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ports, $193,517,000; exports, $179,614,000; a total of $373,131,000, or a som not much more than one-third the general commerce of the King. dom of Belgium.

The share of Great Britain, France, and the United States in African commerce is as follows:

Imports into Africa.—Great Britain, $73,364,000; France, $64,724,000; the United States $6,041,000.

Esports from Africa.—Great Britain, $82,839,000; France, $48,060,000; the United States, $4,023,000.

The British and French colonies in Africa give to British and French trade on that continent a primary and positive advantage over American traders, which can neither be overlooked nor ever totally orercome by any amount of energy or commercial ability. These colonies are but so many British and French entrepôts for the reception, consumption, and distribution of the manufactures of the mother country." Of the total British imports consumed in Africa ($73,364,000), about $45,700,000 are consumed in the British colonies; while of the total exports from Africa to Great Britain ($82,839,000), the British colonies supply only to the amount of $27,342,000. Thus the colonies consume nearly two-thirds of all the British merchandise imported into Africa, and supply only about one-third of the African exports sent to Great Britain.

Of the total imports into Africa from France ($64,724,000), the French colonies consume to the value of $57,052,000; while of the total exports from Africa to France ($48,060,000), the French colonies supply $31,294,000.

The commercial homogeneity of the African colonies and the “mother countries” is remarkable. The imports and exports of British Africa amount to $63,722,000 and $45,266,000 respectively; and yet during the year 1880 France exported thereto goods to the value of only $1,907,000, and imported nothing therefrom. The imports and exports of the French-African colonies amount to about $74,207,000 and $51,017,000, respectively; yet Great Britain, whose trade otherwise is so cosmopolitan, exported thereto in 1880 goods to the value of only $1,185,000, and imported therefrom goods to the value of only $3,633,000.

The exports from the United States to British Africa during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1881, amounted to $2,471,000, while our exports to French Africa amounted to only $326,000. Our imports from British Africa during the fiscal year 1881 amounted to $1,696,000, and from French Africa to only $461,000. It thus appears that, owing to language and general business habits and systems, American trade in Africa finds its best markets in the English colonies, more than onehalf our total trade with the continent being therewith.

Outside of their colonies the principal advantages possessed by British and French traders in Africa are their magnificent steamship lines and their long-established resident agencies or branch houses.

The genius of our Constitution, as well as the spirit of our people, being averse to the founding of foreign colonies, we therefore cannot hope to attain in this regard commercial equality with England and France in those portions of the world in which they have established colonial governments; but with the colonies established by these two nations trade is as open to Americans as to the subjects and citizens of Great Britain and France, and as equally protected in its pursuit. In those parts of the world where no European colonies are established Americans are as free to go and come, to buy and to sell as the traders of other countries. The tendency of trade in foreign colonies will always be to

ward the mother country, and therefore the United States cannot hope to control it; still there is no reason why we should not obtain a fair share thereof, as no political or other restraints are put upon it ; and, as far as the establishment of trade with those parts of Africa not colonized by Europeans is concerned, the opportunities of the United States are as good as those of other countries. With those portions of Africa especially the outlook is favorable, and the full development of trade requires only those helps to commerce which we can supply should it be deemed advisable to do so.

The fact that the American flag carries with it in Africa no reminis. cence of conquest or war is recognized by the rude tribes as well as by the more civilized people, and favorably affects the commercial relations of the United States with them.

Of the total exports from Great Britain to Africa, foreign produce and manufactures amounted to $5,450,000. As American products comprise more than one-fourth the total imports into Great Britain, it is fair to assume that one-fourth the exports of foreign merchandise therefrom is American. Great Britain, therefore, exported American produce and manufactures to Africa during the year 1880 to the value of at least $1,362,000, an amount equal to one-fourth our direct exports to that continent.

The exports of foreign goods from France to Africa during the year 1880, amounted to $13,000,000. The imports from the United States constitute nearly one-seventh of the total imports into France, but it is doubtful whether American products hold the same relative position in the total foreign exports as they do in the British foreign exports. While American products comprise nearly one-sevent of the total imports into France, it should certainly be safe to assume that at least one-thirteenth of its foreign-goods export is of American origin. This would give the amount of American products shipped to Africa through France during the year 1880, $1,000,001). It is almost certain than an equal quantity of our products reaches Africa through Germany, and that an equal quantity reaches that continent via all other countries.

This would give a total consumption of American produce and manufactures in Africa during the year 1880 of $9,478,000.

It may be assumed that the consumption of African products in the United States, received direct and indirect, amounts to $10,000,000.

While our trade herein given with Africa is comparatively meager, it is larger than could be reasonably expected, considering its indirection.

The only efforts systematically made for the enlargement of our trade in Africa have been made recently by our consuls in Sierra Leone, Cape Town, and a few other points, and particularly in Madagascar and Zan. zibar. The results of these efforts give positive assurance that if simi. lar action were taken on the entire continent, if American agents were sent there to reside, and to introduce manufactures and purchase native products in return, and if these efforts were aided by direct steam communication, we could fairly divide the commerce of Africa with Great Britain and France.

That our importers and exporters may fully understand the nature of the merchandise which comprises the foreign commerce of Africa, the following detailed statements showing the principal articles imported from and exported to the whole continent, into and from Great Britain, France, and the United States, are given:

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The foregoing tables show the direct trade of England, France, and the United States with Africa, by countries and possessions. The following tables show in detail the products and manufactures of which the foregoing trade is composed :

Imports into Great Britain from Africa.

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Caoutchouc...............
Coffee

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Cochineal
Copper ore.........
Cotton......
Drugs ......
Dye woods and stuffs..
Feathers, ornamental..
Guano.................
Gums of all sorts ....
Hides, undressed ....
Oil, principally palm .......
Nuts, for expressing oil therefrom....
Rags and other paper material..
Skins, goat and sheep ......
Seeds:

Cotton....

All other
Spices......
Sugar, raw..
Teeth, elephant's, sea-cow's, sea-horse, &c......

8, 480,000

232, 000 1, 497,000

431, 000

8, 480,000

232, 000 2,537,000 1, 391, 000

1,040,000

960,000

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BRITISH PRODUCE AND MANUFACTCRES.
Apparel and haberdashery..
Arms, ammunition, gunpowder, &e........
Bags and sacks.....
Beer and ale....
Chemical products and preparations ...
Candles ..........
Clocks, watches, and movements.......
Coal, cinders, and fuel...
Cotton manufactures.
Glass manufactures .....
Drugs and medicines....
Furniture .........
Hardware and cutlery .....
Hats, of all sorts........
Leather, and manufactures of....
Linen manufactures...
Machinery, steam-engines, &c..........
Metals:

Iron, and manufacturers of...
Copper, and manufactures of ...
Paper, of all sorts....
Silk manufactures....
Soaps .............
Stationery, outside of paper ....
Telegraph wire and apparatus......
Woolen manufactures.
Earthen and china ware...
Staves and empty casky.....
Refined sugar ............
Wood manufactures...
All other articles ........

754, 000 7,344, 000 h 270,000

130, 000 610.000 1, 332, 000

385, 000 2, 959, 000

206, 000 1,788, 000 4, 024, 000

85, 000 255, 000 200,000 350,000 210,000

$7, 240,000

768,000 427,000 950,000

27,000 145, 000

7,000 2, 520.000 19,038,000

270,000 180,000 610,000 1, 575, 000

385, 000 3, 007, 000

318, 000 2,798, 000

48,000 112, 000 1,010, 000

784, 000 471, 000 31, 000 31,000

14,000 23, 000 245, 000 13,000

4, 808, 000

556, 000 286, 000 231, 000 350,000 224, 000

23, 000 2, 395, 000

366, 000 400,000 112, 000

400,000 12, 584, 000

2, 150,000

353, 000 400,000

38, 000 400,000 10,715, 000

74, 000

1, 869, 000!

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Total of British goods...........

- FOREIGN GOODS. Arms and ammunition...... Beads.. Beef, salted .... Butter ...... Cotton manufactures.. Iron and steel, and manufactures of .. Pork, salted..... Rice......... Spices.... Spirits :

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All other... Sugar, refined.... Tobacco:

Upmanufactured..

Manufactured ...
Wine
Candles ...
Cheese ...
Fish, cured ..............
Wood, hewn, sawn, staves, &c...
Confectionery ...
All other ...

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Total foreign goods.......
Total exports, British and foreign ...

816,000 1,123, 000 20,038, 000

5,754, 000 68, 754, 000

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