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that he who measured it in his hand had given to it such life and motion; and I have lingered till its gentle waters grew into mighty billows, and had well nigh swept me from my firmest footing. So have I seen an heedless youth gazing with a too curious spirit upon the sweet motions and gentle approaches of an inviting pleasure, till it has detained his eye, and imprisoned his feet, and swelled upon his soul, and swept him to a swift destruction."
10. In the British Museum (Lands. 236.) there is a volume of MSS. containing this
essay, thus entitled in the catalogue : “ Speeches and other compositions of Sir Francis Bacon, many whereof are stated by Mr. Umfreville, whose property they were, not to be collected into any edition of his works." The inscription to which the catalogue refers is, “ Collectanea Bacon, many whereof are not yet collected into any edition of his works."—Who Mr. Umfreville was, or when this MS. was written, I know not.
11. The admission of this essay amongst the essays in the different editions of Lord Bacon's works and essays, seems to have been occasioned by the insertion of this essay by Blackburn, in his edition of 1740.
Essay on Death. This appeared, I believe, for the first time in the volume published in 1648, entitled Remains. It is inserted in Blackburn's edition, published in 1740, but, instead of being incorporated, like the “ Essay of a King,” amongst the other essays, it is annexed, at the end of the fourth volume, after the
following notice :-The following fragments were never acknowledged by Dr. Rawley among the genuine writings of the Lord Bacon; nor dare I say that they come up to the spirit or penetration of our noble author : however, as they are vouched to be authentic in an edition of the Remains of the Lord Verulam, printed 1648 ; and as Archbishop Sancroft has reflected some credit on them by a careful review, having in very many instances corrected and prepared them for the press, among the other unquestioned writings of his lordship; for these reasons I have assigned them this place, and left every reader to form his own judgment about their importance.
As Lord Bacon published an Essay on Death in the edition of 1612, and enlarged it in the edition of 1625, and as there is not any evidence, direct or indirect, external or internal, that this is the production of Lord Bacon, I shall content myself with saying that, before it is adopted, there ought to be some evidence of its authenticity.*
Observations upon the Essays. His political writings of a more general nature, are his Apothegms and Essays, besides the Excerpta, out of the Advancement above remembered. Both these contain much of that matter which we usually call moral, distinguishing it from that which is civil : in the handling of which sort of argument his lordship has been esteemed so far to excel, that he hath had a comment written on him, as on an author in ethics, and an advancer of that most useful part of learning. (a) Notwithstanding which, I am bold to put these books under this head of matter political ; both because they contain a greater portion of that matter, and because in true philosophy the doctrine of politics and ethics maketh up but one body, and springeth from one root, the end of God Almighty in the government of the world.
Tennison. In a late Latin edition of these essays, there are subjoined two discourses, the one called De Negotiis, the other Faber Fortunæ. But neither of these are works newly published, but treatises taken out of the book De Augmentis. To this book of Essays may be annexed that fragment of an Essay of Fame, which is extant already in the Resuscitatio.
* By mistake it is stated in vol. i. of my edition of Bacon, that there is a MS. of this essay in the Museum.
(a) See Placcii Co nent. in l. 7, Aug. Scient. de Philosophia Morali augenda, in octavo. Franc. an. 1677.
Lord Bacon's Essays, Chamberlain's Letters, 17th Dec. 1612. “ Sir Franci Bacon hath set out new essays, where in a chapter of Deformity, the world take notice that he points out his little cousin to the life.*
See Hay's Essays on Deformity, where there is a running comment upon this essay of Lord Bacon's.
Professor Stewart, in his introductory lecture, says, “ The ethical disqui. sitions of Bacon are almost entirely of a practical nature. Of the two theoretical questions so much agitated in both parts of this island, during the eighteenth century, concerning the principle, and the object of moral approbation, be has said nothing; but he has opened some new and interesting views with respect to the influence of custom and the formation of habits, a most important article of moral philosophy, on which he has enlarged more ably and more usefully than any writer since Aristotle. Under the same head of ethics, may be mentioned the small volume to which he has given the title of Essays; the best known and the most popular of all his works. It is also one of those where the superiority of his genius appears to the greatest advantage; the novelty and depth of his reflections often receiving a strong relief from the *triteness of the subject. It may be read from beginning to end in a few hours; and yet after the twentieth perusal one seldom fails to remark in it something overlooked before. This, indeed, is a characteristic of all Bacon's writings, and is only to be accounted by the inexhaustible aliment they furnish our own thoughts, and the sympathetic activity they impart to our torpid faculties.”. Dugald Stewart's First Dissertation, p. 54.
In the critique upon this introduction in the Edinburgh Review for September, 1816, the author says, “We more properly contrast than compare the experiments in The Natural History, with the moral and political observations which enrich the Advancement of Learning, the Speeches, the Letters, the History of Henry the Seventh, and above all, the Essays, a book which, though it has been praised with equal fervour by Voltaire, Johnson, and Burke, has never been characterized with such exact justice and such exquisite felicity of expression as in the discourse before us. It will serve still more distinctly to mark the natural tendency of his mind, to observe that his moral and political reflections relate to these practical subjects, considered in their most practical point of view; and that he has seldom or never attempted to reduce to theory the infinite particulars of that. civil knowledge' which, as he himself tells us, is, of all others, most immersed in matter, and hardliest reduced to axiom.”. Edinburgh Review, Sept. 1816.
Translations of the Essays.
Latin. Bacon's notice of the Latin edition.—Of this translation, Bacon speaks in the following letter:
“ To Mr. Tobie Matthew. It is true my labours are now most set to have those works which I had for. merly published, as that of Advancement of Learning, that of Henry VII. that of the Essays, being retractate, and made more perfect, well translated into Latin by the help of some good pens, which forsake me not. For these modern languages will, at one time or other, play the bankrupt with books; and since I have lost much time with this age, I would be glad, as God shall give me leave, to recover it with posterity. For the Essay of Friendship, while I took your speech of it for a cursory request, I took my promise for a compliment. But since you call for it, I shall perform it.”
In his letter to Father Fulgentio, t giving some account of his writings, he says, " The Novum Organum should immediately follow, but my Moral and political writings step in between as being more finished. These are the History
* The Earl of Salisbury, the Lord Treasurer, who is elsewhere called by Chamberlain the “ little great man;" alluding, I suppose, to his size.
+ Baconiana, page 196.
of King Henry the Seventh, and the small book, which in your language you have called Saggi Morali, but I give it a graver title, that of Sermones Fideles, or Interiora Rerum, and these essays will not only be enlarged in number but still more in substance."
In the year 1622, in his letter to the Bishop of Winchester, concerning his published and intended writings, he says, “As for my Essays, and some other particulars of that nature, I count them but as the recreations of my other studies, and in that manner purpose to continue them ; though I am not ignorant that those kind of writings would, with less pains and assiduity, perhaps yield more lustre and reputation to my name than the others I have in hand; but I judge the use a man should seek in publishing his writings before his death to be but an untimely anticipation of that which is proper to follow, and not to go along with him.”—Then see his Dedications to the different editions.
Tennison's Notice of Latin Edition. The nature of the Latin edition and of the Essays in general is thus stated by Archbisbop Tennison :
“ The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, though a by-work also, do yet make up a book of greater weight by far than the apothegms: and coming home to men's business and bosoms, his lordship entertained this persuasion concerning them, that the Latin volume might last as long as books should last. His lordship wrote them in the English tongue, and enlarged them as occasion served, and at last added to them the Colours of Good and Evil, which are likewise found in his book De Augmentis. The Latin translation of them was a work performed by divers hands; by those of Doctor Hacket (late Bishop of Lichfield), Mr. Benjamin Johnson (the learned and judicious poet), and some others, whose names I once heard from Dr. Rawley; but I cannot now recal them. To this Latin edition, he gave the title of Sermones Fideles, after the manner of the Jews, who called the words Adagies, or Observations of the Wise, Faithful Sayings; that is, credible propositions worthy of firm assent and ready acceptance. And (as I think) he alluded more particularly, in this title, to a passage in Ecclesiastes, where the Preacher saith that he sought to find out Verba Delectabilia (as I'remellius rendereth the Hebrew), pleasant words (that is, perhaps, his Book of Canticles ;) and Verba Fidelia (as the same Tremellius), Faithful Sayings; meaning, it may be, his Collection of Proverbs. In the next verse, he calls them words of the wise, and so many goads and nails given · Ab eodem pastore,' from the same shepherd (of the Rock of Israel]."
Publication of Latin Edition by Ruwley. In the year 1638, Rawley published in folio a volume containing amongst other works, “Sermones Fideles, ab ipso Honoratissimo Auctore, prætorquam in paucis, Latinitate donatus." In his address to the reader he says: “ Accedunt quas prius Delibationes Civiles et Morales inscripserat : quasetiam in linguas plurimas modernas translatas esse novit sed eas postea et numero, et pondere, auxit; in tantum, ut veluti opus novum videri possint ; quas mutato titulo, Sermones Fideles sive Interiora Rerum, inscribi placuit. Addi etiam voluit. The title page, dedication, and the table of contents are annexed :
Sermones Fideles sive, Interiora Rerum. Per Franciscum Baconum Baronem de Verulamio, Vice-Comitem Sancti Albani. Londini, Excusum, typis Edwardi Griffin. Prostant ad Insignia Regia in Cæmeterio D. Pauls, apud Richurdum Whitakerum, 1638. Illustri and Excellenti Domino Georgio Duci Buckinghamiæ, summo Angliæ
Admirallio. Honoratissime Domine,-Salomon inquit, Nomen bonum est instar vnguenti fragrantis et pretiosi ; neque dubito, quintale futurum sit nomen tuum apud posteros. Etenim et fortuna, et meritatua, præcelluerunt. Et videris ea plantas uæsint duratura. In lucem jam edere mihi visum est Delibationes meas, quæ ex omnibus meis operibus fuerunt acceptissimæ : quia forsitan videntur, præ cæteris, hominum negotia stringere, et in sinus fuere. Eas autem auxi, et numero, et pondere : in tantum, ut plane opus novum sint. Consentaneum igitur duxi, affectui, et obligationi meæ, erga illustrissimam dominationem tuam, ut nomen tuum illis præfigam, tam in editione Anglica, quam Latina. Etenim, in bona spe sum, volumen earum in Latinam, (linguam scilicet universalem) versum, posse durare, quamdiu libri et literæ durent. Înstaurationem meam regi dicavi : Historiam Regni Henrici Septiini, (quam etiam in Latinum verti) et portiones meas Naturalis Historiæ principi : has autem delibationes illustrissimæ dominationi tuæ dico ; cùm sint, ex fructibus optimis quos gratia divinâ calami mei laboribus indulgente, exhibere potui. Deus illustrissimam dominationem tuam manu ducat. Illustrissimæ Dominationis tuæ servus devinctissimus et fidelis, Fr. S. ALBAN.
Index Sermonum. 1. De Veritate.
pag. 153 30. De Regimine Valetudinis. 214 2. De Morte. 155 31. De Suspicione.
215 3. De Vnitate Ecclesiæ.
156 | 32. De Discursu Sermonum. 215 4. De Uindicta.
159 | 33. De Plantationibus Populo5. De Rebus adversis. 160 rum et Coloniis.
217 6. De Dissimulatione et Simu- 34. De Divitiis.
220 latione. 161 35. De Ambitione.
222 7. De Parentibus et Liberis. 163 36. De Natura, et Indole Naturali 8. De Nuptiis et Cælibatu. 164 in Hominibus,
224 9. De Invidia.
165 37. De Consuetudine et Educa. 10. De Amore.
225 11. De Magistratibus et Dignita- 38. De Fortuna.
170 | 39. De Usura sive Fænore. 228 12. De Audacia.
17240. De Juuentute et Senectute. 230 13. De Bonitate, et Bonitate Na- 41. De Pulchritudine.
232 tiva. 173 42. De Deformitate.
233 14.. De Nobilitate. 175 43. De Ædificiis.
234 15. De Seditionibus et Turbis, 17644. De Hortis.
237 16. De Atheismo. 183 45. De Negotiatione.
242 17. De Superstitione.
185 | 46. De Clientibus, Famulis, et 18. De Peregratione in partes ex
244 19. De Imperio.
188 48. De Studiis, et Lectione Libro20. De Consilio. 191
246 21. De Mora. 194 49. De Factionibus.
247 22. De Astutia.
195 50. De cæremoniis Civilibus, et 23. De Prudentia quæ sibi sapit. 197 Decoro.
248 24. De Innovationabus. 198 51. De Laude.
250 25. De Expediendis Negotiis 19952. De Vana Gloria.
251 26. De Prudentia apparente.
201 | 53. De Honore et Existimatione. 252 27. De Amicitia, 202 54. De Officio Judicis.
254 28. De Sumptibus. 206 55. De Ira.
256 29. De Proferendis Finibus Im. 56. De Vicissitudine Rerum. 258 perii.
207 By comparing the Tables of Contents of the English edition of 1625 and the Latin edition of 1638, it will be seen that they consist of the same essays, except that the Latin edition does not contain either of the Essays Of Prophecies or Of Masks and Triumphs, which seem not to have been translated.
Retranslations of Latin into English. In some editions the editors have substituted their own translations of the Latin for the beautiful English by Lord Bacon. How well they have succeeded the reader may judge by the following specimens. In a translation published by William H. Willymott, LL.D. A.D. 1720, he says, “ Wanting an English book for my scholars to translate, which might improve them in
sense and Latin at once, (two things which should never be divided in teaching) I thought nothing more proper for that purpose than Bacon's Essays, provided the English, which is in some places grown obsolete, were a little reformed, and made more fashionable. Accordingly having by me his lordship's Latin volume of the Essays, (which as it was a later, so seems to be a perfecter book) I fell to translating it, not tying myself strictly to the Latin, but comparing both languages together, and setting down that sense (where there was any difference) that seemed the fullest and plainest.”
The following is a specimen :
Lord Bacon. “ The principal virtue of prosperity " But to speak in a mean, the is temperance; of adversity, fortitude; virtue of prosperity is temperance, the which in morals is reputed the most virtue of adversity is fortitude, which heroical virtue. Again, prosperity be- in morals is the more heroical virtue. longs to the blessings of the Old Testa- Prosperity is the blessing of the Old ment; adversity to the beatitudes of Testament, adversity is the blessing of the New, which are both in reality the New, which carrieth the greater greater, and carry a clearer revelation benediction, and the clearer revelation of the divine favour. Yet, even in the of God's favour. Yet, even in the Old Old Testament, if you listen to David's Testament, if you listen to David's harp, you will find more lamentable harp, you shall hear as many herseairs than triumphant ones.”
like airs as carols." So too Shaw has made a similar attempt, of which the following is a specimen from the Essay “ Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature :" Lord Bacon.
Dr. Shaw. " The parts and signs of goodness " There are several parts and signs are many. If a man be gracious and of goodness. If a man be civil and courteous to strangers, it shews he is a courteous to strangers, it shews him a citizen of the world, and that his heart citizen of the world, whose heart is no is no island cut off from other lands, island cut off from other lands, but a but a continent that joins to them; if continent that joins them. If he be he be compassionate towards the afflic- compassionate to the afflicted, it shews tions of others, it shews that his heart a noble soul, like the tree which is is like the noble tree that is wounded wounded when it gives the balm. If itself when it gives the balm : if he he easily pardons and forgives offences, easily pardons and remits offences, it it shews a mind perched above the shews that his mind is planted above reach of injuries. If he be thankful injuries, so that he cannot be shot; if for small benefits, it shews he values he be thankful for small benefits, it men's minds before their treasure." shews that he weighs men's minds, and not their trash."
Dr. Shaw, in his preface, says, A modern well-wisher to his works had said that the English edition of the Essays may be as durable as the Latin edition, if some equal hand would, once in a century, repair the decays of their fleeting language. Dr. Shaw has not contented himself with an alteration of the style, but has altered the arrangement of the essays, by classing them into
French. Essays Moraui. Tres Honorable Seigneur Francois Bacon Chevalier Baron de Verulam et grand Chancelier d'Angleterre traduites in Francois par le Sieur Arthur Georges, Chevalier Anglois. Scutura invincibile Fides. A Londres, chez Tenor Bell, 1619.