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CHAPTER I

THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF THE

UNITED KINGDOM

The word “commerce” is generally used to denote trade with foreign countries or with the Colonies, buying and selling at home being usually designated trade. For all practical purposes, however, the words trade and commerce may be considered to be synonymous. As a matter of fact, the term “commerce is rarely heard in business affairs. It is true that we speak of “commercial matters” and “ Chambers of Commerce" (the latter term being no doubt derived from the Chambres de Commerce which existed in France long before similar bodies were established in this country), but otherwise the term is rarely if ever used, the words trade and business sufficing to define our dealings both with our customers at home and with those abroad.

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There are three great divisions of our trade, viz., (1) The Home Trade, (2) The Foreign Trade, and (3) The Carrying or Shipping Trade.

Home Trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and commodities for delivery within the borders of the United Kingdom.

Foreign Trade means trade with foreign countries, and comprises our imports from and exports to the Continent, the East, the United States, South America, &c., and our Colonies and Dependencies. This is sub-divided into

Import Trade, referring to merchandise brought into this country from abroad; and

Export Trade, referring to the merchandise which we send abroad, either in execution of orders or for sale on commission.

The Carrying or Shipping Trade, as applied to imports and exports, refers to the transportation of merchandise by sea. The Transit (or Transhipment) Trade, which is not included in our Foreign Trade, falls under this head.

The Import and Export Trades are sub-divided into specific trades, for example :

The Australasian Trade, meaning trade with Australia, New

Zealand, &c. Trade with other Colonies (e.g., Canada, the Cape, &c.) is referred to by the specific name of the Colony concerned.

The Continental Trade, meaning trade with Continental countries

generally.
The Eastern Trade, meaning trade with India, China, Japan, and the

East generally
The North American Trade, meaning trade with Canada and the

United States. (This is divided into the Canadian Trade,
meaning trade with Canada, and the States Trade, meaning

trade with the United States.)
The Central American Trade, meaning trade with Mexico and the

Central American countries generally.
The West India Trade, meaning trade with Jamaica, Cuba, and the

West India Islands generally.
The South American Trade, meaning trade with Brazil, Chili, Peru, &c.
The Levant Trade, meaning trade with Syria and Asia Minor generally.
The South African Trade, meaning trade with the Cape, the

Transvaal, &c.
The Baltic Trade ; the Black Sea Trade, and so on.

Each of the above classes is again sub-divided in accordance with the particular countries concerned.

There are also several other branches of trade, for example :

The Tea Trade.
The Wool Trade.
The Cotton Trade. IMPORT TRADE AND HOME TRADE.
The Corn Trade.
The Fruit Trade.

The Cotton (textile) Trade.
The Worsted Trade.
The Woollen Trade.
The Iron Trade.
The Coal Trade.

EXPORT TRADE AND HOME TRADE.

The Foreign Trade of the United Kingdom.- We have already mentioned that the United Kingdom ranks first among the commercial countries of the world, but those who have not gone into the matter will be surprised at the magnitude of the trade of these islands. During the year 1897 the value of the imports into the United Kingdom was no less than £451,000,000, whilst the exports amounted to £294,000,000. The imports and exports together amounted to the enormous sum of £745,000,000.

The Foreign Trade of the Principal Nations.—The following table shows, according to the latest available returns, the foreign trade of the principal nations, in millions of pounds sterling :

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Exports from the United Kingdom.-A large proportion of the articles which we manufacture are exported to countries abroad. The total value of our exports during the year 1897 was, as already stated, £294,000,000. Of this, however, £60,000,000 consisted of articles which we had previously imported, such as wool, cotton, coffee, tea, and manufactured articles. How the remaining £234,000,000 of home productions which we exported was made

up

is shown in the following table :

EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.

VALUES OF EXPORTS OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN PRODUCE AND MANUFACTURES.

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British and Irish Products :

Animals living
Articles of Food and Drink

Raw Materials
Articles Manufactured and Partly Manu-
factured, viz :-

Yarns and Textile Fabrics...
Metals and Articles Manufactured there-

from (except Machinery)
Machinery and MillworkTM
Apparel and Articles of personal use
Chemicals and Chemical and Medicinal

Preparations
All other Articles --either manufactured

or partly manufactured Parcel Post

Total Value Exports of Foreign and Colonial Produce

Total value (partly estimated)

Total (Home and Foreign)

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Imports into the United Kingdom.-As Great Britain does not produce sufficient food to support her population she has to import large quantities of all kinds of food-stuffs, in addition to manufactured articles and raw materials. The Imports for the year 1897, as compared with the previous year, were

, follows:

as

IMPORTS INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM.

TOTAL VALUE OF IMPORTS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES & BRITISH POSSESSIONS.

Animals living--for food
Articles of Food and Drink-duty free

1896.

1897. £

t 10,438,699 11,380,332 146,301,708 151,550,115 25,693,706 26,791,519

dutiable
Tobacco-dutiable
Metals
Chemicals, Dyestuffs, and Tanning Substances
Oils...
Raw Materials for Textile Manufactures
Raw Materials for sundry Industries & Mfctrs.
Manufactured Articles
Miscellaneous Articles
Parcel Post

Total Value

4,370,670 4,072,435 20,464,786 21,265,363 6,784,845 6,006,210 8,446,709 7,641,231 74,766,039 70,263,511 47,270,940 52,085,336 81,250,453 85,038,387 15,036,432 14,139,314

1,012,348 1,004,930 441,807,335 451,238,683

PRINCIPAL ARTICLES IMPORTED AND EXPORTED.

The following table shows the value of the principal articles imported into and exported from the United Kingdom in the vear 1897, and the totals of each class :

IMPORTS.

VALUE.

EXPORTS.

VALUE.

...

...

£

£

British Productions: Articles of Food & Drink

Animals. Cattle, Sheep, &c. 11,380,000

Horses, Cattle, Sheep,
Wheat

23,363,000
&c.

1,113,000 Flour

9,600,000 Articles of Food & Drink Barley, Oats, Peas, &c. 20,417,000 Bacon, Hams, Beef, &c. 27,368,000 Raw Materials.

Beer, Fish, Spirits, &c. 12,139,000 Butter and Margarine 18,402,000

Coal, Coke, Cinders, and
Cheese

5,887,000
Fuel

16,659,000 Eggs

4,357,000 Wool Fruit (raw)

1,535,000 6,109,000 Yarns and Textile Fabrics Potatoes and Vegetables, 2,655,000

Cotton Manufactures... 54,061,006 Sugar and Molasses 16,198,000

Woollen and Worsted
Coffee

3,571,000
Manufactures

24,670,000 Tea

10,443,000

Linen Manufactures Wines and Spirits

4,774,000 8,460,000 Jute

2,168,000 Tobacco

4,072,000
Silk

1,340,000 Metals, Copper, Iron, &c. 21,265,000 Metals and Articles MannChemicals, Dyestuffs, &c. 6,006,000

factured therefrom (ex

cept Machinery)... 34,488,000 Oils

7,641,000 Machinery and Millwork 16,282,000 Raw Materials.

Apparel and Articles of Cotton (raw)... 32,195,000 personal use ...

9,878,000 Flax, Hemp, and Jute 9,109,000 Chemicals & Chemical & Wool, Mohair, Alpaca,

Medicinal Preparations 8,675,000 &c.

26,113,000 Other manufactured Caoutchouc

4,547,000

articles. Hides (raw)

2,750,000 Arms, Ammunition, &c. 1,910,000 Papermaking Materials 2,765,000

Products of Coal... 1,668,000 Wood and Timber 23,637,000

Earthenware, &c.

1,726,000

Leather (dressed) Manufactured Articles

1,389,000

Painters' Colours and Cotton Manufactures... 3,954,000

Materials ... Silk

1,599,000 16,912,000 Woollen

Paper

1,523,000 13,000,000 Total Value of Exports of Glass

3,000,000

British Productions Iron and Steel

$ 234,350,000 5,772,000 Leather

8,141,000 Foreign and Colonial Gloves

2,145,000 Productions: Paper

2,848,000
Caoutchouc

2,796,000

Coffee Miscellaneous Articles.

1,911,000

Cotton (raw)... Seeds

4,316,000 5,751,000 Hides (raw)

937,000 Jute

1,282,000 Leather...

1,804,000 Tea

1,514,000 Wool

13,322,000 Total Value of Exports

59,834,000

(British and Foreign Total Value of Imports £ 451,239,000 Productions) £ 294,184,000

...

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