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titions nor fancies. But, however, I shall most humbly desire your highness to accept them in gracious part, and to conceive, that if I cannot rest, but must shew my dutiful and devoted affection to your highness in these things which proceed from myself, I shall be much more ready to do it in performance of any of your princely commandments. And so wishing your highness all princely felicity, I rest your Highness' most humble servant, 1612.

FR. BACON. It was dedicated as follows :

To my loving Brother, Sir John Constable, Knight.* My last Essaies I dedicated to my deare brother Master Anthony Bacon, who is with God. Looking amongst my papers this vacation, I found others of the same nature : which if I myselfe shall not suffer to be lost, it seemeth the world will not; by the often printing of the former. Missing my brother, I found you next, in respect of bond both of neare alliance, and of straight friendship and societie, and particularly of communication in studies. Wherein I must acknowledge my selfe beholding to you. For as my businesse found rest in my contemplations; so my contemplations ever found rest in your louing conference and judgment. So wishing you all good, I remaine

Your louing brother and friend, Fra. BACON. The Table of Essays is, 1. Of Religion.

21. Of Riches.
2. Of Death.

22. Of Ambition.
3. Of Goodnes and goodnes of 23. Of Young men and age.
nature.

24. Of Beautie.
4. Of Cunning.

25. Of Deformitie.
5. Of Marriage and single life. 26. Of nature in Man.
6. Of Parents and Children.

27. Of Custome and Education. 7. Of Nobilitie.

28. Of Fortune. 8. Of Great place.

29. Of Studies. 9. Of Empire.

30. Of Ceremonies and Respects. 10. Of Counsell.

31. Of Sutors. 11. Of Dispatch.

32. Of Followers. 12. Of Loue.

33. Of Negociating. 13. Of Friendshippe.

34. Of Faction. 14. Of Atheisme.

35. Of Praise. 15. Of Superstition.

36. Of Iudicature. 16. Of Wisdome for a Mans selfe. 37. Of vaine glory. 19. Of Regiment of Health.

38. Of greatnes of Kingdomes. 18. Of Expences.

39. Of the publike. 19. Of Discourse.

40. Of Warre and peace. 20. Of Seeming wise. It is an octavo of 241 pages; and the two last essays “Of the Publique,” and “Of War and Peace,” although mentioned in the table of contents, are not contained in the body of the work.t

This edition contains all the Essays which are in the preceding editions, except the Essay “Of Honor and Reputation :” and the title in the former editions of the Essay Of Followers and Friends,” is in this edition “ Of Followers,” and there is a separate Essay Of Friendship.” The essays in italics are in the former editions.

These essays are more extensive than the essays in the preceding editions, according to the manner of the author, who says, “ I always alter when I add ;

* Francis Bacon married Alice Burnham, and Sir John Constable married her sister, Dorothy Burnham. In Lord Bacon's will, he says, Sir John Constab'e, Knight, my brother-in-law; and he nominates him as one of his execu

+ There is a copy in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian ; and I have a copy.

tors.

so that nothing is finished till all is finished.** As a specimen, the Essay “Of Study," in the first edition ends with the words “ able to contend.” The edition of 1612 is the same as the former edition, but it thus continues : Abeunt studia in mores;" " nay, there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises; bowling is good for the stone and reins, shooting for the lungs and breast, gentle walking for the stomach, riding for the head, and the hke; so if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again ; if his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen, for they are Cymini sectores, if he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call upon one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyer's cases; so every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.”

Fifth Edition, Jaggard, 1612. Essaies, Religious Meditations, Places of persuasion and dissuasion. Scene and allowed. Printed at London for Johr Jaggerd, dwelling in Fleete-streete at the Hand and Stærte neere Temple barre. 1612. This edition may be divided into two parts:

(l. Of the Essays which were contained in the The first part consisting,

edition of 1606.
2. Religious Meditations.

3. Places of Perswasion and Disswasion. The second part consisting for such Essays in the edition of 1612 as are

not inserted in the first part. It seems that Jaggard supposed, that because the titles of certain essays in the different editions were the same, the essays were not altered ; but it was Lord Bacon's custom, as stated in his letter io Mr. Matthews, with his book " De Sapientia Veterum,” “ always to alter when I add, so that nothing is finished till all is finished.” This was the custom of Lord Bacon, a custom most probably ever attendant upon the fertility of genius. Mr. Jaggard, therefore, seems to have imagined that, in substance, bis edition was as complete as the edition published in the same year by Lord Bacon. By comparing either of the essays in the edition of 1606 (Of Studies,” for instance), the error will appear. This edition, therefore, although it consists of 39 Essays (viz. 10 and 29), does not contain the perfect essays upon the same subjects which are in the edition published by Lord Bacon in 1612.

The following table will exhibit the Essays contained in this edition.
The first part consists of the Essays in the edition of 1606.

The second part consists of 29 of the essays upon new subjects which are contained in the edition published by Lord Bacon in 1612 ; so that this consists of 39 Essays, but the edition published by Lord Bacon in 1612, although nominally containing 40 Essays, really consisted only of 38, the two last in the title page not being inserted in the body of the work.

“ To Mr. Matthews; along with the Book De Sapientia Veterum.-I heartily thank you for your letter of the 24th of August, from Salamanca ; and, in recompence, send you a little work of mine, that has begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become current. been bere, you should have been my inquisitor before it came forth : but I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. One thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, because the author dissents in religion ; no more than they do by Aristotle or Averroes. My great work goes forward ; and after my manner, I always alter when I add : so that nothing is finished till all is finished. This I have wrote in the midst of a term and parliament; thinking no time so possessed, but that I should talk of these matters with so good and dear a friend.-Gray's Inn, Feb. 27, 1610."

Had you

Titles of 1606, and 1st

Titles of 1612,

Tiiles of 1612. part of Jaggard's edition

Beale.

in 2nd part af Juggard's of 1612.

edition. 1. Of Studie. 1. Of Religion.

1. Of Religion. 2. Of Discourse. 2. Of Death.

2. Of Death. 3. Of Ceremonies and 3. Of Goodnesse and 3. Of Goodnesse and Respects.

Goodnesse of Nature. Goodnesse of Nature. 4. Of Followers and 4. Of Cunning.

4. Of Cunning. Friends. 5. Of Sutors.

5. Of Marriage and Sin- 5. Of Marriage and Single Life.

gle Life. 6. Of Expence.

6. Of Parents and Chil- 6. Of Parents and Chil. 7. Of Reginsent of

dren.

dren.
Health.
7. Of Nobilitie.

7. Of Nobilitie.
8. Of Honor and Repu- 8. Of great Place. 8. Of great Place.

tation. 9. Of Faction. 9. Of Empire.

9. Of Empire. 10. Of Negotiating. 10. Of Counsel.

10. Of Counsel. jl. Of Dispatch.

11. Of Dispatch.
12. Of Love.

12. Of Love.
13. Of Friendship. 13. Of Friendship.
14. Of Atheisme.

14. Of Atheisme.
15. Of Superstition. 15. Of Superstition.
16. Of Wisdom for a 16. Wisdom for a Man's
Man's self.

self. 17. Of Regiment of

Health. 18. Of Expences. 19. Of Discourse. 20. Of seeming wise. 17. Of seeming wise. 21. Of Riches.

18. Of Riches. 22. Of Ambition.

19. Of Ambition.
23. Of Young Men and 20. Of Young Men and

Age.
24. Of Beautie.

21. Of Beautie.
25. Of Deformitie. 22. Of Deformitie.
26. Of Nature in Men. 23. Of Nature in Men.
27. Of Custome and 24. Of Custom and Edu-
Education.

cation.
28. Of Fortune.

25. Of Fortune.
29. Of Studies.
30. Of Ceremonies and

Respects.
31. Of Sutors.
32. Of Followers.
33. Of Negotiating.
34. Of Faction.
35. Of Praise.

26. Of Praise.
36. Of Judicature. 27. Of Judicature.
37. Of Vaine Glory. 28. Of Vaine Glory.
38. Of Greatnesse of 29. Of the Greatness of
Kingdoms.

Kingdomes.
39. Of the Publick.
40. Of Warre and Peace.

Sixth Edition, 1613. The next edition was in 1613. It is entitled, The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Aturney Generall, his Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Dissuasion. Seene and allowed. Printed at London for John laggard, dwelling at the Hand und Starre, betweene the two Temple Gates, 1613. It is a

Age.

transcript of the edition of 1612, with the erroneous entries in the table of contents of the two essays, of the Publique” and “ Of Warre and Peace," which are omitted in the body of the work; but it contains a transcript from the editions of 1597 and 1606, of the essay “Of Honor and Reputation," which is omitted in the edition of 1612. This edition, probably, originated in Jag. gard's having discovered his error with respect to the edition of 1612, and his hope to make it more complete by the addition of the essay of “Honor and Reputation,” without inquiring whether it was in substance incorporated in either of the new essays in Lord Bacon's edition of 1612. Does not this seem further evidence that these editions were pirated ?

Seventh Edition, 1614. The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Atturney Generall. His Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Disswasion. Seene and allowed. Edinburgh, Printed by Andro Hart. 1614.

This is, as it seems, a transcript of Jaggard's edition of 1613, consisting of 41 essays in the table of contents, and omitting 39 and 40 in the body of the work, and containing the Essay 41," Of Honor and Reputation.” The Essay " Of Superstition" in this edition of 1614 is entitled 12, but it ought to be 15. There is the same error in the edition of 1613: so too the Essay “Of Followers and Friends" is, in both, entitled 33, but it ought to be 32.

Eighth Edition, 1624. The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Atturney Generall. His Religious Meditations. Places of Persuasion and Disswasion. Seene and allowed. Printed at London, by 1. D. for Elisabeth Jaggard, at the Hand and Starre, neere the Middle Temple gate, 1624.

This edition is copied from the edition of 1613. The error with respect to the title of the Essay of Followers and Friends” is corrected in this edition ; as in this edition it is, as it ought to have been in the edition of 1613-32. As this is published by Jaggard, it is probably by the widow of John Jaggard, as it is printed by I. D. for Elizabeth Jaggard.

Ninth Edition, 1625. The Essayes or Covnsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscornt St. Alban. Newly enlarged. London, Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret and Richard Whitaker, and are to be sold at the signe of the King's head in Paul's Churchyard. 1625.

This edition is a small quarto of 340 pages ; it clearly was published by Lord Bacon. It was published in 1625, and in the next year, 1626, Lord Bacon died. It is dedicated in the following dedication, to the Duke of Buckingham : To the Right Honorable my very good Lo. the Duke of Buckingham his Grace,

Lo. High Admirall of England. Excellent Lo.-Salomon saies, A good name is as a precious oyntment; and I assure myselfe, such wil your grace's name bee, with posteritie. For your fortune and merit both, haŭe beene eminent. And you haue planted things that are like to last. I doe now publish my Essayes; which, of all other workes, have beene most currant : for that, as it seemes, they come home to mens businesse and bosomes. I haue enlarged them, both in number and weight; so that they are indeed a new work. I thought it therefore agreeable to my affection, and obligation to your grace, to prefix your name before them, both in English and in Latine. "For I doe conceiue, that the Latine volume of them (being in the vniuersal language) may last as long as bookes last. My Instauration I dedicated to the king : my Historie of Henry the Seventh, (which I haue now also translated into Latine) and my portions of Naturall History, to the prince : and these I dedicate to your grace: being of the best fruits, that by the good encrease which God gives to my pen and labours, I could yeeld. God leade your grace by the hand. Your Graces most obliged and faithfull seruant, FR. ST. ALBAN.

of this edition Lord Bacon sent a copy to the Marquis Fiat. Baconiana, 201. A Letter of the Lord Bacon's, in French, to the Marquis Fiat, relating to

his Essays. Monsieur l'Ambassadeur mon File,- Voyant que vostre excellence faict et traite mariages, non seulement entre les princes d'Angleterre et de France, mais aussi entre les langues (puis que faictes traduire non liure de l'Advancement des Sciences en Francois) i' ai bien voulu vous envoyer mon liure dernierement imprimé que i' avois pourveu pour vous, mais i' estois en doubte, de le vous envoyer, pour ce qu'il estoit escrit en Anglois. Mais a' cesť heure pour la raison susdicte ie le vous envoye. C'est un recompilement de mes Essays Morales et Civiles; mais tellement enlargiés et enrichiés, tant de nombre que de poix, que c'est de fait un oeuvre nouveau. Ie vous baise les mains, et reste, vostre tres affectionée ami, ex tres humble serviteur.

The same in English, by the Publisher. My Lord Ambassador, my Son,-Seeing that your excellency makes and treats of marriages, not only betwixt the princes of France and England, but also betwixt their languages (for you have caused my book of the Advancement of Learning to be translated into French), I was much inclined to make you a present of the last book which I published, and which I had in readiness for you. I was sometimes in doubt whether I ought to have sent it to you, because it was written in the English tongue. But now, for that very reason, I send it to you. It is a recompilement of my Essays, Moral and Civil; but in such manner enlarged and enriched both in number and weight, that it is in effect ą new work. I kiss your hands, and remain your most affectionate friend and most humble servant, &c.

The titles of the Essays in this edition are as follows : 1. Truth.

30. Regiment of Health. 2. Death.

31. Suspicion. 3. Unity in Religion.

32. Discourse. 4. Revenge.

33. Plantations.
5. Adversity.

34. Riches.
6. Simulation and Dissimulation. 35. Prophecies.
7. Parents and Children.

36. Ambition.
8. Marriage and Single Life. 37. Masks and Triumphs.
9. Envy.

38. Nature in Men. 10. Love.

39. Custom and Education. 11. Great Place.

40. Fortune. 12. Boldness.

41. Usury. 13. Goodness, and Goodness of 42. Youth and Age. Nature.

43. Beauty. 14. Nobility.

44. Deformity. 15. Seditions and Troubles.

45. Building 16. Atheism.

46. Gardens. 17. Superstition.

47. Negociating. 18. Travel.

48. Followers and Friends. 19. Empire.

49. Suitors. 20. Counsel.

50. Studies. 21. Delays.

51. Faction. 22. Cunning.

52. Ceremonies and Respects. 23. Wisdom for a Man's self.

53. Praise. 24. Innovations.

54. Vain Glory. 25. Dispatch.

55. Honour and Reputation. 26. Seeming wise.

56. Judicature. 27. Friendship:

57. Anger: 28. Expense.

58. Vicissitudes of Things. 29. The true Greatness of King

doms and Estates.

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