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the southeast point is rocky, with a 90-foot (27.4-m.) hill on it, which forms a good landmark for passing through the line of shoals south and southeast of it.
Bisucay Channel, about 1/4 mile wide between the fringing coral reefs, separates Bisucay and Cuyo Islands. The least depth through the channel is 61/2 fathoms (11.9 m.).
Pandan, 82 feet (25.0 m.) high, is a small unimportant island lying on a bank about 412 miles westward of Bisucay Island. The bank is about 3 miles long in a northwest and opposite direction and 112 miles wide with general depths of 5 to 6 fathoms (9.1 to 11.0 m.). A depth of 112 fathoms (2.7 m.) is shown 14 mile north of the island.
Imalaguan Island lies about 3 miles southward of Cuyo Island. It is about 1/3 mile across, 288 feet (87.8 m.) high, has three summits, and is covered with grass and bushes. There are several banks with 8 to 10 fathoms (14.6 to 18.3 m.) of water between it and the Cuyo shore.
Paya, Patunga, Pamitinan, and Lubic, 180, 455, 422, and 483 feet (55, 139, 130, and 147 m.) high, respectively, are four small islands lying northwest and westward of Canipo. They are about 21/2 miles apart in a northeast and opposite direction, and all are steep-to, 12 mile clearing all dangers. Cauayan Island, 240 feet (73 m.) high, lies 71/2 miles northwest of Pamitinan, and Tabac Rock, 12 feet (3.7 m.) high, lies 712 miles westward. A rock awash lies about 14 mile northeast of Tabac Rock.
A rocky reef of small area with a least known depth of 234 fathoms (5 m.) lies 412 miles 236° true from the south point of Lubic Island. Round Islet, the westernmost islet of the Cuyo Group, is of basaltic formation, 98 feet (29.9 m.) high, steep sided, and has only pandanus growing at the top.
CAPNOYAN is the most important of the islands lying southwest of Cuyo Island. It is roughly circular in shape, wooded, and rises near the southwest side to a short ridge, 468 feet (143 m.) high. Some cultivated areas and nipa houses are scattered over the island, the principal products being rice, corn, and cattle. The two villages on the eastern shore are almost hidden by coconut groves. The northern village is marked by several black rocks on the sand beach near the high-water line; the southern village by a boathouse at the beach.
A narrow coral reef, with a sand beach at high-water line, surrounds the island with the exception of a short stretch at the southwest side, where there is a steep rocky bluff. The eastern side of the island is steep-to, but shoal water 5 to 6 fathoms (9.1 to 11 m.) extends southward' to include Malcatop and Pangatatan Islands. This area has numerous coral bowlders. A 5%-fathom (9.8 m.) shoal lies about 1 mile northwest of the island.
Malcatop Island, 127 feet (39 m.) high, is covered with scrub trees and grass. It has two distinct summits, the northwestern one being the higher. The shore line is rocky, the northwestern and southern ends rising in steep rocky bluffs. The island is not inhabited but is partly cultivated by the natives from Capnoyan.
Pangatatan Island, 127 feet (39 m.) high, rises abruptly to its peak near the northern shore. There is a small sand beach on the northeast side. The island is covered with scrub trees, bamboo, and underbrush and is not inhabited.
Silat Island, 118 feet (36.0 m.) high, rises in an even slope from the northern shore for about one-third of its length, the southern end of the island being high and flat, with an almost perpendicular bluff at its southern end. The island is covered with trees, grass, and bamboo, and is only inhabited during the planting season, when the natives visit it to plant rice and camotes.
Quiminatin Island and Quiminatin Chicos differ in character from the other islands of the group, resembling more the structure of Coron Island. Quiminatin Island, 580 feet (177 m.) high, rises in steep precipices on all sides and is eroded and undercut from 10 to 15 feet at the water line. The northwest corner is separated from the rest of the island by a deep saddle and the western shore of this point is the only landing place for ascending to the summit. Some large pieces of rock have fallen from the cliffs and are almost awash and there is a small sand beach on the northern side. A little scrub growth clings to the rocks, otherwise the island is barren. The water is very deep close-to.
Quiminatin Chicos mark the eastern edge of a large shoal extending about 134 miles north and south and 1 mile east and west. The islands in structure and appearance are similar to Quiminatin, the larger one being 210 feet (64 m.) high. The shoal has a general depth of 4 fathoms (7.3 m.) with numerous coral heads. A 213fathom (4.2-m.) spot lies 0.7 mile west-northwestward of the larger island and about 1/2 mile southwest of the islands exists a coral head with only 142 fathoms (2.7 m.) of water over it. The edge of the shoal is abrupt, dropping into 20 fathoms (37 m.) of water in a very steep slope.
Santa Filomena Shoals are three shoal areas, lying 5 to 7 miles southwest of Quiminatin Island and having depths of 114, 2, and 11/2 fathoms (2.3, 3.7, and 2.7 m.) of water over coral heads that rise from a general depth of 3 to 5 fathoms (5.5 to 9.1 m.). Each shoal is about 12 mile in diameter, steep-to with deep water between them. They are the outer dangers of the Cuyo Group in this direction.
Ramon and Pacheco Shoals are two shoals lying between the Santa Filomena Shoals and Capnoyan Island. They are smaller in area, steep-to, and have least depths of 21/2 and 3i, fathoms (4.6 and 6.4 m.), respectively.
PIEDRA BLANCA or White Rock (Chart 4707) lies 24 miles 182° true from Mount Aguada on Cuyo Island. It is a low bare rock, the highest part being 10 feet (3.0 m.) above high water. It lies on the south edge of a shoal that extends 12 mile eastward of the rock and 114 miles northwestward with depths of 4 to 8 fathoms (7.3 to 14.6 m.) of water. The shoal is steep-to, (over 50 fathoms (91. m.) of water being found a short distance from the edge.
QUEEN OF THE SEA BANK (Chart 4707) is a coral shoal of considerable area with a least depth of 312 fathoms (6.4 m.) of water in latitude 10°24' N., longitude 120°29' E. The southern and western sides are very steep, but on the northern and eastern sides the soundings give ample warning. The shoal consists of sand and coral heads, but is rarely visible and seldom if ever breaks in heavy weather. This is the only danger found in this vicinity.
(Chart 4707) The Dalanganem Islands, situated on the western side of Cuyo West Pass, consist of Calandagan, Maducang, and four small islands or rocks. They are steep-to, rising abruptly from the sea, and have a rugged appearance, of a light brown or grayish color, depending upon the season.
Calandagan Island, latitude 10°39' N., longitude 120°15' E., is the largest and most important of the group, being about 234 miles long by 34 mile wide. Mount Dalanganem, at the southern end of the island, rises steeply and evenly to an east and west ridge, 704 feet (215 m.) in height. The southern and eastern slopes are barren and large bowlders lie at the base and along the lower slopes. The main part of the island, 1,024 feet (312 m.) high, is very rugged and is covered with grass, bushes, and trees, with some scattered houses and cleared spaces, where rice is planted in season. The northern slope consists of a series of saw-tooth hills, all of which are covered with trees, grass, and brush.
Tudela is located on the neck of low land that joins the two parts of the island. It consists of about 20 houses, a school, and church, but is of no commercial importance. Fair weather anchorage may be had off the northeast side of Calandagan Island in 9 to 11 fathoms (16.4 to 20.1 m.), coral and sand, and in 4 or 5 fathoms (7.3 or 9.1 m.) on the shoal that extends 34 mile southward of the southwest end of the island.
Nasolot Island, to the northward of Calandagan, appears to be a continuation of the series of hills of that island, the channel separating the two being only about 200 yards wide and 2 fathoms (3.7 m.) deep. It is small, but rises to a height of 202 feet (62 m.), the top of the peak being covered with trees and brush while the ends are bare.
Maducang Island, the second largest island of the group, has the same general appearance as Calandagan, but has less vegetation and no permanent inhabitants. The ridge rises to a height of 965 feet (294 m.), the surface being mostly loose rock and gravel. Anas Island, 296 feet (90 m.) high, is connected to the southeast end of Maducang by a reef that bares at low water. The channel between Maducang and Calandagan has a depth of 9 fathoms (16.4 m.) and affords anchorage with a little protection under the lee of either island.
Casirahan Island lies 5 miles east of the north end of Calandagan Island. It is rocky and steep-to, the south western end is barren, the northeastern and higher part, 115 feet (35.1 m.) high is covered with grass and scrub trees.
Cauayan Island (Bird Island) lies 2 miles 335° true from Casirahan Island. It is a bare rock of a light gray color, and rises in almost perpendicular cliffs to a height of 92 feet (29.6 m.) out of a depth of 20 fathoms (37 m.). The northeast corner is somewhat less steep and a landing may be made there. A rock, almost awash at low water, lies about 100 yards westward of the south end of the island.
3. PALAWAN ISLAND
(Chart 4716) This island, the fifth in point of size, is the most western of the Philippine Islands. It extends in a northeast and southwest direction between the parallels of 8° 21' and 11°25' N. latitude, and is long, narrow, and high, forming the western boundary of the Sulu Sea. It has an area of about 4,500 square statute miles and a length of general shore line of about 674 miles (776 statute miles). The coast line is very irregular, being deeply indented by numerous bays and inlets, some of which form the finest harbors in the Archipelago. The shores are faced by numerous islands and reefs, and, owing to the unfinished surveys on the west coast, navigation there is conducted with difficulty. The island is sparsely inhabited and the interior little known.
NORTH COAST OF PALAWAN
(Chart 4315) Between Crawford (Calitang) Point, on the west coast, and Darocotan Point, on the east coast, Palawan is about 8 miles wide. Midway between these two points a high promontory, 2 miles wide, extends northward for a distance of 5 miles. The shore line of the promontory is bold and irregular, there being only two small stretches of mangrove on the eastern side, the remainder being rock, or steep, sand beaches fringed with coral. The entire country is wooded.
North Hill, 935 feet (285 m.) high, and a 965-foot (294 m.) hill, are two prominent hills that lie in the same latitude about equal distances from the east and west coast, respectively. Southward of these hills there is a single high ridge rising to an elevation of 1,200 feet (366 m.). Northward there are two lower hills, one 475 feet (145 m.) high, near Libro Point, the northwest point of Palawan, and a 550foot (168 m.) hill close to Cabuli Point. These latter hills are inconspicuous except from an east or west direction.
Cabuli Island, latitude 11°27' N., longitude 119°30' E., lies 14 mile north of the northeast end of Palawan, from which it is separated by a channel having a depth of 534 fathoms (10.5 m.). The island is 11/2 miles long, north and south, 455 feet (139 m.) high, with a rather flat summit, and is steep-to on all sides. À good range for the channel between Cabuli Island and Palawan is to keep the northerly of the Brother Islands halfway between a prominent knoll near the north end of Iloc Islands and the highest peak near the center of the island. Strong currents and eddies are encountered in this channel.
Brother Islands are two small islands separated by a deep channel almost 1/2 mile wide. Deep water exists between them and the Palawan coast. The northern island, 110 feet (33.5 m.) high, lies 34 mile east-southeast of Cabuli Point, and there is a shoal with 414 fathoms (7.8 m.) least known depth, 34 mile 140° true from this island.
Darocotan Bay, westward of Darocotan Point, is about 3 miles wide. There is a good anchorage in southwest weather about midway between Darocotan Island and the barrio Tiniguiban in 8 fathoms (14.6 m.), mud bottom. To approach this anchorage enter the bay from the northward, keeping Darocotan Island about 12 mile distant. Launches and small boats can approach to within 300 yards of the town. The southern part of Darocotan Bay is foul, and vessels are advised not to proceed farther south than a line drawn west from Darocotan Point.
EAST COAST OF PALAWAN
(Chart 4716) GENERAL REMARKS.—There are numerous dangerous shoals and coral reefs lying from 10 to 20 miles off the east coast of Palawan. The mountains of Palawan and the many small islands scattered along the coast afford ready marks for navigating the various channels. The high mountains are usually covered by clouds but, except in stormy weather, almost invariably clear for a short period in the early morning and late evening. The directions given for entering the various ports are those used by the surveying vessels and have been found safe, but they are not intended in any way to lessen the necessity of keeping that vigilant lookout which the navigation of coral seas on all occasions urgently demands.
The adoption of the Palawan Passage in preference to the route on the east side of the island is recommended for vessels bound for China ports. In the strength of the northeast monsoon vessels, taking the eastern route, reach the parallel of 10° N., or to the island of Dumaran, without any great difficulty; but beyond this they will experience considerable delay for the current at this season sets strongly southward between Palawan and the Cuyos, the velocity being almost in direct proportion to the strength of the wind.
Tidal currents.-Along the northern part of the east coast the flood sets southward and the ebb, northward. The maximum velocity observed was 192 knots. The currents on the east coast depend chiefly on the prevailing winds.
DAROCOTAN POINT TO SHARK FIN BAY (Charts 4315 and 4317).-From Darocotan Point the coast trends southerly for 11 miles to Shark Fin Bay. It is faced by numerous islands and reefs, and is fringed by a coral reef extending out in places more than a mile. A rock with a least known depth of 114 fathoms (2.3 m.) lies 11/4 miles 114° true from Darocotan Point. A rock awash at onefourth tide lies 112 miles northeast of the barrio of Sibaltan. A line joining these two rocks and Malonao Rock, at the entrance to Imorigue Bay, bounds the outer limit of shoals along this coast. Malonao Rock, 30 feet ( 9.1 m.) high, is steep-to on all sides. Small quantities of lumber are occasionally shipped from Sibaltan. Several of the houses show prominently to seaward.
Imorigue Bay, between Batas Island and Palawan, is filled with reefs and does not afford good anchorage. Imorigue Island, a prominent island 1,062 feet (324 m.) high, lying westward of Batas İsland, is connected to it by à reef which bares at low water. Talao