the share of the United States and of other countries and possessions therein.
The total entrances and clearances of vessels at and from Zanzibar during the year under review were as follows: Steamers, 109, of 129,560 tons; sailing vessels, 60, of 32,507 tons; total, 169 vessels, of 162,067 tons.
Of the sailing vessels, 6 entrances, of 4,788 tons, and 8 clearances, of 5,115 tons, were American ; 12 entrances, of 644 tons, and 11 clearances, of 6,094 tons, were English ; 9 entrances, of 2,502 tons, and 9 clearances, of 3,581 tons, were German. The remainder of sailing vessels carried the Arabian flag.
Of the steamships, 35 entrances, of 45,639 tons, and 37 clearances, of 48,665 tons, were British ; 3 entrances, of 3,300 tons, and 2 clearances, of 2,150 tons, were French; 16 entrances and 16 clearances were under thé Arabian flag. The American flag had no representation in this steam fleet.
Of the American vessels, 3, of 2,211 tons, entered from, and 2, of 1,927 tons, cleared for the United States; the remainder entering from and clearing for India and Madagascar.
Of the British vessels, 1 steamship, of 1,540 tons, and 4 sailing vessels, of 3,900 tons, entered from, and 3 sailing vessels, of 800 tons, cleared for England.
One French steamer, of 1,000 tons, entered from and cleared for France. One steamer under the Arabian flag entered from England.
The total direct tonnage between Zanzibar and the principal countries was as follows: With England, 7,320 tons; with the United States, 4,138 tons; with Germany, 3,392 tons; with France, 2,000 tons; the remaining tonnage was with Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, Cape Town, &c.
Consul Batchelder says that England leads the world in trade with Zanzibar, owing to her steam facilities. British cottons sell largely, as well as manufactured iron, nails, wire, powder, canned goods, &c.
A reference to British statistics fails to confirm this statement as far as direct trade with the island is concerned, although the large tonnage trade between the island and the British possessions of Cape Colony, India, and Mauritius substantiates, doubtless, Consul Batchelder's estimate of the predominance of English trade in Zanzibar.
British official reports make no specific mention of imports and exports from and to Zanzibar, the trade therewith being included in the general trade with the East Coast Native States.
The total trade of England with the “ East Coast," — which embraces the Portuguese possessions, Zanguebar, and Ajan-from Natal to Cape Guardafui, on the main land, and the island of Zanzibar, was as follows during the year 1880: Exports to the Native States ..... Exports to the Portuguese possessions .........
.............................. $606, 000
Total to the East Coast.......
.... 1,180,000 Imports from the Native States ................................. $942, 000 Imports from the Portuguese possessions..............
...... 106, 000
Total British trade with the East Coast ........
.... 2, 228,000 Consul Hathorne, who represented the United States at Zanzibar at the time, prepared a statement, from sources outside the government, showing the imports into Zanzibar during the years 1876, 1877, 1878, and 1879. Although it is probable that the estimates given in Mr. Hathorne's statement are somewhat in excess of the present imports of the island, a republication thereof will, in the absence of any later statistics, enable our merchants to appreciate the volume and variety of the trade. It must be borne in mind that Zanzibar is not only important in itself as a consuming market, but as a basis from which to supply the wants of the Native States and Portuguese settlements on the main coast.
Imports at Zanzibar.
7, 750 12, 100
3,650 73, 550
2,700 68, 230
$285, 100 Germany, England, United
States. 204, 950 Germany, Switzerland.
United States, England. 37, 650 Germany, England. 12, 200 United States, France. 212, 300 Germany, England, France.
Cigars and tobacco....
$1,850 $9, 200 $6,700 $10, 150 $27, 900 Germany, United States. 40, 100! 120, 500, 125, 000! 130.000 / 415. 600 England
4. 050 6.350 8, 200 18.600 United States. 27, 550 971, 400 1,001, 300 983, 000 2,083, 250 | Germany, England, United
States, India. 22, 050 555, 300 672, 100 500, 050 1, 749,500 France, Germany, England. 1,050
9801 2,030 Germany, India. 1,750 2, 050 4, 650 France, England. 9, 450 9. 200 15, 000 33, 650 Arabia. 350 10, 750 12, 100 11, 800 39,000 United States, Austria. 950 19, 050 16, 700 21, 000 57, 700 Germany, Switzerland.
3, 150 2, 350 2, 800 8, 300 India, Persian Gulf. 7, 450 39, 300 34,750 30,000 111, 500
Do. 2, 950 16, 450 21,950 20,000
British India. 5,750 199, 150 175, 100 236, 000 616,000 Persian Gulf, India, Mada.
gascar. 8.750 33, 100 41, 200
England, Germany. 31, 200 161, 550 191, 300 187,000 571, 050 Germany, France, England, 3, 300 53, 250 61, 550
168, 100 Germany, England. 66, 500 77, 550
223, 600 United States. 250 1,750 4, 250
Do. 3,150 6, 250
14, 400 United States, England. 6,250 7,850 6,000 20, 550 France, England. 300 12, 300 11,050 12, 500 36, 150 Germany, England.
101, 800 97, 250 95, 000 294, 050 United States, Europe, India. 11, 500
9,000 28,750 Turkey, Persian Gulf. 4, 900 9.000 15, 000 29, 250 | India, Persian Gulf. 950 2,100 1,400
6,200 France. 1, 250 63, 250 60, 500 62,000 187, 000 Germany, England, India. 900 7, 300 11, 250 7,500 26, 950 Germany, England.
750 900 3,700 United States. 1,700
1,950 5, 800 United States, England, Ger
many. 3, 150
12, 800 50,000 79, 550 5,700
8, 250 British India. 11, 050 Germany En
Germany, England. 33, 200 France, Germany.
18, 150 | India, Malta, Cape Town, 330.000 England, France, Germany. 29, 200 British India.
7, 350 England, France, 16, 200 England, India,
Total for three years: from British India and Mada. gascar.
Of the cotton goods specified in the foregoing table, viz, $983,000, nearly one-half were American, while of the calicoes and prints it does not appear that any were Americau. Of the total imports into the island during 1879, $650,000 were American products and manufactures imported direct; how much more were introduced through the courtesy of England, France, and Germany, it is impossible to estimate. Consul Batchelder says that many goods of American manufacture are received in the island by way of England, purchasers being unable to obtain them direct.
Much of our present so-called direct trade with Zanzibar—that is, ordered from and by the United States—is by way of England. For instance, during the year 1880 the “ direct” trade with the United States was effected as follows: Imports from the United States in American sailing vessels, $333,000; in English steamers, via England, $40,000. Exports to the United States : In American sailing vessels, $199,000; in British steamers, $753,000.
The logic of this trade is plain. British steamers make no effort to compete for the outgoing trade, preferring to carry British rather than American manufactures to Zanzibar. For the return trade, however, these same steamers take freight for the United States at rates which render it impossible for American sailing vessels to accept, and so these have to leave Zanzibar in ballast to find employment elsewhere. By these means British steamers have freight both ways, while the Ameri. can sailing vessels have ouly outgoing freight. This, of course, detracts much of the profits from our export trade with Zanzibar, and places us at great disadvantages as compared with England and France, with their direct steam communication.
The total imports of Zanzibar may be estimated at about $3,000,000, and the exports at $2,500,000, of which latter the United States received in 1881 $1,123,000, nearly twice the value of our purchases therefrom in 1879. A reference to the statement by articles, showing the exports to the United States, heretofore given, will enable our importers to note the nature of the general exports of the island.
COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.
Owing to the fact that no government statistics are kept concerning imports and exports, the collection of customs being farmed out, it is impossible to give more than an approximation of the value of the foreign commerce of Madagascar.
The trade of the principal countries with Madagascar during the year 1880 was as follows: Imports from the United States.
$500, 400 Imports from Great Britain .....
248, 000 Imports from France (French possessions)..
675, 000 Imports from Mauritius ....
200,000 Imports from Réunion...
30,000 Total principal countries .......
.. 1, 653, 400 Exports to the United States ..........
241,000 Exports to Great Britain ....
36,000 Exports to France (from French possessions).
675, 000 Exports to Mauritius ....
337,000 Exports to Réunion ...........
17,500 Total principal countries .......
1, 306,500 The total of the French trade given above is credited in the French official publications to the French settlements of Mayotte, Nossi-Be, and Sainte Marie de Madagascar. It would therefore seem that there is very little, if any, direct trade between France and Madagascar proper.
Judging by the navigation returns, the trade between Germany and Madagascar must be greater than that between England and Madagas. car. The navigation between the United States and Madagascar, how. ever, shows much more tonnage than that between all Europe and Mada. gascar; it follows, therefore, omitting the French possessions, that the United States, to a large extent, controls its foreign trade.
How have we succeeded in securing so large a share in the trade of Madagascar? By the application of similar means to the acquisition of a share in the trade of the entire Southern Division of Africa, from Cape Verde down the West Coast to British South Africa, and thence to Cape Guardafui, embracing the East Coast and adjacent islands, a trade in nearly all respects of the same characteristics, would not similar results ensue?
Notwithstanding the comparatively satisfactory condition of our trade in Madagascar, it is composed almost wholly of brown sheetings and shirtings, and the success thereof is entirely due to the energy of three firms, who supply the wants of the island in this regard, and to the flattering fact that, owing to the superior quality of American cotton manufactures, the natives will have no others. The only other goods imported from the United States are kerosene, flour, shooks, chairs, a few sewing machines, and some provisions.
Consul Robinson, of Tamatave, has repeatedly reported upon the feasi. bility of enlarging our trade in Madagascar by the introduction of a variety of manufactures and products now supplied by other countries, and as the success of special efforts for the enlargement of our trade here would be a fair criterion by which to measure our ability to increase our trade along the coast of the whole Southern Division above recounted, the views of our consul upon the best means of attaining so desirable a consummation are submitted at length.
Commenting upon the meagerness of British trade in Madagascar, the British consul at Tamatave wrote as follows in October, 1879:
Another cause for depression in British trade has been the large importation of American gray cotton sheetings to Tamatave. The likelihood of this competition was predicted by me as far back as 1870, when the attention of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce was called, at my instance, to the preference generally given by the natives to this description of cotton fabrics, and the consequent necessity for British manufacturers to be up and stirring” if they desired to compete with American producers. Bot Manchester manufacturers did nothing in the matter, and their goods have therefore now been so completely supplanted that British firms who formerly imported largely Manchester gray cottons now deal almost exclusively in American cloths: indeed, one British merchant at Tamatave has become agent to a Boston firm, and receives their cotton goods on consignment.
Although it appears very doubtful whether the prices lately obtained leave any profit to the importers of American sheetings, still considerable gains are said to be realized on the return cargoes of hides and rubber taken in by American vessels at Tamatave, and of dates shipped by them at Moscat, which latter produce is chiefly purchased with the specie derived from the sale of American cotton goods in Madagascar.
HOW TO INCREASE AMERICAN TRADE IN MADAGASCAR.
[Extracto from reports by Consul Robinson.] I have suggested beretofore the establishment at this port of an American wholesale and retail house in American general merchandise-no institution of that kind has ever been known here-and that such house should also be in condition to do a commission business in American specialties and povelties. I will now add that such house should be prepared to do a coasting trade with one or more small vessels; a emall steamer of not more than 100 or 150 tons burden, arranged for burning either wood or coal, would be better than several sailing coasters. Even a steamer much smaller would do a good business. Such a house should either do this itself or conneet itself with other parties in such coasting trade. I will remark here, parenthetieally, that the American brown cottons which have heretofore nearly all gone to the capital market (Antananarivo, 150 miles in the interior) have, during the last year, found a larger market on the coast, both north and south, than ever before, and that growing demard has tended toward making up the loss of the usual demand for the capital market, caused by the political matters above referred to. As to these cottons and kerosene, they bad their struggle for introduction into this market long since, and that fight is over; they need aid neither from consul nor government at present.
American brown cotton is king here, and even the foreign merchants, including the English, bow in allegiance. But how long is the reigu going to last? How long be