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No teacher will be admitted to this examination who has not completed his or her 35th year.

Their Lordships will require all uncertificated teachers in schools taking advantage of the Minute of 2 April 1853, or having pupil-teachers apprenticed to them, to attend these examinations.

(No. 2.)



Annual Ex- Letter from Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools the Rev. Henry Moseley, M.A., F.R.S., &c., to the Lord President of the Council, transmitting a Scheme of Examination for Students in Training Colleges.

of Students in Training Schools.


Wandsworth, 2 May 1854. IN compliance with your Lordship's instructions, I have drawn out a programme of subjects for the annual examination of students in training schools, of which I enclose a copy.

In this programme no addition is proposed to be made to the subjects in which the students of those institutions have been accustomed to be examined. The only alteration lies in this, that, whereas every student has been heretofore examined without distinction of standing, it is proposed for the future to graduate the examinations according to the years of residence.

This task having been undertaken in accordance with the wishes of the authorities of some of the largest training schools, and the question being one in which, from the influence which the examinations held by Her Majesty's Inspectors cannot but have on the course of instruction pursued in each college, the interests of all were involved, your Lordship deemed it expedient that all should be consulted thereon, and you therefore directed that the programme should be printed, and that a copy of it should be addressed confidentially to the principal of each training school, and to every member of its committee, with the request that such notes and observations as they thought fit to make thereon should be inserted in the margin.

These notes and observations have been placed in my hands, and I have carefully read them.

I have considerably modified the first draft of my programme, in pursuance of suggestions made in these papers.

There is no difference of opinion as to the expediency, in a general sense, of such a plan as has been proposed; nor is there, I trust, any question as to its details, which will interfere with that general concurrence and support which all the training schools are desirous to give. Generally, it may be stated that the objections lie to the prescription, not of too much, but, of too little.

The colleges object generally to the distribution of the subjects of examination over so long a period as three years. Their students now remain, in the majority of cases, but one year; they are of an opinion that to insist on their remaining three years will be to deter a large proportion of the pupil-teachers from seeking the training schools at all, and to drive them into employment if not more highly paid, at least more immediately remunerative.

A residence of two years supposes a wider course of instruction, and therefore of examination, during those years, than a residence of three years does; and it is this which appears to have been chiefly had in view in the alterations suggested in the papers now before me.

I have had the less hesitation in recommending, in several instances, the adoption of these alterations, as I myself am of opinion that two years has

been shown by experience to be sufficient for the instruction (in whatever belongs to their office) of men who have generally had the advantage of five years' apprenticeship.

There are always, however, men in training schools in advance of the rest in enterprise of character, in abilities, and in attainments-men adapted to be trained for some special and more important work of the teacher. Openings constantly present themselves for such men; and experience has shown how great are the services they may render to the cause of education.

These are the men most likely to wish to remain until the third year, and an optional third year's examination, limited to a few subjects having special reference to the work to which they propose to devote themselves, seems to offer to these students all the facilities that they can require, whilst it meets the case of the colleges whose course extends to three years.

In drawing out the programme I have been governed by the following considerations, in which I am confident of the concurrence of the authorities of the training schools which it is my duty to inspect, and in giving effect to which I hope for your Lordship's sanction and approbation :

1. Not to add to or take from the existing subjects of examination;
2. To give the greatest weight to those subjects which are subjects of
elementary instruction;

3. To inculcate the principle of "not attempting more than can be done
well," which lies at the root of all truthfulness and reality in the

The first is founded on that principle, on which the examinations of the Committee of Council have always been conducted, of not interfering with the course of instruction in training schools, except in so far as is required for the appropriation of the public grants at their Lordships' disposal exclusively to the advancement of elementary education. It is this limitation on which the second consideration is based.

The examinations determine the apportionment, to the several training schools, of Parliamentary grants voted expressly for the promotion of elementary education. If, therefore, the course of study pursued in any training school be not confined to the subjects of elementary instruction, or to subjects ancillary to the same end, the grants made to that school involve a misappropriation of the public money.

To the third principle, namely, that of "attempting a little and doing it well," as opposed to the practice of attempting a great deal and doing it ill, I attach a special importance in the education of the schoolmaster; because he will infallibly reproduce, in his own school, that one of those two principles on which his own education in the training school has been based; and because important interests to himself and his class appear to me to depend on the alternative whether his own character be formed according to the one type or the other.

Efforts constantly repeated for the attainment of many things, of which none is ever attained, cannot but tend to dissipate and emasculate the mind. The sense of a perpetual failure, of an inferiority spread over a large surface -of much attempted, but nothing ever fully accomplished-of great labour in many things, and but little success in any-is an ill preparation for the struggle of life in any condition of it.

It is the more difficult to carry out the principle of attempting no more than can be done well in the training of the elementary teacher, because many different subjects present themselves to different minds as adapted to the instruction of the poor.

Another difficulty lies in the fact that it is much easier to attain to a smattering of knowledge in many subjects to gather up many fragments of knowledge over a large surface-than to attain any depth of knowledge in a few.

Our examinations have specially to contend with the operation of these two principles.

The subjects of elementary education as it at present exists, and in which depth and soundness of knowledge is to be sought, are,

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These may be considered, I think, to be now taught nearly in every school where there is a master. To these must be added-as already taught in many elementary schools-the first steps in geometry and algebra. Besides these subjects, the higher mathematics and classics are taught-one or both of them-in all the training schools. The principle on which the examinations of the Committee of Council are conducted forbids it, I apprehend, to ignore these subjects were it even desirable to do so-but it subordinates them to the others.

As the best practical expedient under these circumstances, and to counteract, as far as may be possible, that tendency to diffusion which there is so much cause to regret, I have provided, in the programme which I now submit to your Lordship, that the students of training schools shall be examined either in higher mathematics or in classics, at their option; but that no student shall in the same year be examined in both subjects. Viewed with reference to elementary education, the study of Latin is a development of the master's power to instruct his pupils in the use of language; and the study of higher mathematics is a similar development on the side of arithmetic. But in neither case is such a study sine qua non. The denial of an examination in the same year in both of these subjects to any student is necessary, because practically, whatever subjects may be included in their Lordships' examinations, to which weight and importance is supposed to be attached in conferring certificates, and in awarding grants, these subjects will always be found, I apprehend, to have been more or less studied.

The examination in English history, for the second year, includes some elements of the history of the constitution and laws of England, and of the manners and customs of the people.

As a suitable work for the study of the former, I may perhaps venture to suggest two little volumes entitled respectively "Select Extracts from Blackstone's Commentaries," compiled by Samuel Warren, Esq., Q.C., and "An Abridgment of Blackstone's Commentaries," by the late Sir John Eardley Wilmot, Bart. (re-edited by his son).§ The student, besides studying the progress of the laws and constitution of England, may gather from these books so much information, at least, as to what the laws and the constitution are, as is perhaps necessary to his rightly understanding how they have become what they are.||

* To arithmetic is to be added, in many schools, mensuration and book-keeping. † Physical science is not usually considered a branch of elementary instruction, but that it is so practically will be sufficiently evident to anybody who will take the trouble to look into the reading lesson-books most commonly used in schools. A large proportion of the lessons in those books are on questions of physical science; the teaching of which can have no reality, and will indeed lead (as is constantly the case) to grave misapprehensions and blunders, unless the mind of the master be prepared for the explanation of them to the children by a systematic course of instruction in such subjects.

Maxwell, London, 1837.

§ Longman, London, 1853.

Serjeant Stephen's "Commentaries on Blackstone," Mr. Bowyer's "Treatise on Constitutional Law," or Professor Creasy's "History of the Constitution," may also be mentioned.

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The style of Blackstone is so remarkable for purity, for simplicity, and for
strength, that no better book could probably be selected as a prose reading
lesson-book in the first year's course, and as marking the style which the
students might be encouraged to study in their exercises on language, with a
view to the formation of their own.*

The works to succeed this in the third year are obviously those of
Mr. Hallam. The history of social progress, manners, and customs may be
studied with advantage in the second year from the articles devoted to those
subjects in the "Pictorial History of England."
I have the honor to be, &c.

The Lord President, &c.

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Enclosure referred to in foregoing letter.





Note. In this programme no addition is made to the subjects in which Syllabus of the students of training schools have been accustomed to be examined. The tion for Stuonly alteration lies in this,-that, whereas heretofore every student has been dents in examined without distinction of standing, it is proposed for the future to Training graduate the examinations according to the different years of residence. It will be seen that this arrangement, whilst it prescribes no new subject, does not limit the subjects of instruction in any year to those in which the student is to be examined at the end of the year.

It may often be judged expedient by the authorities of training schools to teach to the students in the first year subjects not prescribed for examination by Her Majesty's Inspectors until the end of the second year; and so of the second and third years.

The examination at the end of the first year offers a parallel to the first examination of under-graduates in the Universities.

Every student will be required to have passed the examination of the first year before he is admitted to that of the second; and so of the second and third years.

Holy Scriptures.

1. The history, chronology, and geography of the Bible.

2. More particularly (December 1855) the text of St. John's Gospel.

1. The text.

The Catechism and Liturgy.*

2. The Scriptural authorities. Church History.

The outlines of Church history, to the Council of Chalcedon.


To read (December 1855) with a distinct utterance, with due attention to the punctuation, and with a just expression, a passage from Mr. Warren's "Select Extracts from Blackstone's Commentaries."

Blackstone was thus spoken of by the Right Hon. C. J. Fox:-"You of course read Blackstone over and over again; and, if so, pray tell me whether you agree with me in thinking his style of English the very best of our modern writers; always easy and intelligible-far more correct than Hume, less studied and made up than Robertson. His purity of style I particularly admire. He was distinguished as much for simplicity and strength as any writer in the English language." (Trotter's "Memoirs of Fox," p. 512.) Various other similar testimonials have been collected by Mr. Warren.

†The examination in the Liturgy is to be limited to the Morning and Evening Services and the Litany.



To write a specimen of the penmanship used in setting copies.
1. A line of large text hand. 2. A passage in small hand.


1. To prove the usual rules from first principles.

2. To compute with precision and accuracy.

3. To make (with a knowledge of the principles) simple calculations in mensuration.t


1. To make (with a knowledge of the principles) simple calculations on the work of mechanical agents, and on the mechanical powers.

2. To know the structure and action of simple machines.

School Management.

1. To teach a class in the presence of the inspector.

2. To answer, in writing, questions on the expedients to be used for the purposes of instruction in reading, spelling, writing, and the first four rules of arithmetic.

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2. To parse (December 1855) a passage from the Chapter on

"The Doctrine

* Sir, Whitehall, 24 May 1854. I am directed by Viscount Palmerston to request that you will submit to the Committee of Council on Education, for their consideration, that one great fault in the system of instruction in the schools of the country lies in the want of proper teaching in the art of writing. The great bulk of the lower and middle orders write hands too small and indistinct, and do not form their letters, or they sometimes form them by alternate broad and fine strokes, which make the words difficult to read. The handwriting which was generally practised in the early part and middle of the last century was far better than that now in common use; and Lord Palmerston would suggest that it would be very desirable that the attention of schoolmasters should be directed to this subject, and that their pupils should be taught rather to imitate broad printing than fine copper-plate engraving.

The Secretary of the

Committee of Council on Education.

I am, &c.



The course proper for a National school is here meant, being that which can be intelligently taught to persons having a good knowledge of arithmetic. The examples should be taken from a Builder's Price Book.

The following machines may be specified ::-a pump, a door-lock, a house-clock, a gas-meter, a threshing-machine, a flour-mill, a steam engine, and an organ. If large diagrams, showing the internal structure of each machine, and lettered to correspond with the paragraphs of a succinct explanation at the foot, were hung on the walls of rooms frequented by the students, such knowledge would be imperceptibly acquired and perfected. The diagrams might be produced, or multiplied, by the students themselves. Models cost more. Frequent dissection is apt to spoil them; and, without it, they are not more intelligible than the machines themselves. § All the answers made by the students on whatever subject (not confined to bare figures) should be examined as evidence, not only of their knowledge of the particular subject, but also, with a view to determining the marks to be allowed to them for grammar and composition. The power of writing plain and clear sentences, with correct syntax, orthography, and punctuation, is the immediate object of grammar.

The greater part of the questions proposed on grammar will be founded on words or sentences taken from the work specified. It should be carefully read through, therefore, in short portions, as so many exercises in language, in illustration of the English grammar used in the college, just as the Greek or Latin classics are read in public schools.

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