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And in his letter of March 25, to the King, he says : And for the briberies and gifts wherewith I am charged, when the books of hearts shall be opened, I hope I shall not be found to have the troubled fountain of a corrupt heart, in a depraved habit of taking rewards to pervert justice; howsoever I may be frail, and partake of the abuses of the times.

When the Chancellor saw the King in April, during the recess, pared notes of his intended communication to the King. The following are the

he had pre

notes :

Memoranda of what the Lord Chancellor intended to deliver to the King,

April 16, 1621, upon his first access to his Majesty after his troubles. If your majesty will graciously give me the hearing, I will open my heart unto you, both touching my fault and fortune. For the former of these, I shall deal ingenuously with your majesty, without seeking fig-leaves or subterfuges. There be three degrees, or cases, as I conceive, of gifts and rewards given to a judge: the first is of bargain, contract, or promise of reward, pendente lite. And this is properly called venalis sententia, or baratria, or corruptele munerum. And of this my heart tells me I am innocent; that I had no bribe or reward in my eye or thought, when I pronounced any sentence or order. The second is a neglect in the judge to inform himself whether the cause be fully at an end or no, what time he receives the gift, but takes it upon the credit of the party, that all is done; or otherwise omits to inquire. And the third is, when it is received sine fraude, after the cause ended; which, it seems by the opinion of the civilians, is no offence. Look into the case of simony, &c.

Now, if I might see the particulars of my charge, I should deal plainly with your majesty, in whether of these degrees every particular case falls. But for the first of them, I take myself to be as innocent as any born upon St. Innocents' day, in my heart. For the second, I doubt, in some particulars I may be faulty. And for the last, I conceived it to be no fault; but therein I desire to be better informed, that I may be twice penitent, once for the fact, and again for the error. For I had rather be a briber than a defender of bribes.

I must likewise confess to your majesty, that at new-years tides, and likewise at my first coming in, which was, as it were my wedding, I did not so precisely, as perhaps I ought, examine whether those that presented me had causes before me, yea or no. And this is simply all that I can say for the present, concerning my charge, until I may receive it more particularly. And all this while, I do not fly to that, as to say that these things are vitia temporis, and not vitia hominis.

And in another letter to Buckingham he says: I perceive by some speech, that passed between your lordship and Mr. Meautys, that some wretched detractor hath told you that it were strange I should be in debt; for that I could not but have received an hundred thousand pounds gifts since I had the seal, which is an abominable falsehood. Such tales as these made St. James say, that the tongue is a fire, and itself fired from hell, whither when these tongues shall return, they will beg a drop of water to cool them. I praise God for it, I never took penny for any benefice or ecclesiastical living ; I never took penny for releasing any thing I stopped at the seal ; I never took penny for any commission, or things of that nature; I never shared with any servant for any second or inferior profit. My offences I have myself recorded, wherein I studied, as a good confessant, guiltiness, and not excuse; and therefore I hope it leaves me fair to the king's grace, and will turn many men's hearts to me.

The state of Lord Bacon's mind may also be discovered by his own rule, the sudden expressions which were made by him when the charge was made.

In the Advancement of Learning, he says, that the modes by which words give us an insight into character are, when they are sudden, " vino tortus et ira.” So, when speaking of the use of Mechanical History, he says, “ As a man's disposition is never well known till he be crossed, nor Proteus ever changed shapes till he was straitened and held fast; so the passages and variations of nature cannot appear so fully in the liberty of nature, as in the trials and vexations of art."

Upon being told that it was time to look about him, he said, “ I do not look about me; I look above me.

Upon his servants rising on his entrance, soon after the accusation, “ Sit down,” he said, “your rise has been my fall.”

Letter from Sir Kenelm Digby to M. de Fermat, published at the end of

Fermat's Opera Mathematica, 1769. Extrait d'un lettre de Mons. le Chevalier Digby à M. de Fermat. Et comme vous y parlez de notre Chancellier Bacon, cela me fit souvenir d'un autre beau mot qu'il dit en ma présence une fois a peu Mons. le Duc de Buckingham. C'étoit au commencement de ses malheurs quand l'assemblée des états, que nous appellons le parlement, entreprit de le miner, ce quelle fit en suite, ce jour la il en eût la première alarme. J'étois avec le duc ayant disné avec lui, le Chancellier suivint, et l'entretint de l'accusation qu'un de ceux de la chambre basse avoit présentée contre lui, et il supplia le duc d'employer son crédit aupres du roi pour le maintenir toujours dans son esprit. Le duc lui répondit, qu'il étoit si bien avec le roi leur maître qu'il n'étoit pas besoin de lui rendre de bons offices aupres de sa majesté, ce qu'il disont, non pas pour le refuser, car il aimoit beaucoup, mais pour lui faire plus d'honneur. Le Chancelier lui répondit de très bonne grace, ' Qu'en il croyoit étre parfaitement bien dans l'esprit de son maître, mais aussi qu'il avoit toujours remarqué que pour si grand que soit un feu, et pour si fortement qu'il brôle de lui même, il ne laissera pourtant pas de bruler mieux, et d'être plus beau et plus clair si on le suffle comme il faut."

Assuming that it was customary for the suitors to solicit and to make presents to the judges out of court, the observations made by Mr. Butler with respect to this custom in France, may, therefore, as it seems, be applied to the custom in England : “ But it all amounted to nothing. To all their solicitations the judges listened with equal external reverence and internal indifference ; and they availed themselves of the first moment when it could be done with decency, to bow the parties respectfully out of the room.”

NOTE AAA.

The Advancement of Learning. The Advancement of Learning was published in the year 1605. The following is a copy of the title page : The Tvvoo Bookes of Francis Bacon. Of the proficience and aduancement of Learning, diuine and humane. To the King. At London, printed for Henry Tomes, and are to be sould at his shop at Gruies Inne Gate in Holborne. 1605. It is a small thin quarto of 119 pages, double paged, that is, one page relates to two sides, so that there are according to the modern mode of paging, 238 pages. The subjects are distinguished by capitals and italics introduced into the text, with a few marginal notes in Latin.

Of this work he sent copies to the Earl of Northampton, to present the book to the King; to Sir Thomas Bodley ; to Lord Chancellor Egerton ; to the Earl of Salisbury; to the Lord Treasurer Buckhurst; to Mr. Matthews. The fol. lowing are copies of the several presentation letters : Sir Francis Bacon, of the like Argument, to the Earl of Northampton, with

request to present the book to his Majesty. It may please your good Lordship,--Having finished a work touching the Advancement of Learning, and dedicated the same to his sacred majesty, whom I dare avouch (if the records of time err not) to be the learnededst king that hath reigned ; I was desirous in a kind of congruity, to present it by the learnedest counsellor in this kingdom, to the end, that so good an argument, lightening upon so bad an author, might receive some reparation by the bands

matter.

was desirous to prevent the incertainness of my own life and times, by uttering rather seeds than plants ; nay, and farther, as the proverb is, by sowing with the basket than with the hand. Wherefore, since I have only taken upon me to ring a bell, to call other wits together (which is the meanest office), it cannot but be consonant to my desire to have that bell heard as far as can be. And since that they are but sparks, which can work but upon matter prepared, I have the more reason to wish that those sparks may fly abroad, that they may the better find, and light upon those minds and spirits which are apt to be kindled. And therefore, the privateness of the language considered wherein it is written excluding so many readers (as on the other side, the obscurity of the argument, in many parts of it, excludeth many others ;) I must account it a second birth of that work, if it might be translated into Latin, without manifest loss of the sense and

For this purpose, I could not represent to myself any man into whose hands I do more earnestly desire that work should fall than yourself; for by that I have heard and read, I know no man a greater master in commanding words to serve matter. Nevertheless I am not ignorant of the worth of your labours, whether such as your place and profession imposeth on you, or such as your own virtue may, upon your voluntary election, take in hand. But I can lay before you no other persuasions, than either the work itself may affect you with, or the honour of his majesty, to whom it is dedicated, or your particular inclination to myself; who, as I never took so much comfort in any labours of my own, so I shall never acknowledge myself more obliged in any thing to the labour of another, than in that which shall assist this. Which your labour, if I can by my place, profession, means, friends, travel, work, deed, requite unto you, I shall esteem myself so straitly bound thereunto, as I shall be ever most ready both to take and seek occasion of thankfulness. So leaving it nevertheless, salvâ amicitia, as reason is to your good liking, I remain.

Dr. Playfer's wish to comply with this request, and his failure is thus stated by Archbishop Tenison, (a) · The Doctor was willing to serve so excellent a person, and so worthy a design, and within a while sent him a specimen of a Latin translation. But men generally come short of themselves when they strive to outdo themselves; they put a force upon their natural genius, and, by straining of it, crack and disable it: and so it seems it happened to that worthy and elegant man. Upon this great occasion he would be over accurate; and he sent a specimen of such superfine Latinity, that the Lord Bacon did not encourage him to labour further in that work, in the penning of which, he desired not so much neat and polite, as clear, masculine, and apt expression.”

This was probably in 1606 or 1607, for Dr. Playfer's death is thus recorded by Bishop Hackett, in his life of Archbishop Williams : "On Candlemas-day, anno 1608, his reverend friend Dr. Playfer departed out of this world, in the forty-sixth year of his life, in his flower and prime; whose greatest well-wishers did not wish him alive again, because his rarely beautified wits, with which he had even enchanted his hearers in so many estivat commencements, were now more and more distempered. Yet Mr. Williams wept over him, and exceeded in grief, as if a child had lost his father. The University making preparation for the solemn funeral of so great an ornament to it, the Vice Chancellor that then was, Dr. Jeggon, possessed the pulpit to preach, and Mr. Williams was required to be the orator, to give him a farewell of due praise in the chapel of St. John's College. He pleaded the truth, that his sorrow would not grant him such a dispassionate mind, as was fit to compose a panegyric, and that in the space of three days, and for such a man as Dr. Playfer. And with this excuse he held off, till Dr. Clayton set upon it to enforce the task on him that could best discharge it, threatened him with expulsion, if he refused that service to which his superiors had allotted him. An hard condition, and such as might have been disputed, as long after I heard him argue upon it. But then he yielded, whether fair means or foul means overcame him I know not: but I think rather love than fear got the upper hand of grief. And when his turn

(a) Baconiana, 25.

Sir Francis Bacon to the Lord Treasurer Buckhurst, (a) upon the same occasion,

of sending his book of Advancement of Learning. May it please your good Lordship,--I have finished a work touching the Advancement or setting forward of Learning, which I have dedicated to his majesty, the most learned of a sovereign, or temporal prince, that time bath known. And upon reason not unlike, I humbly present one of the books to your lordship, not only as a chancellor of an university, but as one that was excellently bred in all learning, which I have ever noted to shine in all your speeches and behaviours. And therefore your lordship will yield a gracious aspect to your first love, and take pleasure in the adorning of that wherewith yourself are so much adorned. And so humbly desiring your favourable acceptation thereof, with signification of my humble duty, I remain.

To Mr. Matthew, Sir,- 1 perceive you have some time when you can be content to think of your friends; from whom since you have borrowed yourself, you do well, not paying the principal, to send the interest at six months. The relation which here I send you inclosed, carries the truth of that which is public; and though my little leisure might have required a briefer, yet the matter would have endured and asked a larger.

I have now at last taught that child to go, at the swaddling whereof you were. My work touching the proficiency and advancement of learning, I have put into two books; whereof the former, which you saw, I cannot but account as a page to the latter. I have now published them both ; whereof I thought it a small adventure to send you a copy, who have more right to it than any man, except Bishop Andrews, who was my inquisitor.

The death of the late great judge concerned not me, because the other was not removed. I write this in answer to your good wishes ; which I return not as flowers of Florence, but as you mean them; whom I conceive place cannot alter, no more than time shall me, except it be for the better. 1605.

Some short time after the publication of this work, probably about the year 1608, Sir Francis Bacon was desirous that the Advancement of Learning should be translated into Latin; and, for this purpose, he applied to Dr. Playfer, the Margaret professor of divinity in the university of Cambridge. Sir Francis Bacon, his Letter of request to Doctor Playfer, to translate the

book of Advancement of Learning into Latin. Mr. Doctor Playfer,---A great desire will take a small occasion to hope, and put in trial that which is desired. It pleased you, a good while since, to express unto me the good liking which you conceive of my book, of the Advancement of Learning, and that more significantly (as it seemed to me) than out of courtesy, or civil respect. Myself, as I then took contentment in your approbation thereof, so I should esteem and acknowledge, not only my contentment increased, but my labours advanced, if I might obtain your help in that nature which I desire. Wherein, before I set down in plain terms my request unto you, I will open myself, what it was which I chiefly sought, and propounded to myself in that work, that you may perceive that which I now desire to be pursuant thereupon, if I do not err. (For any judgment that a man maketh of his own doings, had need be spoken with a “Si nunquam fallit imago,") I have this opinion, that if I had sought my own commendation, it had been a much fitter course for me to have done as gardeners use to do, by taking their seeds and slips, and rearing them first into plants, and so uttering them in pots, when they are in flower, and in their best state. But forasmuch as my end was merit of the state of learning, to my power, and not glory; and because my purpose was rather to excite other men's wits, than to inagnify my own, I

(a) Chancellor of Oxford, Lord Treasurer, Earl of Dorset, celebrated as a poet, an orator, and a writer.

was desirous to prevent the incertainness of my own life and times, by uttering rather seeds than plants ; nay, and farther, as the proverb is, by sowing with the basket than with the hand. Wherefore, since I have only taken upon me to ring a bell, to call other wits together (which is the meanest office), it cannot but be consonant to my desire to have that bell heard as far as can be. And since that they are but sparks, which can work but upon matter prepared, I have the more reason to wish that those sparks may fly abroad, that they may the better find, and light upon those minds and spirits which are apt to be kindled. And therefore, the privateness of the language considered wherein it is written excluding so many readers (as on the other side, the obscurity of the argument, in many parts of it, excludeth many others ;) I must account it a second birth of that work, if it might be translated into Latin, without manifest loss of the sense and matter. For this purpose, I could not represent to myself any man into whose hands I do more earnestly desire that work should fall than yourself; for by that I have heard and read, I know no man a greater master in commanding words to serve matter. Nevertheless I am not ignorant of the worth of your labours, whether such as your place and profession imposeth on you, or such as your own virtue may, upon your voluntary election, take in hand. But I can lay before you no other persuasions, than either the work itself

may

affect you with, or the honour of his majesty, to whom it is dedicated, or your particular inclination to myself; who, as I never took so much comfort in any labours of my own, so I shall never acknowledge myself more obliged in any thing to the labour of another, than in that which shall assist this. Which your labour, if I can by my place, profession, means, friends, travel, work, deed, requite unto you, I shall esteem myself so straitly bound thereunto, as I shall be ever most ready both to take and seek occasion of thankfulness. So leaving it nevertheless, salvâ amicitiâ, as reason is to your good liking, I remain.

Dr. Playfer's wish to comply with this request, and his failure is thus stated by Archbishop Tenison, (a) “ The Doctor was willing to serve so excellent a person, and so worthy a design, and within a while sent him a specimen of a Latin translation. But men generally come short of themselves when they strive to outdo themselves ; they put a force upon their natural genius, and, by straining of it, crack and disable it: and so it seems it happened to that worthy and elegant man. Upon this great occasion he would be over accurate; and he sent a specimen of such superfine Latinity, that the Lord Bacon did not encourage him to labour further in that work, in the penning of which, he desired not so much neat and polite, as clear, masculine, and apt expression.”

This was probably in 1606 or 1607, for Dr. Playfer's death is thus recorded by Bishop Hackett, in his life of Archbishop Williams : “On Candlemas-day, anno 1608, his reverend friend Dr. Playfer departed out of this world, in the forty-sixth year of his life, in his flower and prime ; whose greatest well-wishers did not wish him alive again, because his rarely beautified wits, with which he had even enchanted his hearers in so many estivat commencements, were now more and more distempered. Yet Mr. Williams wept over him, and exceeded in grief, as if a child had lost his father. The University making preparation for the solemn funeral of so great an ornament to it, the Vice Chancellor that then was, Dr. Jeggon, possessed the pulpit to preach, and Mr. Williams was required to be the orator, to give him a farewell of due praise in the chapel of St. John's College. He pleaded the truth, that his sorrow would not grant him such a dispassionate mind, as was fit to compose a panegyric, and that in the space of three days, and for such a man as Dr. Playfer. And with this excuse he held off, till Dr. Clayton set upon it to enforce the task on him that could best discharge it, threatened him with expulsion, if he refused that service to which his superiors had allotted him. An hard condition, and such as might have been disputed, as long after I heard him argue upon it. But then he yielded, whether fair means or foul means overcame him I know not : but I think rather love than fear got the upper hand of grief. And when his turn

(a) Baconiana, 25.

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