« 이전계속 »
operation of physicians, sanitarians and municipal authorities to this end was solicited. It is hoped in this way to demonstrate incontestably the value of work undertaken for the prevention of disease and protection of health, and thus lead to more liberal expenditures for such purposes on the part of States and municipalities.
The subject of human tuberculosis was quite fully discussed; in addition to the paper by Dr. Hunt, Dr. Plater, of Ottawa, Can., and Dr. P. H. Kretzschmar, of Brooklyn, presented papers relating to this topic the next day. The practical points mainly brought out and emphasized were the necessity for pulmonary hygiene on the part of those having weak chests or disposed to the disease; and, second, the early complete destruction of all sputa from those having or suspected of having the disease, so that the dissemination of the germs may be more strictly limited.
After hearing a paper by Dr. Wm. M. Smith, Quarantine Officer of the Port of New York, in which a history was given of the origin and development of quarantine measures in that port, the difficulties experienced in securing the means needed to make the station equal to the requirements, and of recent final success in securing funds to make enlargements and improvements to the establishment — views of these being shown by means of the stereopticon - at about noon the members of the Association were taken on inspection tour of the lower harbor, stops being made at various points, allowing those wishing to do so to land and thoroughly examine the buildings and apparatus of the establishments for the reception, detention and disinfection of ships and their passengers, crews, baggage, cargoes, etc.
The additions and improvements completed, or under way, seemed to be all badly needed and when finished, as it is expected they soon will be, if managed with efficiency and due vigilance, we in the interior may feel a greater assurance of protection against imported diseases than in the recent past, when it is well known that these presumed defenses amounted to but little more than the
In view of the possible coming of cholera next year to our Atlantic seaboard the additions and strengthening in quarantine equipment and resources at this important port may prove of the greatest importance and value to the whole country. The provision made for handling immigrants and detaining them in comfortable quarters on the island set apart for the purpose would appear to be quite complete, as they can be held under observation under such circumstances much better than if on shore.
The evening session of this day was opened by a paper by Dr. Sternberg, of the Army, in which he described and illustrated by means of the stereopticon the results of his recent researches into the etiology of yellow fever. He was unable to announce any positive conclusions in this respect, but expressed the belief that the solution of this problem was in a fair way of attainment.
Dr. Theobald Smith, of the Buretu of Animal Industry at Washington, read a paper entitled, Prelimin:ry Observations on the Micro Organism of Texas Fever,” and Dr. D. E. Salmon, chief of the same Bureau, devoted some time to the consideration of the same disease with screen illustrations.
An interesting feature of the evening was a paper read by Edward Atkinson, LL. D., of Boston, on the “ Art of Cooking,” the cooking operations going on in the hall during the reading in ovens designed by the author, and various dishes thus cooked were served to the audience at its conclusion. The ovens appeared to be tin boxes a few feet square, jacketed with some material to prevent escape of the heat with closely fitting doors, the necessary heat being afforded by coal oil lamps placed beneath them. A variety of dishes were served, comprising meats, fish, vegetables, etc. Very little odor of cooking could be detected in the hall while it was in process and the dishes presented seemed to be satisfactorily cooked. It is claimed that the slowness of the process is a great advantage, insuring more thorough cooking and that a decided saving in labor, fuel and food can be effected in this way, with more palatable and nutritious food, enabling those in limited circumstances to better their condition with less work, more wholesome food and with small fuel expense.
Many ladies were present who seemed much interested in the paper and demonstration, but the nature of their final conclusions in regard to the matter did not appear.
The morning hours of Thursday were devoted to the question of garbage disposal by cremation, the discussion of the subject having been continued from the meeting last year, when a committee was appointed to canvass the matter and make report to the next meeting of its tindings and conclusions, but it developed that the expected report was not forthcoming.
A paper entitled “ Disposal of Garbage at Milwaukee,” by Dr. Martin, Commissioner of Health of that city, was read; also “ Statistics on River Pollution, with Observations Relating to the Destruction of Garbage and Refuse Matters,” by S. S. Kilvington, M. D., the head of the Minneapolis Health Department. After a somewhat unsatisfactory and inconclusive discussion of this subject the Association listened to a paper on “ Food and its Relation to Health,” by Prof. W. 0. Atwater, Director Experimental Station, United States Department of Agriculture at Washington.
The essay discussed the food values of different articles of common diet, and the economies that could be practiced in this direction, and made the point that people in this country as a rule eat more than is required for the maintenance of health, this observation probably applying to those who do not labor with their hands for a living.
An interesting discussion on human pulinonary tuberculosis took place at the afternoon session of this day, the meeting being held at the Hoagland Laboratory, an institution founded by a liberal and public spirited citizen of Brooklyn for the purpose of furnishing facilities for experimental researches into the causation and prevention of disease.
This discussion has already been referred to, and greắt stress was laid by one of the speakers on the necessity of infected persons carrying with them a flask or other container for the reception of their sputa, instead of expectorating freely in the streets, houses, stores, etc. A flask designed for this purpose was exhibited and its use recommended as an important factor in the prophylaxis of tuberculosis.
An animated debate followed the reading of a paper on the “ Dieinfection of Dwellings by Means of Sulphur Dioxide,” by Cyrus Edson, M. D., Chief Inspector of the New York Health Department. It was claimed by him to be a convenient and effective disinfectant for use in houses where small-pox and scarlet fever poisons existed. The general opinion seemed, however, to be adverse to its use when other chemical agents of known greater disinfectant power could be employed; and the point was dwelt on that to secure from it the best 'effects steam or watery vapor should be freely present at the time sulphur was being burned, as its disinfectant power was much increased thereby.
At the evening meeting Rev. C. R. Treat read a paper on “ Sinitary Entombment," with lantern illustrations. The plan and process involve the construction of large massive buildings with receptacles for the enclosure of bodies, which would then be subjected to the action of currents of dry air whereby they would become desiccated and reduced to the condition, of mummies; earth burial in or near cities was condemned as a contamination of the soil and the objection to human cremation on medico-legal grounds clearly recognized, and the course proposed in the paper takes the middle ground. There appears to be much to commend the plan in crowded cities and the paper was well received.
Papers entitled “Do the Sanitary Interests of the United States Demand the Annexation of Cuba," by Benj. Lee, M. D., Secretary of the State Board of Health of Pennsylvania, and “Railway Sanitation,” hy Samuel W. Latta, M. D., Medical Examiner of the Relief Department Penn. Railway at Trenton, N. J., concluded the exercises of the evening.
The Friday morning session was consumed in hearing final reports from the various committees, the transaction of unfinished business, and the reading by title of a number of papers.
The election of officers for the ensuing year resulted in the choice of Dr. H. B. Baker, of Michigan, for President; Dr. Frederic Montizambert, of Quebec, for First Vice-President; Dr. J. H. Raymond, of Brooklyn, for Second Vice-President, and the re-election of Drs. Irving A. Watson and J. Berrien Lindsley, respectively as Secretary and Treasurer.
The Association then adjourned to meet in Charleston, S. C., next year. All of which is respectfully submitted.
GEO. Homan, M. D.,
Secretary. A SUGGESTED MINIMUM BASIS OF COMPENSA
TION TO LOCAL HEALTH OFFICERS.
By Geo. HOMAN, M. D.,
Frequent occasion has arisen since my connection with the State Board of Health begun to note not only the usual inadequacy, but the unsettled basis on which compensation for the services of town and county health officers was allotted, both in Missouri and elsewhere ; and being of the opinion that the minimum rate of pay for each official should be fixed by legislative act in order that an approx-imate degree of uniformity should prevail throughout the State in this regard, and the matter thus removed to some extent beyond the caprice, ignorance, or parsimony of town boards or county courts I began early casting about in my mind seeking how such a basis could be best determined and secured; but in the endeavor to solve the problem I could get no help from other States as to how such compensation was adjusted, and I am equally at fault regarding the practice abroad in this respect.
Obviously the duties of the executive sanitary officer of a county or town can have no natural relation to the taxable or actual wealth of the territory within his jurisdiction; as health officer his official powers and functions relate primarily to persons and not things, and to every individual within his limits without regard to age, sex, color, social standing or position.
Such being the case, the numerical human population should be adopted as the natural determining factor in deciding the question of pay of sanitary officials; and I desire it to be understood that what is said here bears solely on the question of the salary of the health officer, and not to office or operating expenses, funds for the abatement of nuisances, etc., etc., although I believe an extension of the same principle would secure to such purposes a fair if not liberal financial support.
The total human population of a stated district or territory being decided on then to determine this question, the amount per capita per annum each person should be assessed next came up for consideration, and in connection with it the last United States census was consulted to ascertain the population of certain selected corpo
* Read at the seventeenth annual meeting of the American Public Health As. sociation, Brooklyn, N. Y.