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As another specimen, the mode of explaining the condensation of spirit by flight may be selected.

The spirit, he says, is condensed by Aight,-cold,appeasing, and quelling. The condensation by flight is when there is an antipathy between the spirit and the body upon which it acts; as, in opium, which is so exceedingly powerful in condensing the spirit, that a grain will tranquillize the nerves, and by a few grains they may be so compressed as to be irrecoverable. The touched spirit may retreat into its shell for a time or for ever; or it may, when fainting, be recalled, by the application of a stimulant, as surprise from a sudden impulse; a blow, or a glass of water thrown on the face; or the prick of a pin, or the action of mind on mind.

“ I am not sick, if Brutus have in hand

Any exploit worthy the name of honour.” As another specimen, his sentiments upon Death, the decomposition of compounds, may be selected.

In his doctrine of motion, he says, “ The political motion is that by which the parts of a body are restrained, from their own immediate appetites or tendencies to unite in such a state as may preserve the existence of the whole body. Thus, the spirit, which exists in all living bodies, keeps all the parts in due subjection; when it escapes, the body decomposes, or the similar parts unite



them souls. And such superficial speculations they have; like prospectives, that shew things inward, when they are but paintings."-Sylva, Exp. 98.

(a) Principio cælum, ac terras, camposq: liquentes,

Lucentemq: globum lunæ, Titaniaq: astra,
Spiritus intus alit totamq: infusa per artus

Mens agitat molem, et magno se corpore miscet. -Æneid. Plato's doctrine, respecting the “ Anima Mundi,” or soul of the world, pervading and vivifying all created things, see Berkeley's Sins, p. 133, and Mandeville on Hypochondriacism.

metals rust, fluids turn sour; and, in animals, when the spirit which held the parts together escapes, all things are dissolved, and return to their own natures or principles : the oily parts to themselves, the aqueous to themselves, &c. upon which necessarily ensues that odour, that unctuosity, that confusion of parts, observable in putrefaction.” So true is it, that in nature all is beauty; that, notwithstanding our partial views and distressing associations, the forms of death, misshapen as we suppose them, are but the tendencies to union in similar natures.

The knowledge of this science Bacon considers of the Importutmost importance to our well being :that the action of ance of the

science. the spirit is the cause of consumption and dissolution ;is the agent which produces all bodily and mental effects; -influences the will in the production of all animal motions, as in the whale and the elephant;mand is the cause of all our cheerfulness or melancholy:—that the perfection of our being consists, in the proper portion of this spirit properly animated, or the proper portion of excitability properly excited;—that its presence is life, its absence death.

This subject, deemed of such importance by Bacon, has been much neglected, and occasionally been supposed to be a mere creature of the imagination. (a)

(a) Shaw, in his edition of Bacon says, “ The whole of this inquiry still remains strangely neglected, to the great disadvantage of natural philosophy, which seems almost a dead thing without it.”

Dugald Stuart, in his dissertation, says, If on some occasions, he assumes the existence of animal spirits, as the medium of communication between soul and body, it must be remembered that this was then the universal belief of the learned; and that it was at a much later period not less confidently avowed by Locke. Nor ought it to be overlooked (I mention it to the credit of both authors), that in such instances the fact is commonly so stated, as to render it easy for the reader to detach it from the theory. As to the scholastic questions concerning the nature and essence of mind, whether it be extended or unextended ? whether it have any relation to space or to time? or whether (as was contended by others)

Although the History of Life and Death is apparently a separate tract, it is the last-portion of the third of the six books into which the third part of the Instauration is divided, (a) which are the histories of '! (:

1st. The Winds.
2nd. Density and Rarity.
3rd. Heavy and Light.
4th. Sympathy and Antipathy.
5th. Sulphur, Mercury, and Salt.
6th. Life and Death.

His reason for the publication of this tract, he thus states: “Although I had ranked the History of Life and Death as the last àmong my six monthly designations; yet I have thought fit, in respect of the prime use thereof, in which the least loss of time ought to be esteemed precious, to invert that order.”

The History, which was published in Latin, is inscribed “ To the present age and posterity, in the hope and wish that it may conduce to a common good, and that the nobler sort of physicians will advance their thoughts, and not employ their times wholly in the sordidness of cures, neither be honoured for necessity only, but that they will become coadjutors and instruments of the divine omnipotence and clemency in prolonging and renewing the life of man, by safe, and convenient, and civil ways, though hitherto unassayed.”

it exist in every ubi, but in no place? Bacon has uniformly passed them over with silent contempt; and has probably contributed not less effectually 10 bring them into general discredit, by this indirect intimation of his own opinion, than if he had descended to the ungrateful task of exposing their absurdity."

(a) The two first, the Division of the Sciences and the Novum Organum, have already been explained, ante, p. cxxxv and cclxvii.

after his

This was the last of his philosophical publications during his life; but they were only a small portion of his labours, which are thus recorded by Dr. Rawley :-“ The last five years of his life, being withdrawn from civil affairs and from an active life, he employed wholly in contemplation and studies: a thing whereof his lordship would often speak during his active life, as if he affected to die in the shadow, and not in the light. During this time he composed the greatest part of his books and writings, both in English and Latin, which I will enumerate, as near as I can, in the just order wherein they were written.

The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh.(6) Works Abecedarium Naturæ; or a Metaphysical Piece. (c)

Historia Ventorum. (d)
Historia Vitæ et Mortis. (e)
Historia Densi, et Rari. (f)
Historia Gravis et Levis.
A discourse of a War with Spain. (h)
A dialogue touching an Holy War.(i)
The fable of the New Atlantis. (k)
A preface to a Digest of the Laws of England. (l)
The beginning of the History of the Reign of King

Henry the Eighth. (m)
De Augmentis Scientiarum ;(n) or the Advancement of

Learning: put into Latin, with several enrichments

and enlargements. Counsels, civil and moral; or his book of Essays, like

wise enriched and enlarged. (o)

(6) Vol. iii. p. 100.
(d) Vol. x. p. 15.
(1) Vol. x. p. 381.
(i) Vol. vii. p. 118.
(1) Vol. iii. p. 353.
(n) Volş. viii. and ix.

· (c) Vol. xi. p. 219.
(e) Vol. x. p. 111.
(h) Vol. vii. p. 237.
(k) Vol. ii. p. 319.
(m) Vol. iii. p. 418.
(0) Vol. i.

The conversion of certain Psalms into English verse. (p) The translation into Latin of the History of King Henry

the Seventh ; of the Counsels, civil and moral; (r) of the dialogue of the Holy War;(s) of the fable of

the New Atlantis :(t) for the benefit of other nations. His revising of his book De Sapientia Veterum.(u) Inquisitio de Magnete. (x) Topica Inquisitionis; de Luce, et Lumine. (y) Lastly, Sylva Sylvarum; or the Natural History. (z)

“He also designed, upon the motion and invitation of his late majesty, to have written the Reign of King Henry the Eighth ;(a) but that work perished in the designation merely, God not lending him life to proceed further upon it than only in one morning's work: whereof there is extant an Ex Ungue Leonem."

Such were his works during the short period, when between sixty and seventy years of age, he, fortunately for himself and society, was thrown from active into contemplative life; into that philosophical seclusion, where he might turn from calumny, from the slanders of his enemies, to the admiration of all civilized Europe; from political rancour and threats of assassination to the peaceful safety of sequestered life; from the hollow compacts which politicians call union, formed by expediency and dissolved at the first touch of interest, to the enduring joys of intellectual and virtuous friendship and the consolations of piety.(6)

(p) Vol. vii. p. 98. (r) Vol. xv.

(8) Vol. vii. (1) Vol. i.

(u) Vol. ii.

(r) Vol. xi p. 227. (y) Vol. x. p. 440. (2) Vol. iv.

(a) Vol. iii. p. 418. (6) Such are the joys of active intellectual seclusion. “Si Descartes eut quelques foiblesses de l'humanité, il eut aussi les principales vertus du philosophe. Sobre, tempérant, ami de la liberté et de la retraite, reconnoissant liberal, sensible à l'amitié, tendre, compatissant, il ne connoissoit

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