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eminent degree, could fall to the lot of but a small tion of mankind; as even the necessaries for the support of life, cannot be acquired by much the greater part, but by such constant labour and industry as will afford no time for contemplative studies. But though it be not necessary to society, that all men should know much; it is necessary that they should feel much, and have a mutual sympathy, in whatever affects their fellow creatures. All affections, therefore, and emotions, belonging to man in his animal state, are so distinctly characterized, by certain marks, that they cannot be mistaken; and this language of the passions, carries with it the stamp of its almighty Artificer; utterly unlike the poor workmanship of imperfect man, as it is not only understood by all the different nations of the world, without pains or study; but excites also similar emotions, or corresponding effects, in all minds alike.

Thus, the tones expressive of sorrow, lamentation, mirth, joy, hatred, anger, love, pity, &c. are the same in all nations, and consequently can excite emotions in us analogous to those passions, when accompanying words which we do not understand. Nay, the very tones themselves, independent of words, will produce the same effects, as has been amply proved by the power of musical imitations. And though these tones, are usually accompanied with words, in order that the understanding may at the same time perceive the cause of these emotions, by a communication of the particular ideas which excite them; yet that the whole energy, or power of exciting analogous emotions in others, lies

in the tones themselves, may be known from this; that whenever the force of these passions is extreme, words give place to inarticulate sounds: sighs and murmurings, in love; sobs, groans, and cries in grief; half choked sounds in rage; and shrieks in terror, are then the only language heard. And the experience of mankind may be appealed to, whether these have not more power in exciting sympathy, than any thing that can be done by mere words.

Nor has this language of the passions been confined to man only; for in that respect, he seems to be included in the general law given to all animals that are not mute, or wholly incapable of uttering any sound; as they also express their passions by certain tones, which striking the auditory nerves of those of the same species, always produce correspondent effects; inasmuch as their kindred organs, are invariably tuned by the hand of nature, in unison with those sounds.

But it is to be observed, that each species of animals, seems to have a language of its own, not at all understood, or felt by the rest. The lowing of the cow affects not the lamb; nor does the calf regard the bleating of the sheep. The neighing of the steed, calls up all the attention of the horse-kind; they gaze towards the place from whence the sound comes, and answer it, or run that way, if the steed be not in view; whilst the cows and sheep raise not their heads from the ground, but continue to feed, utterly unmoved. The organs of hearing in each species, are tuned only to the sounds of their own; and whilst the roaring of the lioness, makes the forest tremble, it is the sweetest

music to the ears of her young.

This shews us,

that the auditory nerves of animals are constructed in such a way, as to be affected only with such sounds as immediately regard the two chief ends of their being; the propagation and preservation of their species: all other sounds, therefore, excepting such as excite sympathy or antipathy, are indifferent to them. Sympathy, with those of their own kind; antipathy, against such as are their natural enemies, or destructive of their species. Those which excite sympathy, may be supposed to be all in concord; those which rouse antipathy, to be discords; which, by creating an uneasy sensation, immediately dispose them to flight, to avoid the enemy. Thus the cry of dogs, warns the hare of his danger: and the howlings of the wolf, alarm the flock. The different species of animals may, therefore, be considered as so many different nations, speaking different languages, that have no commerce with each other; each of which, consequently, understands none but their own; excepting only those who are in a state of warfare, by whom the language of the enemy is sufficiently understood for the purpose of self preservation.

As the passions and emotions of the several kinds of animals, are very different, according to their different natures, so is there an equal diversity of tones, by which these several passions and emotions are expressed; from the horrible roarings of the lion, to the gentle bleatings of the lamb: from the loud bellowings of the wild bull, to the low purring of the domestic cat. But as there is no passion or emotion whatsoever, in

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the whole animal world, which is not to be found in man, so equally comprehensive is the language of his passions, which are all manifested by suitable tones. E The roaring of the lion, is not more terrible than the voice of his anger; nor the cooings of the pigeon, more soft, than the murmurs of his love. The crowing of the morning cock, is not so clear and sprightly as the notes of his joy; nor the melancholy mournings of the turtle, so plaintive as those of his wo. The organs of hearing, therefore, in man, are so constructed, as not to be indifferent to any kind of tone, either in his own species, or in the animal world, that is expressive of emotion or passion: from all, they receive either pleasure or pain, as they are affected with sympathy or antipathy. It is true that like the several tribes of animals, man is most affected, or has the strongest sympathy excited, by such tones as are uttered by those of his own species; and in proportion, also, by those which most nearly resemble them in others. We are moved most by the distressful cries of those animals that have any similitude to the human voice, such as the fawn, and the hare, when seized in the chase, by dogs. But still we both feel and understand the nature of all others. Nor can any animal utter any sound which we cannot explain, or tell from what emotion or passion it proceeds. This distinguishing faculty was ne cessary to man as master of the animal race, that by understanding their several languages, he might relieve their distresses, and supply their wants. And indeed, we find, that the tones of all domestic animals, expressive of their wants or distresses, have a wonderful

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power over the human heart, and mechanically rouse us to their relief.

Thus extensive as are the powers of the human ear, those of the human voice, do not fall short of them; but are exactly suited to them in degree and comprehension; there is no tone which the ear can distinguish, that the voice, by pains and practice, is not capable of uttering. Hence it comes to pass, that as man understands the language of the different tribes of animals, so he can make himself understood by them. The horse rejoices in the applauding tones of his rider's voice, and trembles when he changes them to those of anger. What blandishments do we see in the dog when his master sooths him by kind notes; what fear, and even shame, when he changes them to those of chiding? By those the waggoner directs his team, and the herdsman his flock, Even animals of the most savage nature, are not proof against the collective powers of the human voice; and the shouts of multitudes, will put wild beasts to flight, who can hear without emotion the roarings of the thunder.

But that man should be furnished with such an extensive power in these points, even in his animal state, will appear reasonable, when we consider that his nature, is an abstract of all animal nature; and that in his tribe are to be found, all the emotions and passions, that belong to all the several tribes. Consequently, all the marks expressive of those emotions, or such as are similar to them, should belong to that tribe. If man is capable of being the most social, the most tender and affectionate to those of his own species,

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