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quantity of such rye shall exceed ceived a suggestion from merchants 100,000 quarters ; and also that a trading to the southern parts of bounty of six shillings per quarter Europe and to Africa, that it would should be given for every quarter be advisab'e to enlarge the quan. of rye which shall be imported in. tity to which the highest bounty to Great Britain before the 30th upon corn, brought from those day of September, 1795, exceeding quarters, was proposed to be limitthe quantity to which the before. ei: they do not state an expectamentioned bounty is limited. tion, that the whole of that quan.
Your committee are also inclin. -tiiy can be procured ; but they are ed to 'recommend an extension of apprehensive that the original li. the period for which the several mitation may tend to check specubounties on grain and for a relation, by the fear of exceeding proposed to be granted. They the quantity specified--and they observe, from the weekly returns propose, therefore, that the highof the price of wheat in the whole est bounty should be extended to kingdom, and of the price and 40,000 quarters. quantity in the London market, Your committee have also ex. since January last, that the highest amined several merchants, respect. price and the greatest scarcity took ing the proportion which she bounplace during the months of July ty upon flour ought to bear to that and August, and particularly in upon wheat : they have been sathe latter. These, therefore, are tisfied by this exainination that, in the months for which it is most im- consideration of the various sizes portant to provide; and they are and weight of the barrels used in led to fear, that if the bounty is different countries, it would be confined to such corn as may ar- more advisable to grant a bounty rive before the 31st of August, on the hundred weight of four merchants may be discouraged from thin on the barrel, as had been at sending supplies to this country first sugg sitd; that it is expedi. during that month, by the appre: ent to a 10pt, on the importation of hension that they may not arrive wheat and wheat flour, the same in time to be entitled to the bounty. proportion of bounties which has They beg leave therefore to sug- been already established by the gest an extension of the time to the legislature on the exportation of 30th of September; and they sub. the saine (i. e.) 14.611. per hundred mit, whether it might not also be weight of wheat flour, as equivaexpedient to place, in proper hands, lent to gs. per quarter of wheat; a discretionary power of allowing and that the same rule ought to be the bounties to such ships as may applied to Indian corn and meal. arrive before the 15th of October, In suggesting, in their former upon proof of their having actually report, that the bounty given on set sail from Great Britain, from wheat ought to be limited to such their respective ports, at such tine as weighed not less than at the that they might, in the ordinary rate of 55 pounds per bushel, your course of their voyage, have arrive committee proceeded on informa.. ed before the 30th of September. tion then received, that wheat or
Your committee have also re- a lower weight was usually of so VOL. XXXVIII,
inferior a quality, as to be unfit the importation of corn and four for the use of man ; and under a for bounty should be confined to full persuasion of the necessity of such pores in which it is probable fixing some limit, in order to pre- that persons so qualified may be vent the object, for which the found. bounty is given, from being de. Your committee have also receiv. feated by the importation of corn ed information, that there are ships inapplicable to the subsistence of now in the ports of this country the people. They have since re. laden with corn, which are intend. ceived further information, which ed to be reported for exportation, has satisfied them, that wheat, and that other ships may arrive, naturally of somewhat a lower the consignees of which may send weight, may produce wholesome their cargoes to foreign ports, un food; and that cargoes, not fre. less tempted by the bounty to unquently, arrive out of condition, in load them here; and they beg leave, consequence of which, the weight therefore, to submit the expediency is for the time diminished, though of extending the bounty to it soon recovers; and that it might cargoes of all ships which may now prove an inconvenient restraint on be in the ports of this country, os speculation, if the merchant were may arrive here previous to the exposed to lose the whole of the passing of the act by which it is bounty, by a slight inattention of to be granted. his agents abroad, or by a temporary and accidental deterioration of the Third Report from the Sela Commit, article imported: they are, there. tee appointed to take into considerafore of opinion, that a bounty, tion the present high price of Cora. equal to four.fifths of the proposed THE select committee appointed bounty, should be given on all to take into consideration the prewheat weighing not less than at sent high price of corn, and to col. the rate of fifty-three pounds per lect evidence relative thereto, and bushel.
to report the same from time to Your committee having stated time, as it shall appear to them, to such further observations as they the house, with their observations have thought necessary, respecting thereupon, have received, since the amount of the bounties, and their first report, a considerable the limitations as to weight, and number of returns, made by the quantity, and time, beg leave to custodes rotulorum of the different recommend, for the prevention of counties, respecting the state of fraud, that all corn and flour im. the last crop, together with moch ported for bounty should be subject, additional intelligence upon that in addition to the inspection of the subject communicated by many of proper officers of the customs, to their members. They find it how. the examination of persons qua. ever, impossible as yet to draw, lified to judge i hereof; that with. either from these returns, or from out the certificate of such persons, any other quarter, a precise con. stating that the article is merchant. clusion. The returns are so in. able and fit for making bread, no complete in their number, and are bounty should be paid; and that founded upon so many different
principles, some stating the whole year, and there is also reason to be.
quantities of grain produced, others lieve that a larger quantity has been I the number of acres sown, and used for seed in the present seed il: others again the average produce of time than in the last. One of the
each acie; and drawing, in some causes of the extreme high price
instances, a comparison with the which prevailed antecedent to the 4 crop of last year, in others with that last harvest, was generally supposed E of certain preceding years, and in to be the very exhausted state to 62 others with what is generally called which the stock of the country had si a fair crop, that it is extremely then been reduced. In order to
difficult to combine and compare avoid a repetition of this evil, to them, so as to state accurately the the same or to a much greater exresult of the whole.
tent (if the succeeding crop should, Your committee would have en. from unfavourable seasons, be later deavoured to render this investiga. or less productive than usual) it : iion more complete, if they had is certainly extremely desirable
not feit the great importance of that the stock remaining in the suggesting, without further delay, country at the commencement of such measures as have occurred to the next harvest, should be more them for alleviating an evil which adequate to the demand than what evidently exists to such an extent remained this year at a similar as to call for the most effectual re- period. Whatever is necessary medy.
for this purpose, ought therefore From the best consideration of to be added to the amount of the such information as they have hi- deficiency. therto obtained, they should not Your committee have stated these fecl themselves authorized in as. circumstances to the house, in order suming as the ground of any opi. to explain more fully the grounds nion they may offer, that the deg. of their opinion, that there will ciency of the crop of wheat is less be no security against very con. than from one fifth to one sixth, siderable distress in the course of compared with the crop of last year, the ensuing year, unless the defi. and from one fourth to one fifth, ciency of wheat and rye can be compared with an average crop. supplied by importation, or unless The crop of rye, of which no great other means can be found, by quantity is usually grown, may pro. which, out of the stock of different bably be considered as equally de. sorts of grain in the country, a ficient ; but the crops of barley and comfortable and wholesome suboats are represented to be nearly sistence can be furnished to the double those of 1794, and at least people during the whole of that one fifth better than an average period. crop.
Upon the first part of this alter. It appears also, from the concur. narive, your committee have al. rent testimony of intelligent per. ready humbly submitted their opi. sons, that the stock of wheat in nion; and though they flatter hand at the commencement of the themselves, that from the adop. last harvest was much less than at tion of the measures now in con. the same period of the preceding templation for the encouragement
of the importation of wheat, of tended to all classes of the people, Indian corn, and of rye, some con- if they can be induced to employ siderable supplies may be procured the other resource to which your from foreign parts, yet they should committee have referred, and to think it unwise to rest in any great avail themselves of the abundance degree upon the hope that such of other crops to supply the defici. supplies can cover a large propor. ency of wheai. tion of the deficiency. Your com- For the purpose of ascertaining mittee would feel great regret in in what proportion the articles bestating this to the house, if they fore enumerated, and others, could were not also of opinion, upon the be mixed with wheat, so as to profullest consideration, that the coun. duce a bread likely to answer the try possesses other resources, both purposes of general consumption, more extensive and more secure, in your committee have examined the an economical use of the stock of result of a variety of experiments, wheat in the kingdom, and in the made by the victualiing office, un. abundant crops of barley, of oats, der the direction of the privy and of potatoes.
council, and ordered to be com. It is obvious, that there must be municaied to them; and of further a very numerous class of families, experiments, since made by the where, in times of ordinary plenty, same office, under the direction of the consumption of wheaten bread your committee; and have been and of flour is by no means an ob. also assisted by the Board of Agri. ject of strict regulation and atten. culture, who have communicated
and it can be as little doubt to them an account of trials made ed, that, under such a pressure as with a still greater variety of mix. the present, an important reduction tures. Your committee see no rea. might be effected in ihis respect, son to doubt that good bread may without diminishing, in any de- be made from any of these mix. gree, the quantity necessary for tures, with no greater proportion subsistence. It is also to be res than three-fifths or two-thirds of marked, that the consumption of wheaten flour; and there is the best this class of persons and their fami. for concluding that such lies, together with another class, bread would be wholesome and far more extensive, consists in a
nutritive, because in m’ny parts large proportion of other articles of this country, where labour and than bread, and that the situa. industry are carried to as great an tion of those classis may enable extent as in any other, the people them, as circumstances require, to are wholly fed by bread made of augment in some degree that pro. some one or more of the compon. portion, and thereby to leave a
ent parts of these mixtures, Your larger share of the stock of wheat committee are further encouraged to those for whose subsistence it is in this opinion, by finding, that in more immediately essential. the course of the last season, the
The reduction of the consump- use of mixed bread of various kinds tion of wheat may be considerably has been introduced into general aided amongst this description of consumption in many places whose persons, and, in a great degree, ex- consumption was before confued
to wheaten bread; that the conse.
There are indeed many prece. quence has been a considerable re- dents in the statutes of this country, duction of price to the labouring of the interposition of the legisla-. poor in such places; and that the ture for this purpose, at times use of it has not been found to be' when, from the less advanced state attended with any inconvenience. of cultivation and commerce, dis. The variety of different species of tresses of this kind occurred much mixed bread is such, as to offer a more frequently and severely than considerable number of alterna. at later periods; and even in more tives to different parts of the coun- recent times, an act passed* which try; and they will be naturally led authorizes magistrates, whenever to select those which are least fo. they think the case requires, to set reign to their habits and preju- the assize upon standard wheaten dices, and of which, from local cir. bread alone, and thereby to pro. cumstances, they can most conveni. hibit the making of all other sorts ently procure a supply:
of bread. Your committee, how. That the sacrifice of some degree ever, entertain great hopes, that of indulgence, or of prejudice, is without applying this principle to one, which, under the present cir. the present case, the general imcumstances, can be made, and pression produced by the late disa ought to be made, and that without tress, and continved by the present such a sacrifice to a considerable scarcity, will incline men of all extent, the country will be exposed descriptions to unite voluntarily in to still greater difficulties than the only measure which can give those with which it has so lately effectual and immediate relief; contended, is an opinion with which and they conceive, that if this your committee are so strongly im. house should give to such a measure pressed, that they cannot too carnest
the sanction of its example and ly recommend it to the serious at. recommendation, there could be tention of this house, and of the little doubt of its being adopted nation at large.
by a proportion of the community Deeply, however, as they feel suficiently numerous to secure the this impression, they are far from attainment of the object in view. proposing any legislative measure Your committee beg leave to to enforce a compliance with this submit this suggestion to the wis. suggestion. They weil know that dom of the house ; and they hope the people of this, and of every other it will not be thought beyond the country, are attached by habit to line of their duty, if, upon an their accustomed species of food; occasion so urgent in point of time, and that however they may, by re- they presume also to suggest the commendation and example, be principal points which such an eninduced to make a partial change, gagement ought, in their humble yet any sudden and compulsory al. opinion, to embrace. teration might, perhaps, be more To reduce the consumption of sensibly felt than the very grievance wheat in the families of the perit was intended to remedy.
sons subscribing such engagement,