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Distances between ports of the Philippine Islands

(In nautical miles)

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NOTES.-A more complete tabulation of distances in the Philippine Islands will be found in the Rate Regulation Orders issued by the Public Service Commission, Manila, P. I.
The distances given in the tables of Courses and distances vary slightly from the values given above.

Typhoon anchorages.-During certain seasons of the year destructive cyclonic storms or typhoons are frequently encountered in the Philippines. Vessels seeking shelter from stress of weather will find that the following harbors offer excellent anchorage. They are the most important harbors of refuge, but numerous other harbors offer shelter, and the masters of vessels should use discretion in their choice of a typhoon harbor. Since typhoons usually give ample warning of their approach, together with their probable path, anchorage should be chosen which offers best shelter from the winds which will prevail during the coming typhoon. If in the vicinity of any of the following harbors, they should be given preference. A detailed description of these harbors and directions for entering them are given throughout the text of the respective part of the Philippine Islands Coast Pilots.

Typhoon anchorages

PART 1

Luzon Island-north coast

Port San Vicente
Luzon Island-west coast

Bolinao Harbor
Port Matalvi
Olongapo Harbor

Manila Harbor
Lubang Island

Port Tilig Marinduque Island

Santa Cruz Harbor

Port Balanacan
Burias Island

Port Busin
Luzon Island-south coast

Sorsogon Bay
Luzon Island-east coast

Port San Vicente
Port Bicobian
Diapitan Bay
Casiguran Bay
Dahikan Bay
Lamit Bay
Coal Harbor

Polillo Island

Hook Bay
Mindoro Island

Soguicay Bay

Puerto Galera
Tablas Island

Looc Bay
Romblon Island

Romblon Harbor
Ticao Island

Port San Miguel
Panay Island

Iloilo Harbor
Cebu Island

Cebu Harbor
Samar Island

Helm Harbor
Pambujan Harbor
Port Aguirre (Canahauan

Island)

PART II

Coron Island

Coron Harbor Culion Island

Halsey Harbor
Cuyo Island

Cuyo
Palawan Island-east coast

Puerto Princesa
Balabac Island

Port Ciego

Balabac Harbor Palawan Island-west coast

Ulugan Bay

Malampaya Sound Mindanao-north coast

Nasipit

Port Misamis Basilan Island

Port Isabela

Mindanao-south coast

Port Masinloc
Port Banga
Port Sibulan
Dumanquilas Bay
Polloc Harbor
Port Lebak

Malalag Bay
Mindanao-east coast

Balete Bay

Catarman Anchorage
Bucas Island

Port Sibonga
Jolo Island

Dalrymple Harbor
Tawi Tawi Island

Port Bongao

2. ISLANDS ADJACENT TO NORTHERN PALAWAN

(Charts 4714 and 4716) With the exception of several islands in the Cuyo group, Palawan and the adjacent islands are sparsely populated and are practically undeveloped. Timber has been cut and exported from Palawan and some of the islands, and this is the major industry of the country. Cattle, copra, and almaciga are shipped out in small quantities. The production of copra, while still in its infancy, is increasing. Commercial fishing has been a development of recent years, the catch being shipped to Manila.

Weather.—The southwest monsoon blows from July to October, the northeast from January to April. During the change of monsoon—that is, during November and December and again during May and June—the best weather of the year may be expected. Squalls and rain lasting from 5 to 10 days occur during the southwest monsoon. These seem to be caused by typhoons passing to northward. Fair weather occasionally lasting a month or more may be experienced between these periods of bad weather. The northeast monsoon blows more steadily but with less force than the southwest monsoon.

CALAMIANES The Calamianes are a group of islands, including Busuanga, Coron, Culion, and a great number of smaller islands, situated southwestward from Mindoro, from which they are separated by Mindoro Strait. All the larger islands are, generally speaking, irregular in shape, hilly, and broken. The tops of the higher hills are covered with cogon, the lower slopes and valleys being wooded. The forests produce good lumber for building or cabinet work. Cultivation is not practiced to any great extent, timber and some cattle being the principal products exported. Deposits of manganese have been discovered.

THE ISLANDS NORTHWARD OF BUSUANGA (Charts 4314, 4714).—Dimipac Island, 439 feet (134 m.) high, lies about 2 miles northward of Macachin Point. It is covered with trees and vegetation and is almost surrounded by a coral reef about 100 yards wide. Sail Rocks, a group of bare rocks 109 feet (33 m.) high, lie 1 mile northward of Dimipac Island and Northwest Rock, 127 feet (39 m.) high, is 2 miles farther northwestward. This is a large flat-topped rock, about 200 yards in diameter, bare of vegetation, and of dark appearance.

Tanobon Island, 263 feet (80 m.) high and wooded, lying 2 miles northeast of Inagtapan Point, is surrounded by a coral reef. Rocks extend off the northeast end for a distance of about 1 mile, and about 1 mile northwest by west of the island are two rocks about 4 feet (1.2 m.) above high water. The bottom in this vicinity is generally irregular, but the dangerous shoals are close inshore.

Colocoto Rocks, latitude 12°28' N., longitude 120°02' E., lying about 11 miles northeast of Macachin Point, are four large black rocks which appear as one when seen bearing 125° true or opposite direction. The largest rock is 214 feet (65 m.) high. They have precipitous sides, are underscored from 3 to 15 feet (0.9 to 4.6 m.) by the action of the sea, and the only vegetation is a small vine, invisible at a short distance away, so that they appear to be a slatecolored pile of barren rocks.

DUMUNPALIT ISLAND, 297 feet (90 m.) high, is situated about 7 miles southeastward from Colocoto Rocks. It is small and rocky, with several detached rocks lying on the same reef. Outside the reef the water deepens rapidly to 20 fathoms (37 m.) or more.

DIBOYOYAN and DIMAQUIAT are two small islands lying, respectively, 5 miles northeastward and 4 miles eastward of Minuit. The first is surrounded by a coral reef. Outside the 5-fathom (9.1 m.) curve the depths increase rapidly. The latter is connected with Malpagalen Island, 1 mile southeastward, by a coral and sand bar of varying depth with 334 fathoms (6.8 m.) near the Dimaquiat end of the bar. Á 4-fathom (7.3 m.) shoal lies 148 miles northwest by west from Dimaquiat Island, with two separate shoals between it and the island. Eight separate shoals, varying in depth from 11/2 to 6 fathoms (2.7 to 11 m.), lie between Dimaquiat Island and the Busuanga shore. These shoals all rise abruptly from a very regular mud bottom.

NANGA ISLANDS, 7 miles north-northeastward of Coconongon Point, are two small wooded islands 248 and 173 feet (76 and 53 m.) high.' They are joined by a reef, with several small rocky islets on the same reef. There is another rocky islet, 95 feet (29 m.) high and steep-to on all sides, about 1 mile northeast of the northern Nanga Island.

Camanga Island, 213 feet (65 m.) high, with several small rocky islets of varying height, lies 2 miles southward of the Nanga Islands. The 90-foot (27.4 m.) islet, 1/2 mile westward of Camanga Island, is bold and makes a conspicuous landmark. Neither the Nanga nor the Camanga Islands are inhabited.

TARA ISLAND, the largest of the islands northeast of Busuanga, is about 3 miles long and over 1,2 mile wide. The highest point, 477 feet (145 m.), is in the southern part of the island. The hills of a light brown color, with a distinct greenish tint during the rainy season, are bare of trees and from a distance appear as separate islands. The lower slopes and valleys are covered with bamboo and jungle, with a few small cultivated areas. The western shore is mostly sand beach with a wide coral reef and outlying rocks and islets. The eastern shore is nearly all rocky with steep bluffs. A good anchorage in 17 fathoms (31 m.) may be found off the barrio on the western shore. A small stone pier has been built in a break of the reef, which makes an excellent landing for small boats.

Lagat, Bantac, and Calanhayaun Islands are ridges rather than detached summits. They are dark in color except in favorable bright sunlight when the rock shows red or yellow through the sparse vegetation. Lagat, 261 feet (80 m.) high, is very steep and has nearly bare eroded cliffs on both sides, which show red or yellow through the sparse vegetation. There is a coral reef extending south from the island and a detached reef with 11/4 fathoms (2.3 m.) spot off the north end. Bantac Island, 396 feet (121 m.) high, and Calanhayaun Island, 248 feet (76 m.) high at its southern end, are connected by a coral reef. There are a number of rocky islets on detached reefs westward of these islands that show up well to the northward and southward.

Lubutglubut, 366 feet (112 m.) high, appears dome-shaped on approaching from the eastward. "It and the brown rocks to the southward are practically bare, taking their dark color from the weathered rocky cliffs. They are easily recognized and form excellent landmarks.

BUSUANGA ISLAND (Charts 4314, 4335, 4350, 4351, 4714).Busuanga Island, the largest of the group, is about 34 miles long east and west and 18 miles wide at the widest part. It is very irregular in form with several large bays. Mount Tundalara, in the southern part, rising to a height of 2,140 feet (652 m.), is the highest point of the island. This peak is frequently covered by clouds, but when visible forms a very good landmark.

From Macachin Point, the north point of the island, the coast trends in a general southeasterly direction for 23 miles and then northerly for 5 miles to Coconongon Point. Inagtapan Point, 2 miles eastward of Macachin Point, is the end of a ridge separating two low valleys extending across the island to the west coast. Two miles southward of this point lies Calauit Bay with the barrio of the same name on its northern shore. The Ditipac River empties into the head of the bay and also into Ilultuk Bay on the west coast, this making the northwest end of Busuanga an island locally known as Calauit Island. Launches drawing not more than 3 feet (0.9 m.) use the river as a cut-off, being careful to arrive at the eastern end when there is more than half tide on the flats at Calauit.

Minuit (Chart 4335) is the headquarters of a large hacienda. The ruins of a large house, close to the shore, make a good landmark for approaching the anchorage off Minuit. A partially protected anchorage may be found in the bay formed by the Busuanga shore and the small islands 11/2 miles eastward of Minuit.

Port Caltom (Chart 4335) affords good protected anchorage. A long narrow coral reef extends from its head almost halfway to the entrance, with deep water on either side. The conical brown hill northeastward of the anchorage is an excellent landmark from seaward.

Pangauaran River entrance is the best anchorage in this vicinity: Any small steamer can lie here securely and comfortably. A small amount of firewood is occasionally shipped from here. The ruins of a small stone mole extend from the eastern shore to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 m.).

To enter, from a point 34 mile east of Malpagalen Island steer 180° true until the rocky point on the north side of Port Caltom is abeam, then steer 246° true for the entrance to the river. When the west entrance point of Port Caltom is abeam change to 217° true

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