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each idea, and each operation, might have its distinct mark, would sufficiently answer the end. For this we find effected amongst us, in all matters where simple reason, and mere speculation is concerned, as in the investigation of mathematical truths.

But as there are other things which pass in the mind of man, beside ideas; as he is not wholly made up of intellect, but on the contrary, the passions, and the fancy, compose a part of his complicated frame; as the operations of these are attended with an infinite variety of emotions in the mind, both in kind and degree; it is clear, that unless there be some means found of manifesting those emotions, all that passes in the mind of one man cannot be communicated to another. Now, as in order to know what another knows, and in the same manner that he knows it, an exact transcript of the ideas which pass in the mind of one man, must be made by sensible marks, in the mind of another; so in order to feel what another feels, the emotions which are in the mind of one man, must also be communicated to that of another, by sensible marks.

That the sensible marks necessary to answer this purpose, cannot possibly be mere words, might fully be proved by a philosophical disquisition upon their nature, were it proper at present to enter into such an inquiry: but this point may be made sufficiently clear to answer my present design, in a shorter way. It is certain that we have given names to these emotions, at least to such as are of the strongest, and most remarkable kind, though much the greater part of them, and

the different degrees of all, remain without names. But the use of these names, is not to stand as types of the emotions themselves, but only as signs, of the simple or complex ideas, which are formed of those emotions; that we may be enabled, by the help of those names, to distinguish them in the understanding, and treat of their several natures, in the same cool manner as we do with regard to other ideas, that have no connexion with any emotions of the mind.

Every one will at once acknowledge that the terms anger, fear, love, hatred, pity, grief, will not excite in him the sensations of those passions, and make him angry or afraid, compassionate or grieved; nor, should a man declare himself to be under the influence of any of those passions, in the most explicit and strong words that the language can afford, would he in the least affect us, or gain any credit, if he used no other signs but words. If any one should say in the same tone of voice that he uses in delivering indifferent propositions from a cool understanding, "Sure never any mortal was so overwhelmed with grief as I am at this present.' Or, "My rage is roused to a pitch of frenzy, I cannot command it: Avoid me, be gone this moment, or I shall tear you to pieces:" surely no one would feel any pity for the distress of the former, or any fear from the threats of the latter. We should either believe that he jested, or if he would be thought serious, we should be moved to laughter at his absurdity. And why is this? but because he makes use of words only, as the signs of emotions, which it is impossible they

can represent; and omits the use of the true signs of the passions, which are, tones, looks, and gestures.*

*The classification of inflections, is the point on which most of all, Walker is defective. The conviction that he was treating a difficult subject, led him into the very common mistake of attempting to make his meaning plain by prolixity of remark, and multiplicity of rules. One error of this respectable writer is, that he attempts to carry the application of his principles too far. To think of reducing to exact system, all the inflections to be employed in the delivery of plain language, when there is no emotion and no emphasis, is idle indeed. Many who have attempted to follow the theory to this extreme, perplexed with the endless list of rules which it occasions, have become discouraged. Whereas the theory is of no use except in reference to the rhetorical principles of language, where tones express sentiment. Another fault of Walker is, that the elements of speaking tones are not presented in any intelligible method; but are so promiscuously intermingled throughout his work, as to give it the character of obscurity.


The absolute modifications of the voice in speaking are four: namely, monotone, rising inflection, falling inflection, and circumflex. The first may be marked to the eye by a horizontal line thus, (—) the second thus, (') the third thus, (`) the fourth thus, (~).

The monotone is a sameness of sound on successive syllables, which resembles that produced by repeated strokes of a bell. This is often appropriate in grave delivery, and especially in acts of devotion, where emotions of reverence are expressed.

The rising inflection turns the voice upward, or ends higher than it begins. It is heard invariably in the direct question; as, will you go to dáy?

The falling inflection turns the voice downwards, or ends lower than it begins. It is heard in the answer to a question; as, Nò; I shall go to-morrow.

This will serve to shew us that the language, or sersible marks, by which the emotions of the mind are discovered, and communicated from man to man, are

The circumflex is a union of the two inflections, sometimes on one syllable, and sometimes on several. It begins with the falling and ends with the rising slide.

In "Porter's Analysis” from which this note is substantially taken, many examples of these two simple slides of the voice on which the whole doctrine of inflections depends, are given-it will be sufficient for our object to select a few under each.

Shall I come to you with a ród—or in lov`e?

The baptism of John, was it from heaven-or of men?

Is this book yoúrs—or mìne?

Are they Hébrews? So am I

Are they the seed of A'braham? So am `I.

Are they mínisters of Christ? I am more.

The circumflex occurs chiefly where the language is hypothetical or ironical.

Though he will not rise and give him because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth.

I may go to-morrow, though I cannot go to-dày.

They tell us to be moderate; but they, they, are to revel in profusion.

But any fixed system of rules and directions which we may adopt in relation to this subject, must necessarily be imperfect; for, as Whately justly remarks" although the emphatic word in each sentence may easily be pointed out in writing, no variety of marks, that could be invented,-not even musical notation, would suffice to indicate the different tones in which the different emphatic words should be pronounced; though on this depends frequently the whole force, and even sense of the expression. Take, as an instance, the following

entirely different from words, and independent of them. Nor was this kind of language left to the invention of man, or to the chance of such arbitrary marks, as he should think proper to affix to the passions, in order to characterize them: no, it was necessary to society, and to the state of human nature in general, that the language of the animal passions of man at least, should be fixed, self-evident, and universally intelligible; and it has accordingly been impressed, by the unerring hand of nature, on the human frame. The improvement and exercise of the intellectual faculties, to any

passage, (Mark. iv. 21.) "Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed." That I have heard so pronounced as to imply that there is no other alternative: and yet the emphasis was laid on the right words. It would be nearly as hopeless a task to attempt adequately to convey, by any written marks, precise directions as to the rate, the degree of rapidity or slowness,-with which each sentence and clause should be delivered. Longer and shorter pauses may indeed be easily denoted; and marks may be used, similar to those in music, to indicate, generally, quick, slow, or moderate time; but it is evident that the variations which actually take place, are infinite-far beyond what any marks could suggest; and that much of the force of what is said depends on the degree of rapidity with which it is uttered; chiefly on the relative rapidity of one part in comparison of another: for instance, in such a sentence as the following, in one of the Psalms, which one may usually hear read at one uniform rate; "all men that see it shall say, this hath God done; for they shall perceive that it is his work;" the four words "this hath God done," though monosyllables, ought to occupy very little less time in utterance than all the rest of the verse together."-Ed.

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