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zuela-during the same year were as follows: From England. $3,081,000: from France, $2,412,000; from the United States, $2,825,000. Here is a difference in increase in British imports of $911,000, wbile the French returns show that exports to Venezuela were greater by $124,000 than the Venezuelan customs gave credit for, and the exports from the United States were greater by $418,000 than the amount given by the Venezuelan authorities. • To arrive at an approximation of the present trade of Venezuela, a comparative statement, showing the value of the trade of England, France, and the United States therewith in 1877 and 1880 and 1881, is herewith given:
Export: to l'enezuela.
Applying the decrease in imports and the increase in exports to and from the foregoing countries with Venezuela since 1877 to the total trade, the present volume thereof may be estimated as follows: Imports into Venezuela, $12,000,000; exports therefrom, $16,500,000.
The following statements show the character of the goods which enter into Venezuelan trade.
Of the total imports into the United States from Venezuela, during the fiscal year 1881, viz, $6,602,000, coffee amounted to $5,160,000. The free goods amounted to $6,503,000, leaving only $100,000 on which duties were collected. Outside of coffee, barks, hides, skins, cacao, and balsam copaiba constituted the principal articles imported.
The following statement shows the value of the principal manufactures exported from the principal countries to Venezuela :
Omitting our competition in the trade in woolen and linen goods, in which lines we can scarcely be called exporters, we fall behind only in cotton manufactures. The exports of British cottons to Venezuela amount to nearly three-fourths of the total sales of British goods thereto, while our sales of similar goods thereto do not amount to onetwentieth of our trade therewith.
Outside of a few specialties, in which we should partake to a much larger extent than we do, our trade with Venezuela is comparatively favorable, the exports from England and France falling off, year after year, until, as shown above, we lead them very considerably. In the matter of imports from Venezuela we also lead any other country.
With all this favorable showing, our trade with the republic should be much more than it is. Our exports should be double their present volume, and our imports therefrom can be very largely increased. Thus our shipping carrying our products thither can always rely on return cargoes, which is an important point in international trade.
The means to be employed to increase our trade in Venezuela will apply to all South America, viz, accommodating the tastes and wants of the consumers, selling our manufactures on terms as favorable as those given by European dealers, and keeping up a steady but no undue pressure of our products on the market-reaching the same through American or first-class Venezuelan houses.
The British consul at Caracas, in a report to his government written a few years back, wrote as follows concerning American cottons, which shows that even then their quality was fully appreciated; and although a comparatively large increase in the consumption thereof has taken place, it is to be feared that our manufacturers have not pushed the trade as vigorously as the opening in the market justified :
Although the imports into Venezuela from England exceed those from any other country to an amount much more considerable than that set down under the head of England (this has changed since], since a large portion of the goods set down to Germany consist of English goods shipped from Hamburg, it is a subject for conjecture whether the efforts of United States manufacturers, demonstrated by the arrival of several energetic agents and a profuse circulation of samples, may not, at no very distant period, diininish in Venezuela, as perhaps elsewhere, the pre-eminence hitherto enjoyed by English manufacturers—even in regard to cotton fabrics and other articles hitherto almost universally supplied from England. Indeed, as I am informed by competent persons, a large demand has already been created for brown and white cotton shirtings, T-cloths, madapolams, brown and colored cotton drills, &c., of United States manufacture. Brown and white shirtings of that manufacture are very generally esteemed superior to those of English manufacture, since, according to very general supposition, no admixture of superior with inferior qualities of the raw material, such as is carried on in England, need be carried on in the United States, where inferior qualities are rarely produced. Printed goods of United States manufacture, as I am informed, are still considered in Venezuela generally to be inferior to those of English in point of style and of the tasto displayed in regard to patterns and colors; but the assimilation to a French standard in this respect, reported here to be assiduously aimed at in the United States, may speedily cause a revulsion of ideas.
Consul Dalton, of Ciudad, Bolivia, in his report upon our trade with that district, writes as follows:
In regard to the total amount of imports from the United States, it is almost impossible to obtain the correct figures, although New York is the only port from which the introductions are made, but it can be safely asserted that the value of imports do not fall short of $500,000 per annum. They chiefly consist in mining machinery and supplies, breadstuffs, and general American provisions. About double that amount is annually imported from Europe, through the British island of Trinidad, in all kinds of dry goods and other articles of English, French, German, Spanish, and Italian manufacture. This trade is steadily on the increase, owing to the regular steam communication carried on between this port and that island with American-built boats, by which the line was established in 1869, and which still continue to ply for account of an American company. The imports from the United States over Trinidad are not of much consideration, and may be safely estimated at $50,000 for the last year.
Consul Plumacher, of Maracaibo, gives the following synopsis of the import trade of his district:
The imports consist mainly of dry goods, mostly imported from Europe. If American manufacturers would adapt their “modus operandi" to that of the European merchants in trading with this country, there is no doubt that the dry-goods trade would soon be under our control. We further import sugar, rice, and many articles for household use, but chiefly from England. Petroleum and flour are imported from the United States, but the latter is generally of the most inferior quality. Most of the cutlery goods are imported from England and Germany. Furniture and canned goods from the United States have of late made their appearance, and a great trade could be opened if prime qualities were brought in the market.
France imports most of the wines and brandies; Spain also sends a large quantity of Malaga wine to this port, which chiefly goes to the interior. The import duties on wines having been greatly reduced, good profits might be realized with the wines and brandies of California if our merchants at home would pay some attention to this trade. During the last month coal for the use of the steamers has been imported from the United States in small quantities, but has given fair returns.
In regard to the primary question of direct steam communication with Venezuela, the following interesting extract from a report by the British vice-consul at Maracaibo shows that we are altogether indebted to the British flag for our carrying trade with that port:
During the last twelve months the Atlas Steamship Company, Limited, of Liverpool, have been running regularly two steamers between this port and New York, and the carrying trade from here to the United States is almost entirely monopolized by British vessels, the American flag being seldom seen in these waters.
"pecification of cargo shipped in the year 18H0 from Maracaibo to New York by steamers of the Milas Steam
las Steamship Company (limited), of Liverpool, England.
3, 408 3,390
: 4, 021
24. 8, 686
17 | 1, 681
5, 805 793 21, 243 62 10, 588 20 1,977 31 3,775
395 10,953 9 1,377
... 1 1,568 Houssa..! July 3! 6, 163 800, 453
516 11.776 10' 2, 455 1 25 1,374 13 2,278 Arran..., Joly 5, 558 708, 476 ;
1, 526' 41, 889 193, 100 13, 100 l
15 2, 422
9 1, 352
162 16, 146 | 143 ... Equal to bags of coffee.. 79, 314 |
2, 304 ......... 3,549
108 109 10, 265 .....