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BY

STEPHEN HALEY ALLEN

FORMERLY A JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT OF KANSAS

Author of

The EVOLUTION OF GOVERNMENTS AND Laws

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS

PRINCETON, N. J.
Sales Agents for the Author

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INTRODUCTORY

The relations of nations and of people to each other are determined by the sum total of human progress and of the ideals which lead men to happier lives and more useful activities. In the march of civilization law-makers of necessity follow rather than lead. The great inventions which arouse the imagination are the pioneers. The mariner's compass pointed the way over the unknown seas and gave assurance that whatever course was taken might be retraced. To it and the spirit of adventure it aroused the world owes the conversion of the ocean from an impassable barrier, separating the continents into different worlds, to a great universal thoroughfare connecting every port of every land with every other port. Following the discovery of America and the settlement of Europeans along its coasts came colonial problems to the statesmen of Europe and the necessity of changing their theories of rulership by arbitrary force for a system affording the people of the colonies some measure of liberty in the regulation of their affairs. With no means of communication between the two continents but sailing vessels, there was such partial isolation as induced the growth of new customs, modes of life and ideas of social relations. In time these became so distinct and firmly established that the colonists would not submit to the ill-advised measures of the governments of the parent countries. The result was political separation and the organization in the western hemisphere of republican governments now numbering twenty-one.

Political separation has not been followed by isolation. Soon after it took place the relatively small and slow sailing vessels which had brought settlers by tens and by hundreds were supplemented by the great steamships transporting them swiftly and safely by thousands. With the aid of the steamengines in use during the nineteenth century for the first time in the history of the world, Europe and America were drawn closer and closer together, till the manufacturing and commer

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