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on the other hand, to have increased from thirty-two thousand two hundred, to nearly fifty-three thousand.*
We read, at the beginning of the following chapter, that the daughters of a descendant of Manasseh, named Zelophehad, understanding, that, according to arrangements just adopted, their father's family, for want of male representatives, was to be excluded from a share in the territory of its tribe, made a representation to Moses on the subject, who accordingly received a direction to the following effect, for the determination of all similar cases; viz. That, if a proprietor died without male children, his daughters were to inherit his land ; that, in default of direct heirs in the female line, it was to go to his brothers; if he left no brothers, then to his father's brothers; and, failing that relationship, then to his nearest collateral kinsman. In cases, where a parent left daughters and sons, it is to be presumed that the former, being incompetent to inherit land, would be provided for from personal property, which consisted in money, slaves, domestic animals, and garments, these last, in a state of society in which the fashions of dress did not change, appearing to have constituted one of the recognised forms of wealth.*
* Numb. xxvi. — Verse 4 is evidently defective; but the corruption is very ancient, being found in the Septuagint version, and the Samaritan copy, as well as the Hebrew. — “Notwithstanding [but] the children of Korah died not” (11). These words have been thought to intimate, that the children of Dathan and Abiram, who are mentioned in the preceding verse, did die. But I cannot think the argument sound. The words may have been originally a gloss upon the text, by some Levite of this race, (compare 1 Chron. vi. 33 – 37, and the inscriptions of twelve Psalms, e. g. Ps. xlii.,) who gratified his family pride by noting, that, though Korah fell, his line did not perish. But without resorting to this supposition, it would be not unnatural for Moses (particularly interested as he was in the Kohathite division of Levi, as belonging to its number) to remark, that the death of the head of one of its families did not cause the race to become extinct, without implying any distinction in this particular, between Korah and the other persons mentioned in the context. Further, it may well be questioned, whether, in a list of heads of families prepared for the purpose named above, the names of Dathan and Abiram would have been given, had they left no posterity to inherit land. — The tribes whose numbers are stated to have diminished, are those of Reuben, Simeon, Gad, Ephraim, and Naphtali. — “ Notwithstanding, the land shall be divided by lot" &c. (55); rather, “ Surely the land shall be allotted according to the names” &c. “ By lot”; that is, by allotment, by deliberate assignment here, not by any dictation of chance. For such a use of spa, see Judg. i. 3; Is. lvii. 6; Ps. xvi. 5; cxxv. 3; Dan. xii. 13. — The language in 64, 65 has the same force as that in xiv. 29, 30, 35; and if the remarks made on that passage (p. 347) have any weight, they are equally applicable here.
Forewarned, at this juncture, of his near approach to the close of his days, Moses receives a promise, that first, from a mountainous ridge near at hand, he shall enjoy a view of the region which he is not to be permitted to enter.f In compliance with his request, that, before his departure, a future leader for the people may be designated, he is directed to present Joshua, the partner hitherto of so many of his cares and toils, before the chief priest and the congregation, and address to him, in their presence, a charge respecting the due execution of his trust.f This public recognition of Joshua, during Moses' lifetime, doubtless served to prepare the way for his undisputed assumption of the high authority about to pass into his hands.
* Numb. xxvii. 1-11. Compare xxvi. 33. — There is no reason for understanding verse 3 to imply, that if Zelophehad had died as an accomplice of Korah, his descendants must have been disinherited. The fact, that he had not, is but named, to conciliate a favorable hearing. + xxvii. 12-14.
xxvii. 15 - 23.
NUMBERS XXVIII. 1.- XXXVI. 13.
DIRECTORY FOR OFFERINGS ON THE PERIODICAL CELEBRATIONS.
RULES RESPECTING THE OBLIGATION or Vows. OCCASION AND PROSECUTION OF THE WAR WITH THE MIDIANITES. — CONSIDERATION OF THE SEVERITIES EXERCISED THEREIN. - LAWS RESPECTING THE DIVISION OF BOOTY TAKEN IN WAR.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE REUBENITES, THE GADITES, AND HALF OF THE TRIBE OF ManassEH, IN
THE DISTRICT EAST OF THE JORDAX.— LIST OF THE MARCHES FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN. COMMAND TO EXPEL THE CANAANITES. DEFINITION OF THE BOUNDARIES OF PALESTINE. – APPOINTMENT OF PRINCES TO MAKE A PARTITION OF THE TERRITORY. — DIRECTION FOR LEVITICAL CITIES, AND CITIES OF Refuge. -- Institution of GoElism. — TREATMENT OF JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE. — RULE TO PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF LAND BY HEIRESSES TO ANOTHER TRIBE.
The twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth chapters of Numbers resemble the twenty-third of Leviticus; containing, like that passage, a directory for the observance of the national periodical celebrations, arranged in their chronological order; incorporating some particulars, in respect to the forms of offering, which had heretofore been exhibited in different connexions; and adding some others, these latter for the most part relating to a more costly and imposing ceremonial, such as the improved circumstances of the people would henceforward admit. The passage, taken in connexion with previous directions upon the same subject, presents one of the numerous striking instances of that progressive character of the Law, on which I formerly remarked.*
* See above, pp. 145, 166.
In respect to the perpetual Burnt Offering, at the Tabernacle, of a lamb in the morning, and another in the evening, of every day, with their proper appendages, nothing new is here prescribed ;* but notice is repeatedly given, that it is never to be superseded by other ceremonies, - that all others are to be additional to it.f The direction, that on every Sabbath day these offerings shall be tripled, is now for the first time given. I The celebrations of the first day of each month, had before been but incidentally mentioned. The ritual for them is now ordained, to consist of a Sin Offering of a goat, and a rich Burnt Offering of two young bullocks, one ram, and seven yearling lambs, with their appropriate accompanying offerings of flour, wine, and oil, as these were regulated by a standing law.l. A material addition is made to the ritual of the Passover and of the Pentecost; sacrifices, the same with those appropriate to the New Moons, being ordained to be offered on each day of the week of those great festivals, while before, no more had been commanded, than that there should be a Burnt Offering on every day of the Passover week, and that on one day of that of the Pentecost there should be presented a Burnt Offering of seven lambs, two rams, and one bullock, besides a kid for a Sin Offering, and two yearling lambs for a Peace Offering. I The same remark holds good of the Feast of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement; except that on these two occasions, there was to be but one bullock, in the sacrifice, instead of two. On the latter of these days, the appropriate ceremonies of the occasion, as before described, were also to be gone through; and, on the former, those of a New Moon.*
* Numb. xxviii. 3-8. Compare Ex. xxix. 38 – 42. † Numb. xxviii. 15, 23, 24, 31, &c.
| xxviii. 9, 10. § x. 10. See p. 337, note.
|| xv. 3-11. 1 xxviii. 16-31. Compare Lev. xxiii. 8, 18, 19.
But the most prominent new feature in this compend, is that of the ritual of the Feast of Tabernacles. That festival was designed for a commemoration of what had not been consummated at any earlier period in the history, than that to which the passage now before us relates. The sojourn in booths in the wilderness, had been hitherto matter of anticipation and experience. From this time forward, it was to be remembered as an interesting incident, belonging to the “day of small things” in the national history. We may imagine the enthusiasm, with which, just emerged from the wilderness, the people would receive a command to celebrate, with magnificent holiday observance, a course of travel, which at length had brought them where they saw conquest, and a secure national establishment within their grasp ; and, in the place where this record appears, it is altogether natural to trace the hand of one, who wrote at the point of time, when the proper occasion for the arrangement had arisen, and when the arrangement was accordingly made. Before, no more particular direction had been given respecting offerings during the Feast of Tabernacles, than that they should be presented upon each of its days. It is now ordained, that, for seven days successively, there shall be presented a Sin Offering of a goat, and a Burnt Offering of fourteen yearling lambs, two rams, and a number of bullocks, beginning with thirteen, and diminishing by one each day; and that the feast shall close by an offering, on the eighth day, the same as that of the Feast of Trumpets, or first day of the civil year.f
* Numb. xxix. 1-11. Compare Lev. xxiii. 24, 27; xvi.