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by these profound lexicographers. Just as we might suppose an old nurse constructing a vocabulary for the use of children, rendering the hard words familiar to the infant tongue by adding the termination she had attached to the title of her most gracious Majesty. Thus queen is written kuini, and pronounced queeny. In like manner our venerable dame might insert that. famous expression that “ georgy peorgy will have a ridy pidy in his coachy woachy.” The pure Maori language as spoken by themselves is very expressive, and their gestures in conversation not inelegant.
From the date of the arrival of the first body of emigrants commenced the decline of missionary power over the native tribes. The influx of laymen with greater wealth soon lowered the rank of the missionaries in the estimation of the New Zealanders. The consequence was, that a jealousy of feeling arose between the new settlers and the missionaries. The latter have not only been accused of dislike to the settlers, but of countenancing by their silence many rebellious acts of the Aborigines. Be this as it may, they have unquestionably been useful in their calling as Christian teachers, and much good has resulted from their operations. Mr. Brown, in allusion to this matter, thus speaks,
“ Independently of their susceptibility to religious impressions, there are many other motives by which the New Zealanders are influenced to join the missionaries and to make some show of religion. I have already noticed one of these, namely, the great pleasure they appear to derive from assembling together, and uniting in singing hymns; but strong inducements are also presented by every form or circumstance connected with their new character, wbich can minister to their love of display, so as to afford a favourable and ostentatious contrast to the conduct of the natives, who still reject missionary influences. The mere possession of books, and the superior requirements of the missionary natives, form a powerful inducement to the other natives to follow their example, as there is no people whatever more desirous to acquire information, or are more apt and persevering in the pursuit of it. By taking a proper advantage of this, therefore, the missionary has very many motives to appeal to ; but he must, at the same time, be cautious to prevent them from suspecting that interested motives influence him. The Roman Catholic priests, for example, have been in the habit of making presents of beads, crosses, Virgin Marys, &c., which the natives, of course, very gladly receive; but they look upon them as payments for something to be done by them, and conclude that they are conferring a favour by joining that body. This practice, however, is very effectual, so far as the making converts is concerned; but at the same time it, to a certain extent, confuses their ideas as to the motives of the donors, and doubtless also affects the purity of their belief.”—P. 85.
It could not be expected in the course of events that those rival missionaries were likely to agree upon the supremacy of their respective institutions over the converted savages. Mr. Brown writes thus :
“ Until Bishop Selwyn arrived in New Zealand, the Church and Wesleyan missionaries conducted their labours of love with the best feeling towards each other—the native converts of the one communion being treated in all respects as if they were members of the other, and were wisely kept ignorant of the formalities of religion which distinguished one set of missionaries from the other. No sooner does the bishop arrive, however, than a line of distinction is immediately drawn between the Wesleyan and the Church-mission natives ;-the former not being allowed, as formerly, to partake of the Sacrament along with the followers of the latter. The Wesleyan missionaries themselves are decried as not being of divine authority, and their teachings therefore decried as unwarranted and useless. The rite of baptism performed by them must be repeated by the bishop or his clergy, in order to be effectual. The natural result of such extraordinary conduct soon manifested itself, and the natives of these different forms of Christian belief are now at open war with each other ; nor will it excite surprise if we soon hear that they have forsaken their own savage feuds and animosities, for the no less deadly hatred and enmity engendered by the teachings of different professors of the same meek and merciful religion. But so it is; and unless some effectual remedy be devised for the growing evil, all the good that the missionaries have ever done may soon be as nothing compared with the evils which threaten to accompany it. Native wrongs and enmities may easily be put an end to; because they are susceptible of explanation and reparation ; but, if religious feuds are once introduced, who can say where they may end? as their causes neither can be satisfactorily explained, nor can any compromise be made. The greater the sincerity of belief, the deeper the animosity of those who differ from it. It is lamentable that the religion of Jesus should be perverted to such unholy purposes.”—P. 178.
To intending emigrants it is of course a matter of great importance to obtain correct and useful information connected with those colonies. Their future welfare and comfort may depend upon what are considered trifling details. We advise them to place little confidence in the truth of many of those flattering accounts which describe those promised lands as “sylvan communities amidst an earthly paradise.”. There is no portion of this habitable globe, however fair to the eye, but has its gloomy side of the picture, which ought in justice to be described at the same time. For example, would it not be a more honest and manly proceeding on the part of the agents and surveyors of New Zealand Associations to state, even in moderate terms, the reasonableness of emigrants finding disagreeable cir
cumstances to contend with over which they have no control, such as are to be encountered at the earthquake settlement of Wellington, or preparing them for the many privations they must undergo at the first occupation of a new country, such as are to be found even at Otago and Canterbury. Much discomfort arising, for example, from the inclemency of the weather, might be avoided by timely information. Wind and rain are direful forces to contend against in those bleak shores, especially for those who have been only accustomed to the comforts and shelter of a town life in this country. Some hints of this description, along with the sunshiny prints, gaudy, panoramas, and glowing descriptions so zealously set forth, might prepare the emigrant in some measure for the reality that he must soon meet face to face. He would be more satisfied with his lot, seeing he had been forewarned; for New Zealand, notwithstanding its picturesque scenery, and the romantic character of its aboriginal inhabitants, is in the main a very homely country, which the enthusiastic emigrant, soon after his arrival, finds to his cost. We have not written the preceding paragraphs to deter men from going to these colonies, but to put them in possession of a few facts that may be balanced with the more favourable statements current in some quarters of society.
Our strictures in a former part of this paper upon the conduct of the early promoters of emigration to New Zealand, and our account of the possible advantages to be obtained by colonizing those islands, seem to apply more directly to the case of the large capitalist. We have endeavoured to shew that he might as well have his money locked up in railway shares that cannot pay a dividend, as rely on profitable returns from any extensive system of agriculture, sheep farming, or cattle grazing, at least for the next half century; and even then he could not be in as advanced a condition as his brother capitalist in New South Wales or Van Dieman's Land, unless he had a force to work with similar to that by which those colonies have been raised to their present influential mercantile position, viz., convict labour and expenditure. For it is a fact in the history of these two important colonies, that their resources were mainly developed by the roads, bridges, and other public works constructed at the enormous expense of convict labour. To be made aware of this fact the traveller need only journey along the magnificent road which intersects the island of Van Dieman's Land, joining the south and north settlements, and opening up the golden resources of the interior. What must this colony have been had it depended on the unaided efforts of the emigrants, who now wend their way to New Zealand ?
In reading the preceding passages the reader will remember that they relate chiefly to the condition and prospects of the north island and its occupants
. The attempts at colonization narrated above are matters of history. With regard to the middle island, (Tavai poenammoo, or New Munster,) which at present occupies a great share of attention from the emigrating portion of the community, the case is different. There everything is in projection. Its success or failure is in the womb of time. And as we have not similar sources of information in regard to them, we cannot so confidently canvass the flattering statements put forward by the promoters of emigration to Otago and Canterbury. Our experience, however, has taught us, that twelve years ago a respectable body of well-meaning and sanguine men held out equally bright prospects, and described the country in as glowing terms. And what has been the result?
We are as earnest promoters of the cause of colonization as any member of these associations. But we would seriously counsel them to weigh well the statements on which they found their conclusions. As Bishop Selwyn advises Captain Thomas, Local Secretary to the Canterbury Association, " to send the very soil in boxes to be analyzed in England,” so would we recommend him to inclose with it a patch of turf to shew the native pasture on their plains, for the inspection of the public, and the satisfaction of the intending immigrants. For the latter, in their enthusiastic visions of the supposed "charms of colonization,” place implicit faith in the slightest favourable account, looking towards their future lot in the land of their adoption, as the bride elect pictures to herself an uninterrupted succession of happy years as soon as she crosses the threshold of her new home. Many a scene of grievous disappointment on the distant shores of New Zealand is known to us, and we believe that if the propounders of those contemplated colonies had witnessed these scenes, they would speak in less confident terms of their success.
In the imaginary tariff at the future port of Lyttleton we find an item of export to a promised market gravely stated, upon such slight data, that we cannot but refer to it, particularly as the commodity in question might be supposed to create a considerable portion of the future revenue of the colony, and thereby induce a larger per centage of agricultural labourers to emigrate than would be judicious :
“ As the settlement," it is remarked," begins to fill up, and the demand for grain increases within its limits, an export of grain may eventually be looked for from the enterprise gradually engaged in its cultivation. For this grain there can hardly fail to be a considerable demand at the Australian ports, as the engagement of labour in pastoral and mining pursuits on that continent renders its population partially dependent on foreign supplies." - Canterbury Papers, p. 13.
Otago and Canterbury.
357 Any one acquainted with the internal resources which Australia possesses for producing every description of food, will remark at once the gratuitous assertions contained in this passage. The writer might with equal plausibility have affirmed, that as numbers of sheep and cattle die of excessive drought in the warm districts of Australia, there is no doubt that the Canterbury sheep farmer will ultimately find a market there for his “ mutton, so fat, that the sailors of the Acheron could not eat it.” Van Dieman's Land alone, with its rich soil and cheap convict labour, is able to land grain of the finest quality at any Australian or New Zealand port cheaper than it can be produced on the spot. In fact, the grain market throughout those colonies is ruled by the Launceston prices. Excepting the imports of grain at Sydney and Moreton Bay from the corn-growing districts of the same group of colonies, we are not aware of any foreign supplies.
If we are, therefore, to place as little confidence in some other assertions contained in those papers, we must pause before we accept the judgments of those well-meaning leaders of colonial enterprise. We would advise them to solicit the advice of some disinterested and experienced mercantile men in such matters, for we are afraid that while many of their first transactions must necessarily be connected with exports and imports, supply and demand, produce and consumption, their education has not been of that nature to qualify them for conducting such monetary transactions with due caution and economy.
Far be it from us to discourage emigration and colonization on the praiseworthy plans of the Otago and Canterbury settlements. We most heartily wish them “God speed.” But the wisest of men are liable to commit mistakes in their enthusiasm. Colonies, like plants when forced into premature growth, are ever weak and puny, and where natural resources and advantages are absent they will pine and die. Moreover, without a substantial foundation of capital, even the richest natural resources can seldom be made available. Labour itself is usually of small avail at the establishment of a colony where this is wanting. In our information regarding those distant lands we have known strong and willing labourers sitting idle for want of capital to employ them. And we have likewise known capital invested in local works which have yielded no return, as in the mining operations at Kawau. That the produce from pastoral pursuits must form the staple export from this colony, like her flourishing neighbours in Australia, there is little doubt. But before this can be accomplished to an equal extent with that naturally richly grassed land, a long period must elapse to bring stock to its mere intrinsic value in a foreign market, or lower the prices from £12 for cattle, and 35s. per head for sheep, perhaps to 30s. for the former and 5s, for the