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pounded, and the city taken and and Verona on the other, which the delivered up to the troops for pil. French were compelled io abandon, lage during three hours. A procla- was moving with the division under mation was then issued, ordering all his command towards Buonaparte, arms to be surrendered, on pain of while the other was advancing with death to those who retained them; all expedition to place the French and threatening to set fire to places between two fires. where Frenchmen should be mur. Conscious that his strength was dered. The reduction of Lugo took not equal to an encounter with the place on the sixth of July.

Austrian general's united divisions, Mantua was, in the mean time, Buonaparte came to the determinaclosely besieged, and hard pressed. tion to attack them singly before The garrison made several vigorous they could form a junction. This, sallies, but Buonaparte, who had by indeed, seemed the only expedient this time collected, from the many left to extricate him from his present strong towns he had taken, a nume- danger. It not, however, rous and formidable artillery, gave without the deepest concern, that no respite to the besieged, and cone he saw himself reduced to the nestantly repelled them. He erected cessity of abandoning the siege of batteries for the firing red hot balls, Mantua, now almost destitute of and several parts of the city were provisions, and on the point of surin flames : but the governor was re- rendering. solved to hold out to the last ex. He raised it on the thirtieth of tremity, and refused to listen to the July, and, in pursuit of his plan, summons to surrender.

marched with all expedition to Powerful reinforcements having Brescia, where he joined the divi. joined marshal Wurmsering since the sions of his army. They had gained check he had received in the moun- several advantages over the Austains of the Tyrol, he resolved to re- trians, particularly at Lonado, a pair this by raising the siege to Man- town which these had seized; but tua; by effecting which he would at from which they were expelled, after once undo all that had been done by being completely defeated in an enBuonaparle. Animated with this gagement, the last of July, wherein hope, he assailed the French at Salo, ihey lost great numbers. on the western side of the Lake of From Brescia, where the AustriGarda, and at Corona on the east. ans were again totally routed, on the He had the good fortune to dislodge first of August, they withdrew in disibem on the twenty-ninth of July, order towards the Tyrol, where they from both of these positions : those took refuge in the mountains. On at Salo Tejired to Peschiera, and the third, marshal Wurmser, who,apibose at Corona to the city of prised of the ill fortune that had at.

tended his other division, had adBuonaparte, who perceived the vanced with all speed to its assistance criticalness of his situation,assembled came up with Buonaparte, who, exall bis forces to oppose the Austrian pecting him, was prepared for battle. general, who, after seizing Brescia, The Austrians bad some advantage in consequence of the capture of at first, through the rash impetuosity Salo, on the one side of the lake, of an advanced corps of French, 4

which

Verona.

which was surrounded and taken; generous and difficult part of the but the centre, forming into a com- business still remained to be de. pact body, charged them with such cided. vigour, that they soon gave way,

He collected the whole of his and were broken on every side. A force, and made the most advandivision of them endeavoured to tageous arrangements to meet the

ake good its retreat to Salo: but enemy, whose attack he bourly exthat place was already occupied by pected. lle visited every post, in the leít wing of the French, and order to ascertain the numbers that this division, in attempting to gain could be spared to reinforce bis the mountains, towards the 'Tyrol, main body.' Repairing for this purfell mostly into the hands of the pose to Lonado, he found it occuFrench. General Augereau, who pied by no more than twelve buncommanded the right wing, assailed dred of his troops, while a division the left of the Austrians, posted at of the Austrians, consisting of four Castigliona. Here a furious fight thousand men, had encompassed it, was maintained the whole day be. and sent an officer to summon the tween both parties. The French at French to surrender. Buonaparte length prevailed, and the Austrians concluding, from certain circumsustained an entire defeat. Between stances, that this body of Austrians two and three thousand fell in the belonging to the defeated part of field, and about four thousand were their army, and was endeavouring to made prisoners, among whom were make good its retreat, with remarkthree generals. The French also lost able presence of mind, told the offia considerable number, and some cer, that he was mistaken in thinko officers of great note.

ing that he had met only with a deo On the fourth, a division of the tachment of the French army, the French attacked a large body of main body of which was there with Austrians, who were posted at Buonaparte himself, who now spoke Gavardo, towards the western side to him, and required him immediof the lake. The conflict was warm, stely to return to his general, and but the Austrians were again worsto require that he should surrender ined, with the loss of near two thou. stantly. The commander of the sand men.

Austrians, struck with astonishment, Notwithstanding the successes of requested a parley to settle conthe third and fourth, Buonaparte ditions. But Buonaparte, aware of was not yet assured of a fortunate the danger attending the least delay, termination of this obstinate dispute. insisted that they should directly surMarshal Wurmser had drawn toge- render themselves prisoners of war. ther all the troops that could be ral- On their still demanding time to conlied, to which he added a part of sider, Buonaparte gave orders for a the garrison of Mantua, now re- body of chosen grenadiers and 2rlieved from the siege, and every tillery to advance against them. This other corps witbin reach. When decided the matter, and they all assembled, they formed an army laid down their arms, without at• formidable enough to renew the tempting to make the least resistance. contest with Buonaparte, who was Escaped froin this imminent peril, fully convinced that most dan. in so extraordinary a manner, the

a

French

French general determined to lose amounted to seventy pieces of can. no lime in bringing the contest to a non, all the carriages belonging to final issue. Feigning to be desirous his army, more than twelve thouof avoiding an engagement with sand prisoners, and six thousand Wurmser, he ordered a retrogade slain. motion to be made by his

army, in

But the principal loss was that of order to induce bim the more rea- reputation. The troops thus beaten dily to advance. This order was were chiefly veterans. Those who executed on the morning of the fifth, came with Wurmser were deemed with such desterity, that while the the flower of the Austrian army, Austrian general, deceived by ap- that had so obstinately contended pearances, was approaching the with the best troops of France upon French army to attack it, the The Rhine. Wurmser himself was right wing of the French, under reputed an officer second to no one general Serranier, an officer of great in the Imperial service, nor indeed ability, turned the left of the Austri- in Europe, for valour, skill, and ans, and assailed its rear, while ano- experience, and was, in a manner, ther division attacked a redoubt in the last hope of Austria, for the its front. The left of the French, recovery of Italy. in like manner, moved with unex- All these were circunstances pected rapidity against the right of deeply mortifying to the court of the Austrians, and their centre was Vienna, and proportionably procharged at the same time with such ductive of triumph and exultation impetuosity and vigour, that, sur- to the French republicans, and their prised at movements so contrary to well-wishers. ibeir expectation, they were, in a The first intelligence of marshal manner, taken unawares. They Wurmser's marching against Buona. made, however, a resolute defence, parte, at the head of so selected an but fortune declared for the French. army, had revived the expectations The Austrians were thrown into of all the enemies to France, and confusion; and, Dotwithstanding not a little alarmed the directory the skilful dispositions of Wurmser, itself. But those who were able were not able to stand their ground. judges of the military talents of They retired with all expedition, Buonaparte, never felt a moment's after losing two thousand men, despondency, and it is but justice to and would certainly have lost many acknowledge that he fully answered more, had not the French, from the their utmost expectations. Throughexcessive fatigue of so many suc- out the whole course of this arduous cessive conflicis, been disabled from trial, his abilities astonished both a pursuit.

friends and foes. Surrounded by This victory was completely de- difficulties of every sort, he acted cisive of the contest between these with a clearness of penetration that two rival generals. The battle foresaw and obviated them all. He might be said to have lasted five removed impediments as fast as they days, as there was no intermission arose, and took his measures with so of fighting during that time. The much prudence and sagacity, that he losses of the Austrians precluded could not be charged with having all hopes of keeping the field. They committed one false step. His body

3

and bis mind appeared reciprocally occupied the strong line along the calculated for the support of each Mincio, and a fortified camp before other. Both were incessantly em. Peschiera. But the French attacked ployed, the one in planning, the them on the sixth, forced their camp other in personally forwarding every and lines, and compelled them to design that was conceived. Such withdraw to the other side of the were the indefatigable qualities with Mincio, with a great loss of men which nature had endowed him, that and cannon. They pursued them 'while his thoughts were uninter- to Verona, where the Austrians, ruptedly on the stretch, he allowed through the connivance of the Vehimself no kind of reposc; and, dur: netians, endeavoured to make a ing the last seven days and nights of stand: but they were driven from this dreadful contest, be was never this city, and Aed in disorder toknown to have laid himself down to wards the Tyrol. This action com.

pleted their route, and the garrison Notwithstanding this terrible de. of Mantua excepted, no Austrian feat, the Austrian general, though troops remained in Italy on the unable to keep ihe open field, still southern side of the Adige.

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CHAP. VIII:

Italian Mobs excited against the French.-Suppressed by a Terror of the

victorious French.-Marshal Wurmser, pursued by Buonaparte, retreats into the Tyrolese.The Siege of Mantua resumed.-Marshal Wurmser, powerfully reinforced, makes Head against the French in the Venetian Territories. But is defeated. The French take Possession of Trent. Continued Success of Buonaparte.-Marshal Wurmser, with the Remains of his Army, makes good his Retreat, and takes Shelter within the W’alls of Mantua.- Corsica, evacuated by the English, returns under the Government of France.-Pacification betwcen France and Naples--including the Batavian Republic.- ReligiousZeal of the Romans.-Awakened by the Court of Rome into Rage,and avowed Preparations for War against the French. A new Republic, composed of several small States --Prevalence of the Republican Spirit in Italy.- The Austrians reinforced with Troops from Germany, advance against the French.-Retake Trent.But are defeated with prodigious Loss at Arcola.The Austrians, though frequently defeated, return to the Charge.- High Spirit and Courage of the Tyrolians.- Devotion of the Army in Italy to the French Republic.— Patience of the French Soldiers under manifold Privations.

WHE

HILE the fate of the Im- lawful governments and to destroy

perial and the French ar- religion. mies semained in suspense, the pare The superstitious imbecility, for tisans of Austria, presuming that which the Italian commonalty is they would recover all their losses, noted, was easily worked upon by began to act in the most hostile man- instigations of this nature. Mobs Der to all who were friendly to rose in some places, and maltreated the French. False intelligence was the French and their adherents. every where circulated, and the re. But the more prudent opposed this publican army represented as van- rash behaviour, and the generality quished and flying before the Aus- of people did not participate in these trians. The intervention of heaven demonstrations of enmity. Num. was called in, and its aid held out bers, at the same time, who were as certain, in the expulsion of the decidedly in their favour, Kad the iniquitous invaders, as they were courage openly to espouse their styled, sent by France to destroy cause, even when the Austrians had

obtained

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