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PREFACE.

While there are many excellent works on navigation and seamanship, there has not existed, up to the present time, a book written for, and especially adapted to, the needs of yachtsmen. It was the recognition of this want which induced the author to publish “ The Yachtsman's Guide.” By reference to Part I, it will be seen that the book starts from a rudimentary point; that article succeeds article in proper order, so that when the first section is intelligently disposed of, a substantial foundation for the reception of practical navigation has been prepared. Part II treats on practical navigation for everyday use on shipboard. Part III is devoted to yacht discipline, valuable rules, etc. Part IV leads from the first principles of seamanship up to yacht sailing, embracing all rigs. Part V is made up of dictionaries of ship-building and sea-terms, U. S. Laws relating to steam and sail yachts, yacht captain's medical guide, etc., the whole forming, the author believes he can consistently claim, the strongest possible combination to rely upon for the success of a yachting work. The book contains five hundred extra octavo pages, and over one hundred and fifty choice engravings. As each part is prefaced and indexed separately and fully, repetition will be avoided by not anticipating anything further in relation to the contents of the book. The “press and club opinions” to be found in the front of the volume, refer to the first edition of the “Guide.” Attention is called to the errata following the title page.

THE AUTHOR.

Succes

CONTENTS.-PART I.

PAGE.
. 11

.

.

. 29

. .

.

Preliminary Remarks-Geographical . .

.

The Mariner's Compass—its construction, how it is “ boxed,” and the

relation and value of points and angles to compass courses . . 15

Short Treatise on the Compass—Explanation why variation is not con-

sidered when shaping a course by the parallel rules . . . 23

Variation—to correct a compass course for it . .

The Ecliptic and Declination, why and how the latter is corrected for

hourly change . . . . .

The Quadrant-how to read it and adjust it
The Sextant-Description of

Method of Observing Altitudes . .

Explanation of Semi-diameter, Dip of the Horizon, Parallax and Re-

fraction . . . . . . .

. . . 36

Explanation why Time is gained in sailing East, and lost in sailing

West . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Short Treatise on the Gulf Stream

Tides, Short Treatise on-how to calculate the time of high water . 40

Winds—Short Treatise on. .
The Patent Log—when and how to set it—to allow to it for currents

how to read it ..

Leeway, manner of determining it and allowing it to a course sailed ..

Current Sailing . . . . . . .

Drift when Hove-to-how to find it and apply it

Taking Departure or Farewell . .

The Chronometer and its Rate . . .

Method of keeping the Chronometer Rate . .

The Thermometer and Hygrometer . .

The Barometer, Thermometer and Hygrometer as Aids in Foretelling

Weather . . . . . . . . .

How to keep the Log Book

. . . . 71

Charts—signs and abbreviations used, showing quality of bottom

Table of Distances at which Objects can be seen at sea .

The Law of Storms . . . . . . . . . .

Arithmetic of Navigation.

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Before we entertain the question of navigation, it will be necessary to refresh the memory with a few salient features of geography:

The earth is practically a spherical body, and revolves on an axis (an imaminary line running through the center of the earth) from west to east, making a complete revolution in twenty-four hours. The extremities of the earth's axis are at the north and south geographical poles, and the latitade of the poles is 90° north and south, respectively. A great circle, or imaginary line, surrounding the earth, equi-distant between the two poles, is called the equator, and this is the circle of no latitude; but counting north and south from this circle latitude increases, until, reaching the poles, it receives a value of 90°, and ceases.

The equator is called by seamen the Line. That part of the earth which lies on the north side of the equator is called the northern hemisphere, and on the south side the southern hemisphere ; and any place in the northern hemisphere is in north latitude, and any place in the southern hemisphere is in south latitude.

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