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of the ancient government of a our finances, we shall be better great country, and of all its laws, able to resist their hostile attempts, orders, and religion, by the cor- after the peace, than at the present ruption of mercenary armies, and hour. If we remain armed, we by the seduction of a multitude cannot reap the ordinary advantage bribed by confiscation to sedition, of peace in economy; if we disin defiance of the sense, and to the arm, we shall be subject to be entire destruction of almost the driven into a new war, under every whole proprietary body of the na

na- circumstance of disadvantage, untion. The fatal effects of this less we now prepare ourselves to example must be felt in every suffer with patience and submission country. New means, new arms, whatever insults, indignities, and new pretexts, are furnished to am- injuries, we may receive from that bition; and new persons are intoxi- insolent, doinineering, and unjust cated with that poison.

power. 81b. Because our eagerness in

9th. Because the inability of suing for peace may induce the per- humbling ourselves again to solicit sons exercising power in France peace, in a manner, which is a reerroneously to believe, that we act cognition of the French republic, from necessity, and are unable to contrary to all the principles of continue the war; a persuasion war, the danger of peace if obe which, in the event of an actual tained, the improbability of its peace, will operate as a templation duration, and the perseverance of to them to renew that conduct the enemy throughout the interval which brought on the present war, of peace in their mischievous sysneither shall we have any of the tem, is not conjecture, but cerusual securities in peace. In their tainty. It has been avowed by the treaties they do not acknowledge actual governors of France, at the the obligation of that law, which very moment when they had before for ages has been common to all them our application for a passport. Europe. They have not the same They chose that moment for pube sentiments nor the same ideas of lishing a stale paper, breathing the their interest in the conservation most hostile mind. In it they stimuof peace, which have bitherto in- late and goad us by language the most fluenced all regular governmenis; opprobrious and offensive. They they do not in the same manner feel frankly tell us, that it is not our public distress, or the private interest to desire peace, for that misery of their subjects ; they will they regard peace only as the opnot find the same difficulty on the portunity of preparing fresh means commencement of a war to for the annibilation of our naval call their whole force into sudden power. By making peace they do action, where, by the law, every not conceal that it will be their citizen is a soldier, and the person object—"to wrest from us our maand properties of all are liable at ritime preponderancy--to re-estaonce to arbitrary requisitions. On blish what they iovidiously call the other band, no attempt has the freedom of tbe seas; to give been made to shew in what manner, a new impulse to the Spanish, whether by alliances, by force, Dutch, and French marines; and military or naval, or by the im- to carry to the highest degree of provement and augmentation of

prosperity

new

prosperity the industry and come firmly abiding by them, I thus somerce of those nations,” which lemnly record them, in justificathey state to be our rivals, which tion of my own conduct, and in they charge us with “ unjustly discharge of the duty I owe to my attacking, when we can no longer king, my country, and general dupe," and which they throughout interests of civil society. contemplate as their own depen- WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM. dencies, united in arms, and furnishing resources for our future Message from his Majesty to the humiliation and destruction. They House of Lords 12th Dec. 1796. resort to that well known and con

George R. stant allusion of their's to ancient HIS majesty is concerned to ac. history, by which representing quaint the house of lords that his “ France as modern Rome, and endeavours to preserve peace with England as modern Carthage,” they Spain, and to adjust all matters in accuse us of national perfidy, and discussion with that court by an hold England up," as an object to be amicable negotiation, have been blotted out from the face of the rendered ineffectual by an abrupt earib.” They falsely assert that the and uoprovoked declaration of war English nation supports with impa. on the part of the Catholic king. tience the continuance of the war, His majesty, at the same time that and has extorted all bis Majesty's he sincerely laments this addition to overtures for peace" by complaints the calamities of war, already exand reproaches ;" and, above all, tended over so great a part of Eunot only in that passage, but rope, has the satisfaction to reflect throughout their official note, they that nothing has been omitted on shew the most marked adherence his part which could contribute to to that insidious and intolerable the maintenance of peace, policy of their system, by which grounds consistent with ihe honour they, from the commencement of of his crown, and the interest of the revolution, sought to trouble his dominions; and he trusts, that, and subvert all the governments in under the protection of divine Proa Europe. They studiously disjoin vidence, the firmness and wisdom the English nation from its so- of his parliament will enable bim vereign.

effectually to repel this unprovoked 10th. Because, having acted aggression, and to afford to all throughout the course of this aw- Europe an additional proof of the ful and momentous crisis upon spirit and resources of the Britisha the principles herein expressed, nation. and after having, on the present

G. R. occasion, not only fully reconsi. dered, and jealously examined their Message from his Majesty to the soundness and validity, but gravely House of Lords, 17th Dec. 1796. attended to, and scrupulously G. R. weighed the merits of all those HIS Majesty thinks proper to arguments which have been offered acquaint the bouse of peers,

that to induce a dereliction of them, be is at present engaged in concerto' conscientiously adhering to, and ing measures with his allies, in

order

on

order to be fully prepared for the of the late discussion, and the vigorous and effectual prosecution account transmitted to his majesty of the war, if the failure of his ma. of its final result, to be laid before jesty's earnest endeavours to effect a the house. general peace, on secure and bo- From these papers, his majesty nourable, terms, should unfortutrusts, it will be proved to the nately render another campaign whole world that his conduct has unavoidable. And his majesty will been guided by a sincere desire to not fail to take the first opportunity effect the restoration of peace on to communicate the result of these principles suired to the relative discussions to thie house. In the in- situation of the belligerent powers, terval, his majesty conceives that it and essential for the permanent in. may be of the greatest importance ierests of his kinga m, and the geto the common cause, that his ma. neral securuy of Europr : whilst jesty should be enabled to continue his enemies have advanced presuch temporary advances tor he tensions at once inconsistent with service of the emperor as may those objecis, unsupported even on indispensably necessary, with a view the grounds on which they were to military operations being prose. protessed to rest, and repugnant cuted with vigour and effect at an both to the system establisbed by early period; and his majesty re- repeated treaties, and to the princommends it to the house to con- ciple and practice which have bi. sider of making such provision as therto regulated the intercourse of may appear to them to be most ex. independant nations. pedient for this purpose.

In this situation bis majesty bas G.R. the consolation of reflecting, that

the continuance of the calamites Message from his Majesty to the of war can be imputed only to the House of Peers, 26th Dec. 1796. unjust and exorbitant views of George R.

his enemies ; and his majesty lookIT is with the utmost concern ing forward with anxiety to the that his majesty acquaints the moment when tbey may be disposed house of lords, that his earnest en- to act on different principles, deavours to effect the restoration of places in the mean time the fullest peace have been unhappily frus- reliance, under the protection of irated, and that the negotiation in Providence, on the wisdom and which he has been engaged has firmness of his parliament, on the been abruptly broken off by the tried valour of his forces by sea and peremptory refusal of the French land, and on the zeal, public government to treat, except upon spirit, and resources of his kinga basis evidently inadmissible, and doms, for vigorous and effectual by their having in consequence support in the prosecution of a conrequired bis majesty's plenipoten- test, which it does not depend on tiary to quit Paris within 48 his majesty to terminate, and which hours.

involves in it the security and perHis majesty bas directed the se, inanent interests of this country, veral memorials and papers wbich and of Europe. have been exchanged in the course

G. R.
Note,

Note, transmitted to M. Barthelemi Note, transmitted to Mr. Wickham, by by Mr. Wickhman, March 8, 1796. M. Barthelemi, March 26, 1796.

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THE undersigned, his Britannic The undersigned, ambassador of majesty's minister plenipotentiary to the French repuvic to the Helve. the Swiss Cantons, is au horized tic Body, has transmitted to the to convey to monsieur Barthelemi, executive directory the note, which the desire of his court to be made Mr. Wickham, his Britannic maacquainted, through him, with the jesty's minister plenipotentiary to dispositions of France, in regard the Swiss Canton, was pleased to to the object of a general pacifica- convey to him, dated the 8th of tion. He therefore requests mun. March. He has it in command to sieur Barthelemi to transmit to answer it by an exposition of the bim ia writing, ( and after having sentiments and dispositions of the made the necessary enquiries) his executive directory. answer to the following questions : The directory ardently desires to

1. Is there the disposition in procure for the French republic a France to open a negotiation with just, honourable and solid peace. his majesty and his allies for the re- The step token by Mr. Wickham establishment of a general peace, would have afforded to the direcupon just and suitable terms, by tory a real satisfaction, if the declasending, for that purpose, ministers ration itself, which that minister to a congress, at such place as may makes, of his not baving any order, hereafter be agreed upon?

any power to negotiare, did not 2. Would there be the disposi- give room to doubt of the sinceri. tion to communicate to the under- ty of the pacific intentions of his signed, the general grounds of a court. In fact, if it was true, that pacification, such as France would England began to know her real be willing to propose ; in order interests ; that she wished to open that his majesty and his allies again for herself the sources of a. might thereupon examine, in con- bundance and prosperity; if she cert, whether they are such as sought for peace with good faith, might serve as the foundation of a would she propose a congress, of negotiation for peace?

which the necessary result must be, 3. Or would there be a desire to render all negociation endless ? to propose any other way whatever, or would she confine herself to the for arriving at the same end, that asking, in a vague manner, that of a general pacification?

the French

government should The undersigned is authorized to point out any other way whatever, receive from monsieur Barthelemi for attaining the same object, that the answer to these questions, and of a general pacification ? to transmit to bis court : but he is Is it that this step bas had no not authorized to enter with him other object than to obtain for the into negociation or discussion upon British government the favourable these subjects.

impression which always accompaBerne, March 8, 1796.

nies the first overtures for peace? Signed) W. WICKHAM. inay it not have been accompanied

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with the hope that they would pro- the demands which it contains, duce no effect?

and the manner of announcing However that may be, the exe- them, are remote from any dispocutive directory, whose policy has sition for peace. no other guides than openness and The inadmissible pretension is good faith, will follow, in its ex- there avowed, of appropriating to planations, a conduct which shall France all that the laws actually be wholly conformable to them. existing there may have comprized Yielding to the ardent desire by under ibe denomination of French which it is animated, to procure territory. To a demand such as peace for the French republic, and this is added an express declarafor all nations, it will not fear to tion, that no proposal contrary to declare itself openly. Charged by it will be made, or even listened the constitution with the execution to: And this, under the pretence of the laws, it cannot make, or of an internal regulation, ihe prolisten to, any proposal that would visions of which are wholly foreign be contrary to them. The consti- to all other nations. tutional act does not permit it to While these dispositions shall be consent to any alienation of that, persisted in, nothing is left for the which, according to the existing king but to prosecute a war equally laws, constitutes the territory of just and necessary. the republic.

Whenever his enemies shall With respect to the countries occu- manisest more pacific sentiments, pied by the French armies, and which his majesty will at all times be have not been united to France, eager to concur in them, by lendthey, as well as other interests, ing himself, in concert with his political and commercial, may be. allies, to all such measures as shall come the subject of a negociation, be best calculated to re-establish which will present to the directory general tranquillity, on conditions the means of proving how much just, honourable and permanent, it desires to attain speedily to a either by the establishment of a bappy pacification.

congress, which has been so often, Basle, the 6th of Germinal, the and so happily, the means of re.

4th year of the French repub- storing peace to Europe ; or by a lic, 26th of March, 1796. preliminary discussion of the prin(Signed) BARTHELEMI, ciples which may be proposed, on

either side, as a foundation of a Note of observation. The court of general pacification; or, lastly, by London has received from its minis, an impartial examination of any ter in Switzerland, the answer made other way wbich may be pointed to the questions which he had been out to him for arriving at the same charged to address to monsieur Bar- salutary end. thelemi, in respect to the opening Downing-street, April 10, 1796. of a negociation for the re-esablishment of general tranquillity. Explanatory Article, framed by the

This court has seen, with regret, Commissioners for carrying into how far the tone and spirit of that effect the Treaty between Great answer, the nature and extent of Britain and America.

WHEREAS

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