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transcript of the edition of 1612, with the erroneous entries in the table of contents of the two essays, “Of the Publique” and “Of Warre and Peace," which are omitted in the body of the work; but it contains a transcript from the editions of 1597 and 1606, of the essay Of Honor and Reputation,” which is omitted in the edition of 1612. This edition, probably, originated in Jag. gard's having discovered his error with respect to the edition of 1612, and his hope to make it more complete by the addition of the essay of “ Honor and Reputation,” without inquiring whether it was in substance incorporated in either of the new essays in Lord Bacon's edition of 1612. Does not this seem further evidence that these editions were pirated ?

Seventh Edition, 1614. The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Atturney Generall. His Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Disswasion. Seene and allowed. Edinburgh, Printed by Andro Hart. 1614.

This is, as it seems, a transcript of Jaggard's edition of 1613, consisting of 41 essays in the table of contents, and omitting 39 and 40 in the body of the work, and containing the Essay 41,"Of Honor and Reputation.” The Essay “ Of Superstition" in this edition of 1614 is entitled 12, but it ought to be 15. There is the same error in the edition of 1613 : so too the Essay “Of Followers and Friends" is, in both, entitled 33, but it ought to be 32.

Eighth Edition, 1624. The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Atturney Generall. His Religious Meditations. Places of Persuasion and Disswasion. Seene and allowed. Printed at London, by 1. D. for Elisabeth Jaggard, at the Hand and Starre, neere the Middle Temple gate, 1624.

This edition is copied from the edition of 1613. The error with respect to the title of the Essay of " Followers and Friends” is corrected in this edition ; as in this edition it is, as it ought to have been in the edition of 1613-32. As this is published by Jaggard, it is probably by the widow of John Jaggard, as it is printed by 1. D. for Elizabeth Jaggard.

Ninth Edition, 1625. The Essayes or Covnsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscornt St. Alban. Newly endurged. London, Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret and Richard Whitaker, and are to be sold at the signe of the King's head in Paul's Churchyard. 1625.

This edition is a small quarto of 340 pages ; it clearly was published by Lord Bacon. It was published in 1625, and in the next year, 1626, Lord Bacon died. It is dedicated in the following dedication, to the Duke of Buckingham : To the Right Honorable my very good Lo. the Duke of Buckingham his Grace,

Lo. High Admirall of England. Excellent Lo.-Salomon saies, A good name is as a precious oyntment; and I assure myselle, such wil your grace's name bee, with posteritie. For your fortune and merit both, haùe beene eminent. And you haue planted things that are like to last. I doe now publish my Essayes; which, of all other workes, have beene most currant: for that, as it seemes, they come home to mens businesse and bosomes. I haue enlarged them, both in number and weight; so that they are indeed a new work. I thought it therefore agreeable to my affection, and obligation to your grace, to prefix your name before them, both in English and in Latine. For I doe conceiue, that the Latine volume of them (being in the vniuersal language) may last as long as bookes last. My Instaurafon I dedicated to the king : my Historie of Henry the Seventh, (which I haue now also translated into Latine) and my portions of Naturall History, to the prince : and these I dedicate to your grace: being of the best fruits, that by the good encrease which God gives to my pen and labours, I could yeeld. God leade your grace by the hand. Your Graces most obliged and faithfull seruant, Fr. St. Alban.

Of this edition Lord Bacon sent a copy to the Marquis Fiat. Baconiana, 201. A Letter of the Lord Bacon's, in French, to the Marquis Fiat, relating to

his Essays. Monsieur l'Ambassadeur mon File,--Voyant que vostre excellence faict et traite mariages, non seulement entre les princes d'Angleterre et de France, mais aussi entre les langues (puis que faictes traduire non Jiure de l’Advancement des Sciences en Francois) i'ai bien voulu vous envoyer mon liure dernierement imprimé que i' avois pourveu pour vous, mais i' estois en doubte, de le vous envoyer, pour ce qu'il estoit escrit en Anglois. Mais a' cesť heure pour la raison susdicte ie le vous envoye. C'est un recompilement de mes Essays Morales et Civiles; mais tellement enlargiés et enrichiés, tant de nombre que de poix, que c'est de fait un oeuvre nouveau. Ie vous baise les mains, et reste, vostre tres affectionée ami, ex tres humble serviteur.

The same in English, by the Publisher. My Lord Ambassador, my Son,-Seeing that your excellency makes and treats of marriages, not only betwixt the princes of France and England, but also betwixt their languages (for you have caused my book of the Advancement of Learning to be translated into French), I was much inclined to make you a present of the last book which I published, and which I had in readiness for you. I was sometimes in doubt whether I ought to have sent it to you, because it was written in the English tongue. But now, for that very reason, I send it to you. It is a recompilement of my Essays, Moral and Civil; but in such manner enlarged and enriched both in number and weight, that it is in effect a new work. I kiss your hands, and remain your most affectionate friend and most humble servant, &c.

The titles of the Essays in this edition are as follows : 1. Truth.

30. Regiment of Health, 2. Death.

31. Suspicion. 3. Unity in Religion.

32. Discourse. 4. Revenge.

33. Plantations.
5. Adversity

34. Riches.
6. Simulation and Dissimulation. 35. Prophecies.
7. Parents and Children.

36. Ambition.
8. Marriage and Single Life. 37. Masks and Triumphs.
9. Envy.

38. Nature in Men. 10. Love.

39. Custom and Education. 11. Great Place.

40. Fortune. 12. Boldness.

41. Usury. 13. Goodness, and Goodness of 42. Youth and Age. Nature.

43. Beauty. 14. Nobility.

44. Deformity. 15. Seditions and Troubles.

45. Building. 16. Atheism.

46. Gardens. 17. Superstition.

47. Negociating. 18. Travel.

48. Followers and Friends. 19. Empire.

49. Suitors. 20. Counsel.

50. Studies. 21. Delays.

51. Faction. 22. Cunning

52. Ceremonies and Respects. 23. Wisdom for a Man's self.

53. Praise. 24. Innovations.

54. Vain Glory: 25. Dispatch.

55. Honour and Reputation. 26. Seeming wise.

56. Judicature, 27. Friendship

57. Anger: 28. Expense.

58. Vicissitudes of Things. 29. The true Greatness of King

doms and Estates.

The following tables will shew the variations in the titles of the Essays in the different editions :

1597.

1612. Essays of 1597 in

Italics.

1625. Figures to the right are Order order in 1612. Essays of

of 1597 in Italics. 1612.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

1. Of Study.
1. Of Religion.

1. Of Truth. 2. Of Discourse. 2. Of Death.

2. Of Death. 3. Of Ceremnonies and 3. Of Goodnesse and 3. Of Vnitie in ReliRespects.

Goodnesse of Na- gion.

ture. 4. Of Followers and 4. Of Cunning. 4. Of Revenge.

Friends. 5. Of Sutors,

5. Of Marriage and 5. Of Adversitie.

Single Life. 6. Of Expence.

6. Of Parents and 6. Of Simulation and
Children.

Dissimulation. 7. Of Regiment of 7. Of Nobilitie. 7. Of Parents and Ilealth.

Children. 8. Of Honor and Re. 8. Of Great Place. 8. Of Marriage and putation.

Single Life. 9. Of Faction. 9. Of Empire.

9. Of Envie. 10. Of Negotiating. 10. Of Counsell. 10. Of Love.

11. Of Dispatch. 11. Of Great Place.
12. Of Love.

12. Of Boldnesse.
13. Of Friendshippe. 13. Of Goodnesse and

Goodnesse of Na

ture.
14. Of Atheisme. 14. Of Nobilitie.
15. Of Superstition. 15. Of Sedition and

Troubles.
16. Of Wisdome for a 16. Of Atheisme.

Man's self.
17. Of Regiment of 17. Of Superstition.

Health.
18. Of Eupence. 18. Of Travaile.
19. Of Discourse.

19. Of Empire.
20. Of seeming wise. 20. Of Counsell.
21. Of Riches. 21. Of Delays.
22. Of Ambition. 22. Of Cunning:
23. Of Young Men and 23. Of Wisdome for a
Age.

Man's self.
24. Of Beautie. 24. Of Innovation.
25. Of Deformitie. 25. Of Dispatch.
26. Of Nature in Men. 26. Of seeming wise.
27. Of Custom and 27. Of Friendship.

Education.
28. Of Fortune. 28. Of Erpence.
29. Of Studies. 29. Of the true Great-

nesse of Kingdomes

and Estates.
30. Of Ceremonies and 30. Of Regiment of
Respects.

İlealth.
31. Of Sutors. 31. Of Suspicions.
32. Of Followers. 32. Of Discourse.
33. Of Vegotiating.

33. Of Plantations.
34. Of Fuction. 34. Of Riches.
35. Of Praise. 35. Of Prophecies.

14

15

9 10

4

16

11 20 13

18

17

19

21

33

32

Order 1597. 1612

1625

of (continued).

(continued). 1612. 36. Of Judicature. 36. Of Ambition.

22 37. Of Vaine Glory. 37. Of Masks and Tri

umphs. 38. Of Greatnesse of 38. Of Nature in Men. 26

Kingdomes. 39. Of Custom and 39. Of the Publick.* Education.

27 40. Of Warre and 40. Of Fortune.

28 Peace.*

41. Of Usury
42. Of Youth and Age. 23
43. Of Beautie.

24
44. Of Deformitie. 25
45. Of Building.
46. Of Gardens.
47. Of Negotiating.
48. Of Followers and

Friends. 49. Of Sutors.

31 50. Of Studies.

29 51. Of Faction.

34 52. Of Ceremonies and Respects.

30 53. Of Praise.

35 54. Of Vaine Glory, 37 55. Of Honor and Re

putation. 56. Of Judicature. 36 57. Of Anger. 58. Of Vicissitude of

Things.

Modern Editions. In 1629, three years after the death of Lord Bacon, an edition was published by Haviland, by whom the edition of 1625 was published. It is the same as the edition of 1625, except that the table of contents in 1629 is arranged alphabetically ; and the Colours of Good and Evil are annexed. Another edition was published in 1632 by Haviland, and another in 1639 by Beale. Since that time the press has abounded with editions.

Posthumous Essays.
There are three posthumous essays :

1. A Fragment of an Essay of Fame.
2. Of a King

3. On Death. Fragment of an Essay on Fame. The authenticity of this tract is indisputable. In the year 1657 Dr. Rawley published, in the first edition of the Resuscitatio, " A Fragment of an Essay of Fame,” it is noticed in the Baconiana by Archbishop Tennison, in the account of Lord Bacon's works. He says, To this book of Essays may be annexed that fragment of an Essay of Fame, which is extant already in the Resuscitatio, P

281. Essay of a King. Of the authenticity of this essay, the reader will form his own judgment from the following facts :

1. In the various editions of the Essays published during the life of Lord Bacon, there is not any allusion direct or indirect 2. There is not any allusion direct or indirect to this essay by any person

5

this essay.

VOL. XV.

who had access to the papers of Lord Bacon. Dr. Rawley does not mention it, and he expressly says, in his address to the reader in the Resuscitatio, in 1657 : Having been employed as an amanuensis, or daily instrument, to this honourable author, and acquainted with his lordship’s conceits, in the composing of his works, for many years together, especially in his writing time, I conceived that no man could pretend a better interest or claim to the ordering of them after his death than myself. For which cause, I have compiled in one whatsoever bears the true stamp of his lordship's excellent genius, and hath hitherto slept and been suppressed in this present volume, not leaving any thing to a future hand, which I found to be of moment, and communicable to the public; save only some few Latin works, which, by God's favour and sufferance, shall soon after follow.”

Dr. Rawley's son was chaplain to Archbishop Tennison, who, in his Baconiana, published in 1679, says, It is my purpose to give a true and plain account of the designs and labours of a very great philosopher amongst us; and to offer to the world, in some tolerable method, those remains of his which to that end were put into my hands. Something of this hath been done already by his lordship himself, and something further hath been added by the Reverend Dr. Rawley ; but their remarks lay scattered in divers places, and bere they are put under one view, and have received very ample enlargements.". But the Essay of a King is not mentioned by the Archbishop, although, when commenting upon the essays, he notices the “ Fragment of an Essay on Fame."

3. In the century after the death of Lord Bacon, which was in April 1626, various spurious works were ascribed to Lord Bacon. Dr. Rawley, in his address to the reader in the Resuscitatio, in 1657, says, “ It is true that, for some of the pieces herein contained, his lordship did not aim at the publication of them, but at the preservation only, and prohibiting them from perishing : so as to have been reposed in some private shrine or library; but now for that, through the loose keeping of his lordship's papers, divers surreptitious copies have been taken, which have since employed the press with sundiy corrupt and mangled editions ; whereby nothing hath been more difficult than to find the Lord Saint Alban in the Lord Saint Alvan, and which have presented (some of them) rather a fardle of nonsense than any true expressions of his lordship's happy vein; I thought myself, in a sort, tied to vindicate these injuries and wrongs done to the monuments of his lordship's pers, and at once, by setting forth the true and genuine writings themselves, to prevent the like invasions for the time to come. And the rather, in regard of the distance of the time since his lordship's days, whereby I shall not tiead too near upon the heels of truth, or of the passages and persons then concerned, I was induced hereunto, which, considering the lubricity of life, and for that I account myself to be not now in vergentibus, but in præcipitantibus annis, I was desirous to hasten. Again, he says in the same address : Lastly, if it be objected that some few of the pieces whereof this whole consisteth had visited the public light before, it is true that they had been obtruded to the world by unknown bands, but with such scars and blemishes upon their faces, that they could pass but for a spurious and adulterine brood, and not for his lordship's legitimate issue ; and the publishers and printers of them, deserve to have an action of defamation brought against them by the state of learning, for disgracing and personating his lordship's works.”

4. In the year 1642, the political disturbances in England raged in great fury. « The Commons" (says Hume, speaking of the early part of 1642) were sensible that monarchical government, which during so miany ages had been established in England, would soon regain some degree of its former dignity, after the present tempest was over blown; nor would all their new invented limitations be able totally to suppress an authority to which the nation had ever been accustomed. The sword alone, to which all human ordinances musi snhmit, could guard their acquired power, and fully ensure to them personal safety against the rising indignation of their sovereign : this point, there. fore became the chief object of their aims. Hume, vol. vi. p. 420.

5. In 1642, a traci was published, of which there is a copy in the

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