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these lights shall be of the same construction and character, and shall be carried in the same position as the white light which other steamships are required to carry.
ARTICLE 5. A ship, whether a steamship or a sailing-ship, when employed either in laying or in picking up a telegraph cable, or which from any accident is not under command, shall at night carry in the same position as the white light which steamships are required to carry ; and if a steamship, in place of that light, three red lights in globular lanterns, each not less than ten inches in diameter in a vertical line one over the other, not less than three feet apart, and shall by day carry in a vertical line, one over the other not less than three feet apart, in front of, but not lower than her foremasthead, three black balls or shapes each two feet in diameter.
These shapes and lights are to be taken by approaching ships as signals that the ship using them is not under command, and cannot therefor get out of the way.
The above ships, when 'not making any way through the water, shall not carry the side lights, but when making way shall carry them.
ARTICLE 6. A sailing-ship under way, or being towed, shall carry the same lights as are provided by Article 3 for a steamship under way, with the exception of the white light, which she shall never carry.
ARTICLE 7. Whenever, as in the case of small vessels during bad weather, the green and red side-lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept on deck, on their respective sides of the vessel ready for use, and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.
To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them shall each be painted outside with the colour of the light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with proper screens.
ARTICLE 8. A ship, whether a steamship or a sailingship, when at anchor, shall carry where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding 20 feet above the hull, a white light in a globular lantern of not less than eight inches in diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear uniform and unbroken light, visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least one mile.
ARTICLE 9. A pilot vessel, when engaged on her station on pilotage duty, shall not carry the lights required for other vessels, but shall carry a white light at the mast-head, visible all round the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flareup light or flareup lights at short intervals, which shall never exceed fifteen minutes. A pilot vessel, when not engaged on her station on pilotage duty, shall carry lights similar to those of other ships.
ARTICLE 10. (a) Open fishing-boats and other open boats, when under way, shall not be obliged to carry the side-lights required for other vessels ; but every such boat shall, in lieu thereof, have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass on the one side, and a red glass on the other side ; and, on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.
(6) A fishing vessel and an open boat, when at anchor, shall exhibit a bright white light.
(c) A fishing vessel, when employed in drift net-fishing, shall carry on one of her masts two red lights in a verticle line, one over the other, not less than three feet apart.
(d) A tawler at work shall carry on one of her masts two lights in a vertical line, one over the other, not less than three feet apart, the upper light red and the lower green ; and shall also either carry the side-lights required for other vessels ; or, if the side-lights cannot be carried, have ready at hand the coloured lights as provided in Article 7, or a lantern with a red and a green glass as described in paragraph (a) of this Article.
(e) Fishing vessels and open boats shall not be prevented from using a flareup in addition if they desire to do so.
(f) All lights required by this Article, except side-lights, shall be in globular lanterns, so constructed as to show all round the horizon.
ARTICLE 11. A ship which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned ship a white light or a flareup light.
SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, &c.
ARTICLE 12. A steamship shall be provided with a steamwhistle or other efficient steam-sound signal, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstructions, and with an efficient fog-horn to be sounded by a bellows or other mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell.
A sailing ship shall be provided with a similar fog-horn and bell. In fog, mist, or falling snow, whether by day or night, the signals described in this Article shall be used as follows, that is to say :
(a) A steamship under way shall make with her steamwhistle or other steam-sound signal, at intervals of not more than two minutes, a prolonged blast.
(6) A sailing ship under way shall make with her fog-horn at intervals of not more than two 'minutes, when on the starboard tack, one blast ; when on the port tack, two blasts in succession ; and when, with the wind abaft the beam, three blasts in succession.
(c) A steamship and a sailing-ship, when not under way, shall, at intervals of not more than two minutes, ring the bell.
Speed of ships to be moderate in fog, &c.
ARTICLE 13. Every ship, whether a sailing ship, or steamship, shall in a fog, mist, or falling snow, go at a moderate speed.
STEERING AND SAILING RULES. ARTICLE 14. When two sailing-ships are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows, viz. :
(a) A ship which is running free shall keep out of the way of a ship which is close-hauled.
(6) A ship which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a ship which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.
(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the ship which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.
(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the ship which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the ship which is to leeward.
(e) A ship which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other ship.
ARTICLE 15. If two ships under steam are meeting end on, or nearly end on so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each may pass the port side of the other. This article only applies to cases where ships are meeting end on or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two ships which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.
The only cases to which it does apply are, when each of the two ships is end on, or nearly end on, to the other-in other words, to cases in which, by day, each ship sees the mast of the other in a line, or nearly in a line with her own, and by night, to cases in which each ship is in such a position as to see both the side-lights of the other.
It does not apply by day to cases in which a ship sees another ahead crossing her own course, or by night to cases where the red light of one ship is opposed to the red light of the other; or where the green light of one ship is opposed to the green light of the other; or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.
ARTICLE 16. If two ships under steam are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the ship which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.
ARTICLE 17. If two ships, one of which is a sailing-ship and the other a steamship, are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steamship shall keep out of the way of the sailing-sbip.
ARTICLE 18. Every steamship, when approaching another ship so as to involve risk of collision, shall slacken her speed, or stop and reverse if necessary.
ARTICLE 19. In taking any course authorized or required by these Regulations, a steamship under way may indicate that course to any other ship which she has in sight by the following signals on her steam-whistle, viz. :
One short blast to mean—“I am directing my course to starboard."
Two short blasts to mean—"I am directing my course to port.”
Three short blasts to mean—“I am going full speed astern.''
The use of these signals is optional ; but if they are used, the course of the ship must be in accordance with the signal made.
ARTICLE 20. Notwithstanding anything contained in any preceeding Article, every ship, whether a sailing-ship or a