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UNITED STATES COAST PILOT
PALAWAN, MINDANAO, AND SULU
The courses and bearings given in degrees are true, reading clockwise from 0° at north to 359o. General directions, such as northeastward, west-southwestward, etc., are magnetic.
Distances are in nautical miles and may be converted approximately to statute miles by adding 15 percent to the distances given.
Currents are expressed in knots, which are nautical miles per hour.
Except where otherwise stated, all depths are at mean lower
In accordance with the desire of the International Hydrographic
Use this Coast Pilot with reference to the latest supplement
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
The Philippine Islands, situated in the northern part of the East Indian Archipelago, were brought to the notice of Europe by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Magellan, who was in command of a Spanish expedition and was the first to pass through the strait still bearing his name, approached the Philippines from the eastward and entered the archipelago through the Strait of Surigao. He was killed in a skirmish with the natives on Mactan Island, east of Cebu, in 1521. The Philippines were formally annexed to Spain in 1565.
After the war between the United States and Spain, the Philippine Islands were ceded by Spain to the United States of America by the treaty of peace signed at Paris December 10, 1898, and as a voluntary consideration the United States paid to Spain $20,000,000. Spain also relinquished on November 7, 1900, to the United States all title and claim to the islands of Cagayan Sulu and Sibutu and other islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago and lying outside the limits described by the Treaty of Paris, the United
States paying the sum of $100,000. Palmas Island, which is within the treaty limits, was awarded to the Netherlands by arbitration on April 4, 1928. The limits prescribed by the Treaty of Paris were changed by agreement between the United States and Great Britain on January 2, 1930. According to these treaties the Philippine Archipelago comprehends all of the islands (except Palmas Island) within the following limits:
A line drawn from west to east, through the middle of the navigable channel of Bashi (21°25' N. latitude approximately) from the meridian 118° to that of 127° east longitude, thence southward along the latter meridian to the parallel of 4°45' rorth latitude, thence westward along that parallel to the meridian of 120° east longitude, thence due south along the meridian of longitude one hundred twenty degrees (129°0?) east of Greenwich to a point of intersection with the páradlel of jour degrees twenty-three minutes (4°23') north latitude, thence due west along the parallel of four degrees twenty-three minutes (4°23') north latitude to its intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred nineteen degrees (119°0') east of Greenwich, thence due north along the meridian of longitude one hundred nineteen (119°0') east of Greenwich to its intersection with the parallel of four degrees forty-two minutes (4°42') north latitude, thence in a straight line approximately 45°54' true (N. 45°54' E.) to the intersection of the parallel of five degrees sixteen minutes (5°16') worth latitude and the meridian of longitude one hundred nineteen degrees thirty-five minutes (119°35') east of Greenwich thence in a straight line approximately 314°19' true (N. 45°41' W.) to the intersection of the parallel of six degrees (6°0') north latitude and the meridian of longitude one hundred eighteen degrees fifty minutes (118°50') east of Greenwich, thence due west along the parallel of six degrees (6°0') north latitude to its intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred eighteen degrees twenty minutes (118°20') east of Greenwich, thence in a straight line approximately 307°40' true (N. 52°20' W.) passing between Little Bakkungaan Island and Great Bakkungaan Island to the intersection of the parallel of six degrees seventeen minutes (6°17') north latitude and the meridian of ongitude one hundred seventeen degrees fiftyeight minutes (117°58') east of Greenwich, thence due north along the meridian of longitude one hundred seventeen degrees fifty-eight minutes (117°58') east of Greenwich to its intersection with the parallel of six degrees fifty-two minutes (6°52') north latitude, thence in a straight line approximately 315°16' true (N. 44°44' W.) to the intersection of the parallel of seven degrees twentyfour minutes forty-five seconds (7°24'45') north latitude with the meridian of longitude one hundred seventeen degrees twenty-five minutes thirty seconds (117°25'30'') east of Greenwich, thence in a straight line approximately 300°56' true (N. 59°4' W.) through the Mangsee Channel between Mangsee Great Reef and Mangsee Islands to the intersection of the parallel of seven degrees forty minutes (7°40') north latitude and the meridian of longitude one hundred seventeen degrees (117°0') east of Greenwich, thence westward along that parallel to the meridian of 116° east longitude, thence by a direct line to the intersection of the parallel of 10° north latitude with the meridian of 118° east longitude, thence northward along that meridian to the point of beginning.
Retaining full rights of sovereignty, as represented by the United States High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, the Congress of the United States began an era of self-government in the islands by the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines on November 15, 1935. In accordance with the provisions of the constitution, formulated and drafted by delegates selected by the Filipino people themselves, the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines is modeled on that of the United States with executive, legislative, and judicial branches, politically the Commonwealth is divided into 49 Provinces and 8 chartered cities (Manila, Baguio, Cebu, Iloilo, Zamboanga, Davao, Bacolod, and Tagaytay). The provinces are divided intó municipalities, and these are further divided into barrios.
The archipelago comprises over 7,080 islands and rocks above water with a combined area of about 114,400 square statute miles (296,296 sq. km.), 94 percent of which is contained within the 11 largest islands of the group, there being only 466 islands with areas of 1 square mile
Luzon in the north and Mindanao in the south are the 2 largest islands; besides these 2 there are only 30 islands with areas greater than 100 square statute miles. Of this latter group Samar, Negros, Panay, Palawan, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, and Masbate are the most important. A recount of the islands and rocks and a recompilation of the area is now in progress (1938).
The largest part of the islands lies within an elongated ellipse with the major axis extending north-northwest and south-southeast. Palawan and the Sulu Archipelago extend from this main body in a southwest direction toward Borneo, forming the northwest and southeast boundaries of the Sulu Sea. The most northerly point of land in the archipelago is the north point of Y'Ami Island, latitude 21°07'26'' N., longitude 121° 56'45" E. The most easterly is Pusan Point, Mindeneo, latitude 7°17'24" N., longitude 116°55'39'' E.
The most southerly, Saluag Island, latitude 4°35'23" N., longitude 119°28'01" E., and the most westerly, West Point, Balabac Island, latitude 7056'14" N., longitude 116°55'39'' E. The islands, although containing almost every variety of topographic feature, are generally mountainous and heavily wooded, and contain many volcanoes. Mount Apo, in Mindanao, 9,610 feet (2.929 m.) high, and Mount Pulog. in Luzon, 9.480 feet (2,889 m.) high, are probably the highest points in the archipelago.
Earthquakes of severe character have been experienced in the Philippine Islands. The most disastrous of recent times was that of 1863, when 400 persons were killed and 2,000 wounded in Manila, and 46 public buildings and 1,100 private houses were seriously damaged or destroyed. Other serious earthquakes have occurred in 1610, 1645, 1658, 1675, 1699, 1852, 1880, and 1911, when on January 30 there was an explosion of gas in the crater of Taal Volcano, devastating the country surrounding Lake Taal. Active volcanoes exist in the Babuyan Islands, Luzon, Negros, Mindanao, and Camiguin.
COMMUNICATIONS, PORTS, REPAIRS, HOLIDAYS, ETC.-Communication among the islands and with foreign ports is by regular lines of steamers, by cable, telegraph, telephone, and radio. The interisland cable, telegraph, and radio service is under the Philippine Bureau of Posts. There are two cable companies and three radio companies accepting foreign business. Regular lines of passenger and freight steamers call at Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo.
Mail and passenger air service is now in operation between Manila and Baguio, and between Manila and Iloilo, Bacolod, Cebu, and Davao. The Pan American Airways furnishes trans-Pacific airplane communication with the United States and west ward with Hong Kong
PORTS OF ENTRY for foreign vessels as well as ports open to coastwise trade only, are named and defined in Executive Order No. 195, issued by the president of the Philippines and given below, in part.
Dated March 13, 1939
Revising Executive Order No. 72, dated December 3, 1936, Establishing a
Classification of Ports 1. National ports.-National ports shall comprise all ports primarily of importance to foreign, interisland, and interprovincial commerce. Other ports which, on account of their geographical locations, are necessary for enforcing customs regulations or for national defense, may also be classified as national ports. The improvement and maintenance of national ports shall be financed by the National Government, and their administration and operation shall be under the direct supervision and control of the Insular Collector of Customs.
2. Pursuant to the above classification and the provisions of section one thousand one hundred and forty-five of the Revised Administrative Code and Commonwealth Act numbered one hundred and seventyfive, the following ports are hereby designated as national ports: I. Ports open to overseas shippings: Legaspi.
San Pascual (Burias
Cagayan de Sulu.