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side. Coral fringes the shore and a number of shoals and coral reefs, bare at low water, lie southward and westward of the island.
The head of Bacuit Bay is divided into three parts by Claudio (Camagomabajul) Point and Long (Camagomaita) Point. All three are lined with mangrove and choked with coral. The Langeblangeban River, the largest of the several sluggish streams flowing through the mangroves, empties into the southeast corner of Camago (Langeblangeban) Bay, the eastern one of the three bays.
Lagen, the largest of the islands in Bacuit Bay, is 134 miles long, and 1/2 mile wide, of irregular form with several sandy bays between perpendicular cliffs that rise 400 feet (122 m.) sheer from the water edge. The two parts of the island, 1,130 and 1,220 feet (334 and 372 m.) high, are separated by a deep gap having an elevation of only 450 feet (137 m.). The south and east sides of the island are fringed with coral and the channel to the eastward is almost blocked. Two coral reefs awash at low water lie midway between the south end of the island and Long (Camagomaita) Point. There is another reef awash 12 mile southeast of the island with a 214-fathom (4.1 m.) shoal almost midway between the reef and the island.
Ninepin Island, 220 feet (67 m.) high, Pinsail Island, 310 feet (91 m.) high, and two rocks, the higher one 80 feet (24.4 m.) high, lie between Lagen and Dibuluan. Pinsail Island and two rocks are almost connected by reefs bare at low water. Both of these reefs and that surrounding Ninepin Island are steep-to. The area southeastward of these islands seems to afford good anchorage in 9 to 10 fathoms (16.5 to 18.3 m.), mud bottom. It is, however, subject to variable winds during heavy weather outside.
Malpacao Island, a remarkable ridge of limestone, 565 feet (172 m.) high with a detached boulder 310 feet (94 m.) high, assumes the appearance of a double island. Well-protected anchorage may be had in 6 to 7 fathoms (11.0 to 12.8 m.) southeastward of the island. The available anchorage space is restricted by two shoals awash at low water off Carat Point and by the shore reef which makes off 400 yards from the south side of Ciminaytay Point. The approach to the anchorage is southward of Malpacao Island, the channel being 600 yards wide between the island and the nearer reef awash. There are reefs and shoals in the channel northeastward of the island and it should not be attempted without aids.
Inabuyatan Island, 1,105 feet (337 m.) high, is a conspicuous object on entering Bacuit Bay. It somewhat resembles an elephant on his haunches. The island is steep-to on all sides but a group of six shoals and banks lies 12 to 1 mile northwest of it. The least water found was 5 fathoms (9.1 m.) with 14 to 16 fathoms (25.6 to 29.3 m.) around them.
Caution.-A 334-fathom (6.9 m.) coral shoal rising out of 16 fathoms (29.3 m.), mud bottom, lies 114 miles due west of Inabuyatan Island, and is the most serious menace to navigation in Bacuit Bay.
Danet Bay, between Ciminaytay Point and Dilarog Point is almost blocked by reefs. During the rainy reason the streams flowing through the mangroves bring down a large amount of silt, rendering the reefs and shoals in Bacuit Bay hard to see.
A coral reef about 130 yards in diameter having depths of 12 to 1 fathom (0.9 to 1.8 m.) with one boulder near the center that bares at extreme low water lies in the entrance to Danet Bay on the
range formed by the south tangent of Entulala Island on the north tangent of South Guntao Island with the north tangent of Inabuyatan slightly open; from the reef the east tangent of Malpaco Island is in range with the highest peak of Lagen Island. The shoal is surrounded by depths of 8 and 9 fathoms (14.6 and 16.5 m.).
Depeldet Island, 234 feet (71 m.) high, lies on the edge of the shore reef about 1 mile northwest of Dilarog Point. It is an island at high water only, being connected with the shore by a ridge of gravei and boulders.
A 2-fathom (3.7 m.) coral shoal lies 1 mile northwest of Depeldet Island and the same distance south of Ipil Point. Another 134fathom (3.2 m.) coral reef lies 1/2 mile eastward, almost midway to the shore of Manmegmeg Bay and 820 yards south of Lapuslapus Point.
Corongcorong Bay, eastward of Lapuslapus Point, affords sheltered anchorage during northerly weather for small vessels calling at the town of Bacuit. It is separated from Manmegmeg Bay by a wide coral reef extending out from shore, near the outer edge of which are several coral boulders baring about 2 feet (0.6 m.) at low tide.
Ipil Point, the eastern entrance point to Bacuit Bay, is fringed by a coral reef about 100 yards wide. This reef is steep-to and may be passed at a distance of about 300 yards by vessels going around to Corongcorong Bay. Northward of Ipil Point the land rises steeply to a peak 1,543 feet (470 m.) high. This is the highest point of a high ridge over 1 mile long separated from the highland eastward by a low valley, at the northern end of which is the town of Bacuit.
Bacuit (Chart 4346) lies at the head of a deep bay formed by a group of islands extending northwest from the above-described headland and the mainland of Palawan. The head of the bay is shoal, and there are several rocks awash at low water inside the 3-fathom (5.5 m.) curve. The best anchorage is about 1 mile north of the town in 8 to 9 fathoms (14.6 to 16.5 m.), mud bottom, and is protected from all directions except north. It is not a safe anchorage in heavy weather, as variable winds spill over the deep, gaps in the highland with hurricane force when only a half gale is blowing in the more open places.
The town is one of the most important on the west coast of Palawan and has communication with Manila by steamship about twice each month. Fresh water is available, being piped to the town from the mountains. There are several small stores in the village where an extremely limited supply of canned food and kerosene can be purchased. Vegetables, pigs, fowls, and some beef can be obtained in small quantities from the inhabitants. Lumber, copra, and edible birds nests are the principal products exported. A radio station is maintained by the Bureau of Posts.
A rock causeway with a reinforced concrete extension, located at the western end of town, provides a landing for small' boats. In 1938 there was a depth of 6 feet (1.8 m.) of water at mean lower low water at the end but the water shoaled rapidly shorewards. The construction is such that vessels cannot lie alongside the causeway for the discharging or loading of freight. A large house at the inshore end of the pier and the church in the town show prominently out into the bay.
Cadlao Island, the largest of the islands northwest of Bacuit, is largely of limestone formation. Its highest peak, a table top, 1,955 feet (596 m.) high, is a very conspicuous landmark when making the north end of Palawan from the westward. To the eastward of this highest peak are two peaks, the Loggerheads, 1,470 and 1,762 feet (448 and 537 m.) high. From these peaks the land drops off almost vertically to an elevation of about 800 feet (244 m.). The shore line, wherever the limestone cliffs extend to the coast, has been undercut by the sea and is invariably steep-to.
The heads of the bays have stretches of sandy beach, and coral fringes the shore, fronting the more gently sloping hills. Calaragnan Point on the west side of the island and Abrupt (Macamo) Point on the east side are prominent objects. The channel southeastward of the island is 600 yards wide, deep and clear.
Dilumacad Island, 780 feet (238 m.) high, is separated from Ubugun Point, Cadlao Island, by a channel 600 yards wide with depths of 10 to 12 fathoms (18.3 to 21.9 m.). The east side of the island has a sand beach fronted by coral, the entire west side is overhanging cliffs. The prominent needle peaks lie near the southern end of the island.
Cauayan Island is of limestone formation with two prominent peaks, the northern one 820 feet (250 m.) high and the southern one 560 feet (171 m.) high, with the land between them dropping almost to sea level. Along practically the entire shore line, cliffs rise vertically from 100 to 300 feet (30.5 to 91 m.) and are much undercut by the action of the sea. The channel between Cauayan and Cadlao is divided into two parts by a small undercut island 295 feet (90 m.) high, very similar in appearance to Mitre Island, 355 feet (108 m.) high, northwestward of Abrupt (Macamo) Point, and the 310-foot (94 m.) island off the coast southward of the same point.
Caverna Island, 1/4 mile northwest of Cauayan Island, is a small undercut limestone island, circular in shape and 375 feet (114 m.) high. Off the north side of the island is a pinnacle rock which has broken off the main island and shows up prominently when seen from east or west. A reef awash extends about 200 yards from the south side and a 30-foot (9.1 m.) rock lies on the reef eastward of the island.
BACUIT BAY TO LIBRO POINT (Chart 4316).-From Bacuit the coast trends in a northerly direction for 8 miles to Crawford (Calitang) Point. A central range, the continuation of that over Bacuit Bay, overlooks both coasts of Palawan, and in the parallel of Cadlao Island, where it attains its greatest elevation, is a high table top, the northwestern and southeastern shoulders of which are 114 miles apart and are, respectively, 1,950 and 2,160 feet (594 and 658 m.) in height. There is a sharp peak, 1,630 feet (497 m.) in height, southward and several hills of less elevation bordering the coast, the features of which are entirely different from those of the limestone formation, and this nowhere is so evident as at the back of Bacuit, where a sudden transition occurs.
East Peak, attaining a height of 1,725 feet (526 m.), lies 41/2 miles northeastward of the high table top, but is not generally visible from the west side until some distance offshore. It, however, forms a conspicuous object when northward and eastward of Palawan.
Emmit (Mansalauit) Island, small and wooded, 190 feet (58 m.) high, with two pillar rocks at the north extremity; lies 400 yards from Mansalauit Point, midway between Bacuit and Crawford (Calitang) Point.
The coast northward, on which there is a sugar-loaf hill, is bold to approach, having 6 fathoms (11 m.) close to the shore, but that southward is fronted with coral.
Two rocky islets lie close northward of Crawford (Calitang) Point from which a sandy beach extends 112 miles in a northerly direction to a headland, 1 mile eastward of which is Barotoan Bay, with depths of 2 and 3 fathoms (3.7 and 5.5 m.).
Bury Islets.—Nearly 1 mile northward of Crawford (Calitang) Point are two rocky islets, 60 and 70 feet (18.3 and 21.3 m.) high. They both lie on the same reef, which surrounds them to a distance of 1/4 mile.
Lalutaya (Agutayan) Island lies 3 miles northward of Crawford (Calitang) Point and is separated from the shore by a channel 174 miles wide with depths of 9 fathoms (16.5 m.), sand bottom. The island is 114 miles in length and 400 feet (122 m.) high, and, except on the eastern side where, fronting two small sand bays some coral extends 400 yards, is bold to approach.
Diatila (Vito) Island is on the north side of Base Bay, which lies close northward of Barotoan Bay. It is 1 mile from the shore, with a safe channel between.
Calitan (Cubud) Island, 210 feet (64 m.) high, lies 2 miles northward of Diapila and 12 mile westward of the northern extremity of Palawan. There is a sharp double rock between it and the shore.
On the south side of Dia pila Bay, an indentation on the coast between these islands, the land rises to a peak 965 feet (294 m.) high.
4. THE SULU SEA
The space included between the Sulu Archipelago to the south and Mindoro to the north and having Panay, Negros, and Mindanao on the east and Palawan on the west is known by the name of the Sulu Sea. It is of great depth, over 2,700 fathoms (4,941 m.) in its southeastern part and, though connected with the 'China and Celebes Seas and with the Pacific Ocean through San Bernardino and Surigao Straits, its waters are prevented from freely interchanging with those bodies by the limiting depths of the several straits. As a consequence, in the Sulu Sea the minimum deep-sea temperature is reached at about 400 fathoms (731 m.), whereas the same temperature (about 51° F.) is reached at 200 fathoms (366 m.) in the China Sea, at 180 fathoms (329 m.) in the Celebes Sea, and at 230 fathoms (421 m.) in the Pacific Ocean.
Winds. In the Sulu Sea easterly winds with fine weather prevail in October and the northeast monsoon is not established before November. In January and February it blows hardest, but not with the force of the China Sea, and it is felt strongest before the openings between Panay and Negros, and Negros and Mindanao. At the end of May southwest winds begin to blow, and in a month become established, to terminate in October, bringing with them a season made up of rain squalls and tempests, which take place principally in July and August. In September a heavy mist hangs about the coast of Mindanao.
Typhoons occasionally pass across the northern part of the Sulu Sea, but are usually of small diameter. The Philippine Weather Bureau has an observer at Cuyo, who is notified of typhoons approaching these waters. Ships with radio stations may get in communication with him through the radio station at Cuyo.
During July and August squalls and southwest winds of the outer zones of typhoons affect this area. During these months there are frequently periods of fine, clear weather with southerly and southeasterly breezes. The bad spells are frequently preceded by fine weather with shifts of wind to the north and northwest, with a gradual drop of the barometer. Northwest winds have generally been followed within a few days by bad weather. This does not apply to Mindoro Straits, where northwest winds are frequent.
During September and October considerable fine weather prevails. The northeast monsoon makes itself manifest during November and gradually increases in strength. It lasts until about the end of April. Its force has not been seen to exceed that of fresh breczes. During May and June the winds are irregular; fine, clear weather prevailing. The foregoing applies particularly to the offshore area. Near Panay, the Calamianes, and Palawan, during what is termed the southwest monsoon, considerable rain falls.