Principles of Political Economy

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D. Appleton, 1887 - 670페이지

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Fixed and Circulating Capital what
93
COCO
100
Of the Law of the Increase of Labor
112
Of the Law of the Increase of Capital
120
Examples of excess of this desire
127
Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return the progress
134
of New York
137
Miles of Railroad in Operation and Miles added each Year in the United States
138
Proportion of Miles of Railroad to the Square Mile in the United States and Europe face
140
in manufactures
141
PAGE
144
BOOK II
152
Density of Foreignborn Population in the United States
152
CO 2 The case for Communism against private property presented
158
The Socialist objections to the present order of Society examined
168
Of Wages
175
Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages
183
1 A legal or customary minimum of wages with a guarantee of employ
193
Grounds for expecting improvement in public opinion on the subject
200
different employments
205
Wages of women why lower than those of men
213
General tendency of profits to an equality
220
The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labor
226
Of Rent
232
Opposing views to the law of rent
240
Definitions of Value in Use Exchange Value and Price
249
Miscellaneous cases falling under this law
257
Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production
264
When profits vary from employment to employment or are spread
272
Such commodities when produced in circumstances more favorable
279
Of Money
286
Money a mere contrivance for facilitating exchanges which does
293
Of the Value of Money as dependent on Cost
302
Production of Gold and Silver
307
The use of the two metals as money and the management of Subsidi
315
Relative Values of Gold and Silver
318
Of Credit as a Substitute for Money
325
5 Promissory notes
331
Great extensions and contractions of credit Phenomena of a com
340
Of an Inconvertible Paper Currency
344
If regulated by the price of bullion an inconvertible currency might
350
Experiments with paper money in the United States
355
Exports and Imports of Merchandise from and into the United States
401
exchange
404
Esports and Imports of Specie from and into the United States
408
Of the Foreign Exchanges
410
Distinction between variations in the exchanges which are selfadjust
416
The preceding theorem further illustrated
422
Influence of the Currency on the Exchanges and
430
Effect of the increase of an inconvertible paper currency Real
437
The rate of interest not really connected with the value of money
447
Market
450
Low wages enable a country to undersell another when peculiar
457
Cotton Crops under Free and Slave Labor
459
Of Distribution as affected by Exchange
465
Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population
475
that tendency from time to time counteracted by improvements
484
The arts of production advancing capital and population stationary
491
Changes in the Rank of the States in respect of Population
495
Of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum
497
prerented from reaching it by commicrcial revulsions
504
Grain Crops of the United States
509
Relative Areas of States of the United States and the Coun tries of Europe
510
by the importation of cheap necessaries and implements
510
The possibility of improvement while laborers remain merely receivers
517
through small holdings by which the landlords gain is shared
522
Industrial Partnership
529
BOOK V
537
Taxes falling on capital not necessarily objectionable
548
An IncomeTax
555
Of Taxes on Commodities or Indirect Taxes
562
how modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum
568
Effects of discriminating duties
574
Comparison between Direct and Indirect Taxation
583
Public Revenue of the United States
590
Of a National Debt
596
Not desirable to redeem a national debt by a general contribution 899
602
Public Debt of the United States
602
Reduction of National Debts in Various Countries
604
1 The doctrine of Protection to Native Industry
605
Occupations of People of the United States
619
APPENDIX I
631
Examination Questions
637
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536 페이지 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as Little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
536 페이지 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute to the support of the Government as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State.
536 페이지 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
610 페이지 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
108 페이지 - Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day.
108 페이지 - I have seen a small manufactory of this kind, where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.
210 페이지 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.
177 페이지 - sacredness of property" is talked of, it should always be remembered, that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a question of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.
590 페이지 - The schoolboy whips his taxed top; the beardless youth manages his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle, on a taxed road ; and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine, which has paid...
163 페이지 - If, therefore, the choice were to be made between Communism with all its chances, and the present state of society with all its sufferings and injustices; if the institution of private property...

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