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klaims without looking back. I humbly pray your lordskip to pardos te lat tumbling you with my melancholy. For the matter itsti, I cou dead to your love , only ! pray you communicate afresh this day with us Lord Ti2229kr hun fir Robert Cecil; and if you esteem my fortune, remember the past * qweredeney, The objections to my competitors your lordship ksowest portr.

fatay spare them not, not over the Queen, but to the great ones, to sbou pour emence, and to work their distrust. Thus longing exceeding to exchange troubling your lordship with serving you, I rest your Lordships, in mosi istare and faithful service, FRANCIS BACON.--March 30, 1594.

I humbly pray your lordship I may hear from you some time this day.

Y Y Life, p. xxxiv. In the postscript to Bushel's Abridgment, page 1, he says, Reader, if thou hast pesused the foregoing treatise of the Isle of Bensalem, wherein the philosophical father of Solomon's house doth perfectly demonstrate my heroick másur (the Lord Chancellor Bacon's) design for the benefit of mankind; then give me leave to tell thee, how far that illustrious lord proceeding the practical part of such his philososhical notions, and when and where they had their first vise, as well as their first eclipse ; their first rise (as I have heard him say) was from the nobile nature of the Karle of Essex’s affection, and so they were clouded by his fall, although he bequeathed to that lord (upon his representing bim willi a secret curiosity of nature, whereby to know the season of every hour of the year by a philosophical glass, placed (with a small proportion of water) in lois chamber,'] T'witham Parke, and its garden of Paradise, to study in. But the sudden change of his royal mistress's countenance acting so tragical a part upon his only friend, and her once dearest favourite, he likewise yielded his law skuties as lost, despairing of any preferment from the present state, as by many of his letters in his book of Remains appears, so that he retired to his philosophy for some few months, from whence he presented the then rising sun (Prince Henry) with an experiment of his second collections, to know the heart of man by a sympathizing stone, made of several mixtures, and ushered in the conceit with this ensuing discourse : Most royal Sir, Since you are by birth the prince of our country, and your virtues the happy pledge to our posterity; and that the seigniority of greatness is ever attended more with flatterers than faithful friends and loyal subjects; and therefore needeth more helps to discern and py into the hearts of the people than private persons. Give me leave, noble bir, as small rivulets run to the vast ocean, to pay their tribute ; so let me have the honour to shiew your highness the operative quality of these triangular stones (as the tirst fruits of my philosophy), to imitate the pathetical motion of the loadstone and iron, although made by the compounds of meteors ( as star shot jelly) and other like magical ingredients, with the reflected beams of the sun, on purpose that the warmth distilled unto them through the moist heat of the banii, might discover the atlection of the heart, by a visible sign of their attraction and appetite to each other, like the hand of a watch, within ten minutes after they air laid upon a marble table, or the theatre of a large looking glast, I write not this as a teigned story, but as a real truth; for I was never quier in mind till I had procured those jewels of my lord's philosophy from Mr. Achry I'rimrose, the prince's page.

This love of philosophy thus appears in all his times of adversity. So true is his observation, in his History of Arts : -As a man's disposition is never well known vill he be crosseul, nor l'roteus ever changed shapes till he was straitened and held fast; so the passages and variations of nature cannot appear so fully in the liberty of nature, as in the trials and vexations of art.

Of this invention Archbishop Tennison, in bis Baconiana, page 18, thus speaks : His second invention was a secret curiosity of nature, whereby to know the season of every hour of the year, by a philosophical glass placed (with a small proportion of water) in a chamber. This invention I describe in the words of him, from whom I had the notice of it, Mr. Thomas Bushel, one of his lordship's menial servants, a man skiltul in disco triug and opening of

mines, and famous for his curious water-works, in Oxfordshire, by which he imitated rain, hail, the rainbow, thunder and lightning. This secret cannot be that instrument which we call vitrum calendare, or the weather-glass, the Lord Bacon in his writings, speaking of that as a thing in ordinary use,

and commending, not water, but rectified spirit of wine in the use of it. Nor (being an instrument made with water) is it likely to have shewed changes of the air with so much exactness as the latter baroscope made with mercury. And yet, it should seem to be a secret of high value, by the reward it is said to have procured. For the Earl of Essex (as he in his Extract, page 17, reporteth) when Mr. Bacon had made a present of it to him, was pleased to be very bountiful in his thanks, and bestow upon him Twicknam Park, and its garden of paradise, as a place for his studies. I confess I have not faith enough to believe the whole of this relation. And yet I believe the Earl of Essex was extremely liberal, and free even to profuseness; that he was a great lover of learned men, being, in some sort, one of them himself; and that with singular patronage he cherished the hopeful parts of Mr. Bacon, who also studied his fortunes and service. Yet Mr. Bacon himself, where he professeth his unwillingness to be short, in the commemoration of the favours of that earl, is, in this great one, perfectly silent.

Of his practical inventive powers, more fit for the hand of a mechanic than of a philosopher, Tennison, in his Baconiana thus speaks :- I doubt not but his mechanical inventions were many. But I can call to mind but three at this time, and of them I can give but a very broken account; and, for his instruments and ways in recovering deserted mines, I can give no account at all; though certainly, without new tools and peculiar inventions, he would never have undertaken that new and hazardous work. Of the three inventions which come now to my memory, the first was an engine representing the motion of the planets. Of this I can say no more than what I find, in his own words, in one of his miscellany papers in manuscript. The words are these : “ I did once cause to be represented to me, by wires, the motion of some planets, in fact as it is, without theories of orbs, &c. And it seemed a strange and extravagant motion. One while they moved in spires forwards; another while they did unwind themselves in spires backwards : one while they made larger circles, and higher; another while smaller circles, and lower : one while they moved to the north, in their spires, another while to the south,” &c.

But there is, in his Apologie, another story, which may seem to have given to Mr. Bushel the occasion of his mistake. “ After the Queen had denied to Mr. Bacon the Solicitor's place, for the which the Earl of Essex had been a long and earnest suitor on his behalf, it pleased that earl to come to him from Richmond to Twicknam Park, and thus to break with him : Mr. Bacon, the Queen hath denied me the place for you. You fare ill, because you have chosen me for your mean and dependance : you have spent your thoughts and time in my maiters; I die if I do not do somewhat towards your fortune. You shall not deny to accept a piece of land which I will bestow upon you.” And it was,

it seems, so large a piece, that he undersold it for no less than eighteen hundred pounds.

Of this I find nothing, either in his lordship’s experiments touching Emission, or Immateriate Virtues, from the Minds and Spirits of Men ; or in those concerning the secret virtue of Sympathy and Antipathy. Wherefore I forbear to speak further in an argument about which I am so much in the dark.

I proceed to subjects upon which I can speak with much more assurance, his inimitable writings.

Note.-The late Lord Stanhope invented an instrument of this nature to discover the insensible perspiration. It consisted of a small crystal cylinder, very convex at one end, and less convex at the other, and when the large convexity was pressed upon the skin it was immediately beaded with perspiration as with dew, which was perceptible by looking through the great convexity. I once had the instrument in my possession. I have seen other inventions of the same nature, as small fish made of a thin horny substance, which, with the heating of the hand, became apparently animated.-B. M.

zz. Life, p. xxxiv.

Mr. Francis Bacon to the Queen. Most gracious and admirable Sovereign, -As I do acknowledge a providence of God towards me, that findeth it expedient for me tolerare jugum in juventute med ; so this present arrest of mine, by his divine majesty, from your majesty's service, is not the least affliction, that I have proved; and I hope your majesty doth conceive, that nothing under mere impossibility could have detained me from earning so gracious a vail, as it pleased your majesty to give me. But your majesty's service, by the grace of God, shall take no lack thereby; and, thanks to God, it hath lighted upon bim that may be best spared. Only the discomfort is mine, who nevertheless have the private comfort, that in the time I have been made acquainted with this service, it hath been' my hap to stumble upon somewhat unseen, which may import the same, as I made my Lord Keeper acquainted before my going. So leaving it to God to make a good end of a hard beginning, and most humbly craving your majesty's pardon for presuming to trouble you, I recommend your sacred majesty to God's tenderest preservation. Your sacred Majesty's in most humble obedience and devotion, From Huntingdon, this 20th of July, 1594.

FR. Bacon.

3 A. Life, p. xxxv. This appears by a letter to Burleigh, in which, thanking him for former obligations, he says, " Together with your lordship's attempt to give me way by the remove of Mr. Solicitor, in which he says : And now seeing it hath pleased her majesty to take knowledge of this my mind, and to vouchsafe to appropriate me unto her service, preventing any desert of mine with her princely liberality; first, I humbly do beseech your lordship to present to her majesty my more than humble thanks for the same : and withal, having regard to mine own unwor. thiness to receive such favour, and to the small possibility in me to satisfy and answer what her majesty conceiveth, I am moved to become a most humble suitor to her majesty, that this benefit also may be affixed unto the other.”

3 B. Life, p. xxxv. Baker's MSS. Our register is a blank, and nothing entered from the year 1589 to the year 1602 ; but from Bedel Ingram's book, of equal authority in history, though not in law, we have this account:-An. 15 4. Jul. 27. Whereas there is something purposed to be done at this meeting more than usual at con. vocations. Maye it therefore please yow, that this convocation be changed into a congregation, and the same to be effectual to no other intent then for the dis. patch of such matters as shall presently be propounded hearin, and by your approbation and consent, be granted and concluded. This being passed, the Vicechan. dissolved the convocation, and the bedell called a congregation imme. diate, at which congregation this grace following was passed. I lacet vobis, ut Mr. Franciscus Bacon armiger, honorandi et nobilis viri domini Nicholai Bacon militis, magni Angliæ sigilli custodis, ante aliquot annos defuncti, filius, post studium decem annorum, partem in hac academia nostra partim in transmarinis regionibus, in dialecticis, philosophicis, Græcis Latinisque literis, ac cæteris, humanioribus disciplinis sufficiat ei, ut cooptetur in ordinem magis. trorum in artibus : ita tamen ut ad nullas ceremonias, ad magisterii gradum pertinentes coarctetur ; sed tantum in admissione sua juramentum præstet, de regiæ majestatis suprema authoritate in primis agnoscenda et colenda, et fidem del D. Procan de observandis statutis, privilegiis, et consuetudinibus hujus universitatis approbatis.

Concess. 27 Julii, 1594. Franciscus Bacon, Mr. in artibus, Jul. 27. Mr. Ingram's book.

3C. Life, p. xxxv. The Elements of the Common Lawes of England, branched into a Double Tract : the one containing a Collection of some principall Rules and Muximes of the Common Law, with their Latitude and Extent. Eaplicated for the more facile Introduction of such as are studiously addicted to that noble profession. The other the Use of the Common Law, for the preservation of our Persons, Goods, and Good Names. According to the Luwes and Customes of this Land. By the late Sir Francis Bacon, knight, Lo. Verulam, and Viscount S. Alban. Videre Vtilitas. London, Printed by the Assignees of lohn More, Esquire. 1630.

Editions were also published in 1636 and 1639.

3 D. Life, p. xxxv. REGULA I. In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur. It were infinite for the law to judge the causes of causes, and their impulsions one of another ; therefore it contenteth itself with the immediate cause, and judgeth of acts by that, without looking to any further degree.

As if an annuity be granted pro consilio impenso et impendendo, and the grantee commit treason, whereby he is imprisoned, so that the grantor cannot have access unto him for his counsel : yet, nevertheless, the annuity is not determined by this non-feasance; yet it was the grantee's act and default to commit the treason, whereby the imprisonment grew : but the law looketh not so far, but excuseth him, because the not giving counsel was compulsory, and not voluntary, in regard of the imprisonment.

He proceeds in the same manner to prove by other instances the rule which he had established.

3 E. Life, p. xxxv.

The preface continues thus : Having collected three hundred of them, I thought good, before I brought them all into form, to publish some few, that by the taste of other men's opinions in this first, I might receive either approbation in mine own course, or better advice for the altering of the other which remain; for it is great reason that that which is intended to the profit of others, should be guided by the conceits of others.

3 F. Life, p. xxxv. Atque quemadmodum vulgaris logica, quæ regit res per syllogismum, non tantùm ad naturales, sed ad omnes scientias pertinet; ita et nostra quæ procedit inductionem, omnia complectitur. Tam enim historiam et tabulas inueniendi conficimus de irâ, metu, et verecundiâ, et similibus ; ac etiam de exemplis rerum civilium; nec minùs de motibus mentalibus memoriæ, compositionis et divisionis, judicii, et reliquorum : quàm de calido et frigido, aut luce, aut vegetatione, aut similibus.


3 G. Life, p. xxxvi. I hold every man a debtor to his profession; from the which, as men of course, do seek to receive countenance and profit, so ought they of duty to endeavour themselves, by way of amends, to be a help and ornament thereunto. This is performed in some degree by the honest and liberal practice of a profession, when men shall carry a respect not to descend into any course that is corrupt and unworthy thereof, and preserve themselves free from the abuses wherewith the same profession is noted to be infected; but much more is this peformed if a man be able to visit and strengthen the roots and foundation of the science itself; thereby not only gracing it in reputation an dignity, but also amplifying it in perfection and substance. Having, therefore, from the

beginning come to the study of the laws of this realm, with a desire no less, if I could attain unto it, that the same laws should be the better for my industry, than that myself should be the better for the knowledge of them ; I do not find that, by mine own travel, without the help of authority, I can in any kind confer so profitable an addition unto that science.

The same grateful feeling is expressed by Sir E. Coke, who says, “ If this or any other of my works, in any sort, by the goodness of Almighty God, who haih enabled me hereunto, tend to some discharge of that great obligation of duty wherein I am bound to my profession, I shall reap some fruits from the tree of life, and I shall receive sufficient compensation for all my labours.”

Different Editions and MSS. Editions of it were published in 1636 and 1639 ; of this work there are the following MSS. In Harleian MSS. vol. 2—227, there is MSS. of Maxims of the Law, written by Sir Francis Bacon, and by him inscribed to Queen Elizabeth, 8th January, 1596. There are some other observations relating to law at the end of the book.- Use of the Law, Cat. 291. Sloane's MSS.

There is also a MSS. in the University Library, Cambridge, entitled “Maxims of Law.”

It is thus noticed by Archbishop Tennison, when enumerating Lord Bacon's law works in the Baconiana :--The fourteenth is, the Elements of the Common Laws of England, in a double tract: the one of the rules and maxims of the common law, with their latitude and extent. The other, of the use of common law, for the preservation of our persons, goods, and good names. These he dedicated to her majesty, whose the laws were, whilst the collection was his.

3 H. Life, p. xxxvi. Sir,--I have thought the contemplation of the art military harder than the execution. But now I see where the number is great, compounded of sea and land forces, the most tyrones, and almost all voluntaries, the officers equal almost in age, quality, and standing in the wars, it is hard for any man to approve himself a good commander. So great is my zeal to omit nothing, and so short my sufficiency to perform all, as besides my charge, myself doth aiflict myself. For I cannot follow the precedents of our dissolute armies, and my helpers are a little amazed with me, when they are come from governing a little troop to a great; and from to all the great spirits of our state. And sometimes I am as much troubled with them, as with all the troops. But though these be warrants for my seldom writing, yet they shall be no excuses for my fainting industry. I have written to my Lord Keeper and some other friends to have care of you in my absence. And so commending you to God's happy and heavenly protection, I rest your true friend, Essex.

Plymouth, this 17th of May, 1596. As specimens of the correspondence between them, see Bacon's letter to Essex, vol. xii. p. 17, and Bacon's letter, ibid. p. 20.

31. Life, p. xxxvii. The following account of the Essays, collected with much labour, will, it is hoped, be acceptable to the reader.

First edition, 1597. Essayes. Religious Meditations. Places of perswasion and dissuasion. Seene and allowed. At London Printed for Humfrey Hooper, and are to be sold at the black Beare in Chancery Lune. 1597.

The first edition of the Essays was published in the year 1597.
The Epistle Dedicatorie. To M. Anthony Bacon his deare Brother.

Louing and beloued brother I do now like some that haue an orcharde il neighbored, at gather the fruit before it is ripe, to preuent stealing. These fragments of my conceits were going to print: to labour the stay of them had bene troublesome, and subiect to interpretation : to let them passe had bin to

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