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better to be God's enemy chan his friend. In short, he proved to be in the day of trial what he confesses himself-" I was even as a beast before thee.” Alas! who knows what is in his heart till it is tried ?
• But, further, we have seen persons that have passed through strong temptations, and peradventure they have been overcome: persons who maintained a fair character for a considerable time, but they have been brought into perilous circumstances, and they have fallen. "Ah! třere is many a secret wickedness in the human heart, which only waits for circumstances to draw it forth. Well, we have seen this. Some long-standing, highly respected Christians have fallen sadly, and brought dishonour upon the name of Christ. We have censured them, and they have deserved it; but if the Lord should lead us into the same temptation, bring us into similar circumstances, place us upon the spot on which they stood, take off the restraint upon ihe evils of our minds, who knows what characters we may prove? We are kept out of more evils by God's keeping us out of temptation, 'than by any other means. Providence keeps us from more open
vile. ness, perhaps, than grace (does.) Again, we have often, I dare say, seen persons of our acquaintance, who have been unkindly and injuriously treated; we have marked their tempers; perhaps seen them unforgiving and resentful. We have seen the evil, have noticed what was the commandment in their case, perhaps have been able to give a word of counsel," Do not be unforgiving ; do not be revengeful." Well, all this is well ; but perhaps God may lead us about that way; we may be treated unkindly, cruelly; then he will prove what is in our hearts ; then is the time to prove whether we can obey the commandment of which we reminded others.
• Finally, perhaps, we have been ready to say, “O, if I had more time! if my family was grown up; if my business was less fatiguing, or if my circumstances were more easy ; if I could get into such a one's situation, then I should read more; I should pray more; I should be more spiritually minded; I should be better than I am.” In other words, we lay almost all our faults upon our circumstances, and not upon ourselves. Now, it may be the Lord leads us into those very circumstances in which we thought how much better we should be, in order to prove to us that the fault lies, not in our situation, but in our heart. Thus God sometimes leads us through a whole round of situations and circumstances, that it might be manifested whether we will keep his commandments or no. Every situation has its commandment and its trial, and we shall one day recollect with gratitude, that this is the way which the Lord our God has led us.'
Art. VIII, An Introduction to Moder: History, from the Birth of
Christ to the present Time. By W. Jillard Hort. 2 vols. 24mo.
Price 10s. 6d. London. 1819. AS
S we are not inclined to make these volumes a text for a
general dissertation on History, we can have little inore to say of them, than that they are fairly executed, and sufficiently adapted to the purpose of giving a rapid view of the principal Vol. XVI. N.S.
events of the story of the world from the birth of our Saviour. We are not, indeed, quite sure that we fall in with the system of summaries and outlines. We have a strong suspicion that the mind, even at an early age, is more likely to be attracted by details than by abstracts, and that the combined pliability and tenaciousness of the memory will then lend a more retentive, as well as a more eager attention to a multiplicity of interesting facts, than to a barren classification of events. We are at the same time fully aware of the difference between private and public education, and of the impossibility, in the latter, of acting on any other than general and systematic plans : the framework alone can be laid down ; it must be left to maturer years for its completion. In this view, we think this work well suited to its object, and, as far as we are able to judge without a minute collation of dates and authorities, sufficiently accurate. We have, indeed, noticed two or three statements in which a more careful balance of evidence would have suggested a somewhat less decided turn of phrase; as when Las Casas is affirmed to have proposed the alleviation of South American servitude by the adoption of the negro slave trade. This charge should not have been so peremptorily stated, since it rests on the doubtful authority of Herrera, and has been successfully repelled by the Abbé Gregoire. Again, it is asserted without qualification, that Agricola was put to death' by Domitian; but this expression conveys the idea of an avowed execution, whereas the imputation is only matter of strong suspicion, and, at the utmost, extends only to the secret administration of poison. • Augebat miserationem,' says Tacitus, constans rumor, veneno interceptum. Nobis nihil comperti affirmare ausim.'
Art. IX. Sketch of a Plan for Settling in Upper Canada, a Por
tion of the Unemployed Labourers of England. By a Settler. Svo. pp. 26. Price 2s. London. 1821. In addition to the books noticed in a former Number containing
information respecting Canada, Mr. C. F. Grece's “ Facts or and Observations" will convey to the Emigrant much serviceable detail. According to the concurrent testimony of various respectable witnesses, the inducements presented by Upper Canada, at least to an Englishman, would seen to entitle it to his preference. It contains many millions of acres of fertile unoccupied land, with a climate suited to all agricultural
pursuits. It possesses the same laws, the same manners, and, • above all, the same constitution as England.
The present Sketch holds out to parishes the opportunity of permanently relieving themselves of their redundant population by a temporary advance of capital, bearing interest, that shall place in independence those who are now subsisting on parochial
relief. The Writer calculates that the sum of £200 advanced to each family, will enable them to acquire prosperous settlements in two years, and within ten years to repay the advances. On the accuracy of his calculations and the impartiality of his representations, persons interested in the subject will, of course, not implicitly depend; but they bear the marks of fairness. The phrases, . under favourable circumstances, ' with common industry,' &c. will suggest the necessity of some slight deduction as an insurance against unfavourable circumstances. It will be requisite also, that agricultural settlers in our distant colonies, should be secured against the possibility of not finding a market for their produce. The calculations which take this trifling circumstance for granted, must depend for their correctness entirely on the regulations imposed by Go. vernment on the trade of our colonies. The existing statutes restrain the Canadians fron trying to obtain a market and making purchases in foreign countries; and the operation of thc Corn-laws has been, under certain circumstances, to restrict them from buying and selling at all. Hence, it is the matter of complaint at this moinent, that their surplus wheat is lying in their granaries without the possibility of obtaining any price, while the same article is selling at New York at a dollar per bushel. It will be in vain that our colonies present natural advantages to the Emigrant, if the impolitic restrictions on commerce, and the general vices of our colonial system, counteract those advantages so as to render a settlement in the United States a preferable measure.
It does honour to the present Writer, that his “ Sketch" includes the setting apart of a portion of the projected colony for an Indian reserve.
" It is felt that wrongs most unprovoked, and never yet nationally attempted to be repaired, have been perpetrated upon them. The kind exertions of the few have always been accompanied, and have been thwarted by the more extensive activity of wrong policies in governments, or hy brutal selfishness in individuals ; and so, till now, the rightful owners of a deserted soil have been crushed; the wellmeaning amongst us considering their case as hopeless, the crafty pretending it to be so.'
• The executive government of the United States appears to be taking steps towards an important revolution with respect to the Indians of North America ; and it may be found necessary by the British authorities, to reconsider the principles upon which our own intercourse with them has been hitherto conducted. The only way in which their cause can be connected with the present Sketch, is that a portion of the projected colony may be set apart for an Indian re
This may be thought right even if a title no longer exists in any tribe, as is probably true, to the lands now about to be settled ; it may prove good policy, and a wise benevolence, to hold out to wanderers a link of connection with humanized society. The suggestion
is made after some consideration ; and the necessary details of management, are neither many nor complicated. The policy of Eng. land has, with some exceptions, been to add her conquests to herself integrally, and no good reason can be given against many of the Indians in Canada becoming gradually integral portions and members of the British community. It is in form only that they can be said to be independent nations. This suggested reserve of a place of national hospitality, has reference to the forming of a connection between Indians in Upper Canada and ourselves, as fellow subjects of the same government. That something of this kind ought to be attempted, no man of right feelings will deny; and that the Indians themselves are thoroughly incapable of being worked upon by these principles of treatment, no man acquainted with their history, can venture to assert. It is the orator, and not the man, who says that under all circumstances uncivilized tribes will meet the nations of Europe with hostility, rejecting even friendship prior to any experience of our good or bad qualities. The fact is not so; it is true that bands of qunters will not suddenly become sowers of corn, and be confined to narrow districts, and to close mechanical occupations, but the numerous intermediate steps between highly cultivated society, and wild habits, have been taken by great numbers of American Indians most rapidly. In the small island of Nantucket, alone, in New England, there were in 1720, eight hundred Christian communicants of these people, in three congregations. Gospels and grammars were printed in their language, and domestic implements of all kinds were prepared in their then fixed villages, for sale to the European settlers. It is probable that an uniform adherence to just principles towards them, would have changed entirely the modes of life of these noble people. They who are in contact with us, know now thoroughly, and they feel acutely the evils of their present forlorn condition; but no hand protects them from the manifest and unsparing superiority of those whose immediate interests, their own worst indulgences promote.
• The submission of a lunatic to the fixed countenance of his keeper is not more decided than that of a home Indian to some of their connections amongst the whites. That the relation should exist in this character, 'needs only be stated to be abhorred. The presentiment they have of the extinction of their race, is very melancholy. It was but lately, that the chief of a small tribe near the Rice Lake, said to an European settler, “ You will soon drive us away, but when a solitary canoe sometimes passes by your dwelling, do not forget that the owner always received you at his with welcome.”
• If the principles on which William Penn acted had prevailed; or if Franklin's advice to “ treat the Indians with justice always, and sometimes with kindness," had been generally attended to, fewer European individuals might have enriched themselves in America, but the nations of Europe would have been less responsible than they now are for the permission of much crime.' pp. 21-25.
Art. X. Rouge et Noir. In six Cantos. Versailles and other Poems.
12mo. pp. 216. Price 75. London. 1821. THE poem which gives its title to this volume, is in whạt
it has become usual to call the Whistlecraft style ; a style imitated from the serio.comic romance-writers of Italy, and bearing all the marks of its exotic character. Mr. Frere and Lord Byron, themselves more foreigoers than Englishmen, have misemployed their splendid talents in the atteinpt to naturalize it in our language. They have succeeded in making it fashionable for the present, but it will share the fate of other imported fashions which have not nature and good sense as their basis. John Bull is naturally grave: he can indulge now and then in a broad-perhaps an obstreperous laugh, but his features soon resume their serious air ; and nothing is naturally more abhorrent to him than the eternal simper or the sardonic grin which is to be seen on the countenances of some of his neighbours. Mr. Bull has the reputation of loving a good joke, and of not being over-scrupulous on the score of delicacy in his amusements; the broader the farce the better Falstatt, Hudibras, and the heroes of Smollet to wit. But then, he has pot been accustomed to laugh at every thing. He has kind-hearted tears to shed for human suffering, and does not understand how broken vows, and broken hearts, and profligate principles, and eternal misery can be made a subject for drollery. The Parisian sang-froid-he cannot well pronounce the word, and thanks God he has no synonyme for it in bis native tongue. He does not like, and we trust never will like, to have his best feelings, bis most ennobling sentiments, his religious hopes made the fuel of flippant or malignant ridicule. And till he does, he will never relish the polished diabolism of Don Juan.
There is a combination of humour and pathus which is thoroughly English ; or, when we think of Goldsmith, who bas so perfectly exemplified it, we ought rather to say thoroughly Irish. The humour of Burns, however, is not less chaste and natural. Cowper is playful rather than comic. Pope's is the perfection of wit. Swift bas coarse but genuine humour. But in Fielding, Smollet, and Sterne, we have the most characteristic displays of true English humour, mixed up, however, with less innocent ingredients. The cold blooded facetiousness of the Author of Don Juan is in perfect contrast with all these Various styles, and though less coarse and broad, is, in fact, far more licentious than that of the most exceptionable of our comic
Colman and Peter Pindar are more profane in their language, but not in their spirit. Smollet and Swift have gone immeasurably greater lengths in pastiness; but the tendency of Lord Byron's anonymous poetry is to iuflici a still more deep and