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Average toll for each gate yearly, · · $5,385 53.

Average toll for each gate daily, . - 14 75 Each of the above named gates will have to pay by toll, each day, $14 75. The two first gates will, in my opinion, pay double the amount set down to them, and there will be ample use for all they may raise for a few years, to assist the county in paying the interest; and after relieving the county, all but her 5 per cent,, their surplus must go to bring up the second gates to par. I do not expect the second gates will be able to meet their demands for the first few years. I mostly rely on the two first gates---their income will be large. The two second gates pay five thousand dollars each, yearly, by toll-$10,000. 2d year, both gates,

• • . $10,000 00 3 «

. . . . . 10,000 00

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$150,000 00 Add first year's interest, - - - 12,000 00 Each of the above named gates would have to pay, each day, $13 70 toll 10 meet the calculation made for the sinkIng fund.

The above calculations are for twelve years. We borrow the money for fifteen years, which will give ample time to pay any and every thing that could not be conveniently settled in twelve years. The money should be borrowed for fifteen

years, with the privilege of paying at any time after twelve years. By this plan the couniy may have thirty miles of good macadamized road, and at most only pay $52,000 out of $150,000. And that is not all; her citizens will be free from toll or tax on the roads forever. I do not expect to be benefitted by free roads, as my lamp has nearly exhausted its oil; but if I can do any thing that will benefit posterity, I am well paid. As our fathers laid the example of well-doing let their sons never lose sight of it.

OLLEY WILLIAMS.

ART. VIII.—SHIP BUILDING IN ST. LOUIS. We published in the June number of the Western Journal an excellent article on the subject of “Ship Building on the Western Waters,” from the pen of Hamilton Smith, Esq., of Louisville, Ky., and also an article from Dr. S. P. Hildreti, of Marietta, Ohio, giving an interesting history of ship building at Marietta, and other places on the Ohio river, from the year 1800 to the date of his communication. Many of the facts stated in these communications were new to us, and we believe that but very few people now residing in the west are aware of the extent to which ship building on the Ohio river had progressed anterior to the late war with Great Britain.

Convinced by the facts and deductions contained in these articles that the people of the west could compete successfully with those of the Atlantic coast in this important branch of mechanism, we invited communications on the subject, with a hope of calling to it the attention of capitalists and ship builders. But except the republication of our article in the Merchants' Magazine, no further notice seems to have been taken of the matter in the public prints until the appear. ance of the following announcement in the Missouri Republican of the 1st ultimo :

Ship Building in si. Louis.-Contracts bave been entered into with Messrs. Brotherton & Gordon for the lumber to be used in building a ship in this city. It is to be commenced immediately by Capt. Evans and Mr. French, who design to make it a permanent business. The vessel is to be of three hundred tons burthen and will be completely fitted and rigged here. It is to be completed by the first of April, will then be loaded and proceed to sea. It is believed that sea vessels can be built here on better terms than at New York, or on the Ohio. The timber used in their construction is of a better quality than that obtained on the Ohio, and greatly cheaper than that which is used in New York. In some unimportant materials, the advantage is against us, but we see no reason why the enterprise should not suceeed.”

We are not informed in what the disadvantage referred to in the above article consists; there are doubtless, however, some advantages on the sea coast which we do not possess here; for, in so great a variety of materials as enter into the construction and completion of a ship, there will always be a difference in the cost of some articles at any two points far distant from each other; and besides, we admit that there must ever be disadvantages encountered by the pioneers in every business. But, nevertheless, we believe that in time the advantages will be greatly in favor of ship building on the western waters, when compared with those on the sea coast. Some of these advantages are so clearly illustrated by our correspondent S., that we take the liberty of transferring them to this article. He says:

“The ship Minesota, recently built at Cincinnati by Capt. Deshon, and under direction of one of the best eastern architects, recently passed us, on her way to Liverpool. She is pronounced by competent judges to be equal in every respect, to any merchant vessel now on or off the stocks on the eastern seaboard. The estimate of comparative cost of our upper Ohio built ships, and those built at the east, is a saving of about twenty per cent. in first cost, and from fifteen to twenty per cent. more in the freight to New Orleans. For instance, the Minesota, of say eight hundred tons, would take a downward freight of five thousand dollars. The cost of towage would be, say one thousand dollars, and this would be more than saved in cost of reshipment at New Orleans.

“The cheapest timber, iron, hemp and provisions; easy navigation; saving of cost of re-shipment, and heavy charges at New Orleans; absence of risk-of damage to perishable freight exposed to the sun in a hot climate; saving of time, interest, and insurance.

“Shippers of corn, flour, meat, and tobacco only, will fully appreciate the advantage of sending these staples to a distant market, and through an inter-tropical climate, in vessels clean, fresh and cool, and in the shortest possible time.

“If I am correct in these general views, here is an opening for an immensely valuable business to our men of capital and enterprise, and of vast importance to our country. No small part of the timber in the English dock-yards has been transported from Canada, Norway, and the Baltic, and from fresh water streams. The ships built there. from, are provisioned with our meat and bread. Let us build the ships here-load them with our products, and sell ship and cargo abroad. We shall find the demand unlimited, and we shall, to the extent we go into the business, take labor from less profitable employments, and create an additional home market for our agriculturalists."

For the purpose of showing the extent of the business of ship building in the United States, we publish, under the head of commercial statistics, (page 685,) a statement showing the number and class of vessels built, and the tonnage thereof, in each State and Territory of the United States, for the year ending on the 30th of June, 1847, taken from the Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, from which it will be seen that the number of ships, brigs and schooners built in 1847, was 1,098; number of sloops and canal boats, 392, and of steamers 198; in all, 1,598, amounting in measurement to 243,732 tons.* Now, if we suppose the ships, brigs and schooners each to cost an average of $15,000, the number built in 1847, would amount to the sum of $16,470,000. If one-half of this business were transferred to the western waters, it would constitute, though not the largest, yet one of our most important sources of wealth; for as much as very little of the material that would enter into the construction of these vessels could find a market elsewhere, much the largest portion of their value would be a clear gain to the wealth of the country.

Messrs. Evans and French, the worthy pioneers in ship building on the Mississippi river, are entitled to the gratitude of the people of this region for making the experiment, and we sincerely hope that their enterprise may be crowned with the most complete success. The names of such persons belong to history, and posterity will class them with such as are esteemed benefactors of mankind.

It will be observed that Indiana and Illinois are not noticed in the statement of the Secretary of the Treasury. This is to be regretted, especially because it leaves the amount

of steamboat tonnage incomplete.-EDITORS.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.

Total No.

Total

STATEMENT showing the number and class of vessels built, and

the tonnage thereof, in each State and Territory of the United States for the year ending on the 30th June, 1847.

Sloops and
Districts. Ships. Brigs. Schrs. canal boats. Steamers. built. tonnage,

Tong. 95ths.
MAINE.
Passamaquoddy, 1 15 10

27 4,076 55 Machias, 4 15

19 2,628 81 Frenchman's bay,

16 1,934 50 Penobscot, 3 12

15 2,003 78 Belfast, 1 30 19

50 7,764 20 Waldoborough,

82 16,836 52 Wiscasset,

23 3,308 28 Bath, 20 15 20

55 13,019 91

12

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Districts. Portland Saco, Kennebunk,

Sloops and

Total No. Total Ships. Brigs. Schrs. canal boats. Steamers. thonte. Steamers built. tondage.

Tons. 95ths. 4 6 9,037 02

548 176 2,360 10

30 06

23

10

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York,

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Total. 73 120 151
N. HAMPSHIRE.
Portsmouth, 7 1 2

VERMONT.
Burlington,

MASSACHUSETTS.
Newburyport, 12
Ipswich,

1 4
Gloucester,
Marblehead
Boston,
Plymouth,
Fall River,
New Bedford,
Barnstable,
Edgartown,

Total, 33
RHODE ISLAND.
Providence,
Bristol,
Newport,

2

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Total,
CONNECTICUT
Middletown,
New London,
Stonington,
Fairfield,

2
Total, 3
NEW YORK. :
Champlain,
Sackett's Harbor,
Genesee,
Oswego,

1
Niagara,
Buffalo,
Sag Harbor,
New York, 16
Cape Vincent,

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