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In connexion with this answer, show to what extent the inflexions of the pronouns in English do, or do not, mark such distinctions.
In the absence of inflexions, how are we to determine the grammatical relation of words to each other?
7. "Antony is but a limb of Cæsar."
In what case is the word "Antony?" in what case "limb?" State the general rule on which your answer depends, and examine thereby the correctness, or otherwise, of the following expressions:
8. Distinguish exactly the meaning of those imperative moods, in the foregoing passage, which begins with the word let, from the meaning conveyed by the words,
"O that we then could."
Explain fully the construction of this last phrase, and show what is the peculiar force of the word then in it.
A. "This is a slight, unmeritable man,
And though these honours we do lay on him,
Either led or driven, as we point the way:
10. And graze in commons.
You may do your will,
15. To wind, to stop, to run directly on;
His corporal motions, govern'd by my spirit.
And in some taste is Lepidus but so;
He must be taught, and trained, and bid go forth;
20. On objects, arts, and imitations;
Which, out of use, and stal'd by other men,
Begin his fashion.
1. Parse the words printed in italic, and fully explain the construction of each with the rest of the sentence.
2. Who are the speakers in this dialogue? What was the result of this advice to the giver? Quote, or refer to, passages in this, or other plays of Shakspeare, which illustrate the same person's character.
3. Select from the foregoing passage, and write out in separate columns, the verbs (with perfect tense and past participle) which are inflected by changing the radical vowel, and by adding another syllable respectively.
4. Divide the passage made up of lines 14, 15, 16, into subject and predicate, and distribute the accessory clauses accordingly as they belong to one or the other of those parts. Give your reasons for the analysis which you adopt.
5. Set out, as you would on a black-board, a table of the pronouns compounded with the word "self," showing the original force of the expression, and the reason of the inflexions.
6. Separate the root from the other parts, in the following words, and show the precise effect of each of the additions :—
Unmeritable. Slanderous. Business. Empty. Valiant.
Corporal. Barren. Fashion.
(Three Hours allowed for this Paper.)
Translate into English, literally
Primus equi labor est animos atque arma videre
Tum vocet, ac per aperta volans, ceu liber habenis,
1. What names have been given to the metre in which these lines are written? Account for each of those names.
2. What feet are admissible in this metre? Give an example of each foot from the passage. Mark the scansion of the first three lines, noting the quantity over each syllable.
3. Give as many as you can recollect of the rules for ascertaining whether a syllable is long or short in Latin.
1. What English metre has been employed as equivalent to the Latin metre in which the above passage is written? Give a line of that English metre. Of what sort of feet, and of how many of them, is it composed?
2. What English poets are best known as translators of Classic works? Name the works so translated, and the age in which the poets lived.
3. Can you refer to any passage in another book upon the same subject as the foregoing. Write out as much of that other passage as you can recollect.
1. What is meant by blank verse? Name English poets who have so written. How do modern times differ from ancient as regards this peculiarity? Can you account at all for the difference?
2. Explain, as you would to pupil-teachers, the fundamental distinctions between Prose and Poetry.
3. Look at lines 7 and 10. Why is the last syllable in audiat short, and in incipiat long? Can you find any other termination in the same two lines which illustrate the same rule?
Pick out lines which exemplify the elision of the final syllable when a word ends with the letter m.
Is the fifth foot of this metre distinguished by any peculiarity from the others?
1. Look at the word est in the first line. Write out, in a column, the several nominative cases to it.
Look at the sixth line. What are the antecedents to the pronoun hac ?
2. Parse (accidence and syntax) each of the following wordsBellantûm (line 2); stabulo (3); plausæ (5); depulsus (6); exactis (9); volumina (11); aperta (13); segetes (17).
3. Pick out from the passage
(a) Different forms of the copulative conjunction.
(b) Adverb of place used to signify time.
(e) Ablative case expressing the instrument (that by which something is done).
(d) Same word used in different senses.
(Three Hours allowed for this Paper.)
Translate into English literally—
Multas ad res perutiles Xenophontis libri sunt; quos legite, quæso, studiosè, ut facitis. Quàm copiosè ab eo agricultura laudatur in eo libro qui est de tuenda re familiari, qui Economicus inscribitur! Atque, ut intelligatis nihil ei tam regale videri quàm studium agri colendi, Socrates in eo libro loquitur (is made to say in conversation) cum Critobulo, Cyrum minorem, regem Persarum, præstantem ingenio atque imperii gloriâ, cùm Lysander Lacedæmonius, vir summæ virtutis, venisset ad eum Sardis, eique dona a sociis adtulisset, et cæteris in rebus communem (civil) erga Lysandrum atque humanum fuisse, et ei quemdam conseptum (enclosed) agrum diligenter consitum ostendisse : cùm autem admiraretur Lysander et proceritates (height) arborum, et directos in quincuncem ordines, et humum subactam atque puram, et suavitatem odorum qui afflarentur e floribus, Cyrum respondisse: "Atqui ego omnia ista (neuter plural used as substantive) sum dimensus: mei sunt ordines, mea descriptio; multæ etiam istarum arborum meâ manu sunt satæ.”
Parse each of the words printed in italic, as regards both accidence and syntax.
1. Give the derivation of each of the following words—
studiosè. copiosè. agricultura. familiaris. regalis. ingenium.
2. Find illustrations from the foregoing passage for each of the following rules
a. The accusative case followed by the infinitive mood.
b. Copulative conjunctions unite like cases, moods, and tenses.
c. The name of a place in the accusative after a verb signifying motion. d. When the accusative and dative follow the same verb, the accusative expresses the more immediate object of the action denoted by the verb.
1. Mei sunt ordines: multæ istarum arborum med manu sunt satæ. Analyze each of these sentences into subject and predicate; and state the different relations of the possessive pronoun as shown by your analysis in each
2. Find instances in the foregoing passage which show the force of the following words in composition, and explain the full meaning of each compound; per-in-præ-ad-con-sub-de-di.
3. Find instances (as above) to illustrate the difference of meaning between in followed by the accusative, and by the ablative, respectively.
1. State the principal difference between the Latin and English language as regards the order of words in a sentence. Which language has the greater liberty? Why?
2. Render the following sentences into Latin
You are like your master.
His mind is free from terror.
This house is one hundred feet wide.
While Augustus was emperor, the temple of Janus was closed.
3. Write a short account of the reasons which led to the preservation of the Latin language after the fall of the Roman empire; and mention some of the principal effects of its use in modern times.
female students in Training Schools.
FEMALE TRAINING SCHOOLS.
Circular Letter to Principals of Female Training Schools.
Committee of Council on Education, Council Office,
You are aware that Her Majesty's Inspector, the Rev. Henry Moseley, has submitted to my Lords a syllabus of studies for young men under Normal training for the office of schoolmaster.
This syllabus, based upon the scale of grants which is introduced by the Minute of 28 June 1854, defines the subjects of examination for the end of a first and a second year's residence respectively.
Mr. Moseley's proposal, approved by my Lords, has also met with general concurrence among the managers of male training schools, and will be put in practice at the examinations to be held next month in those institutions.
Under such circumstances, and seeing that the minute in question applies equally to female colleges-seeing also that the insufficiency of a single year's training has been proved quite as conclusively in the case of females as in that of males-it at once became a question with my Lords whether they should not recommend an analogous division of studies for the female colleges.
For this purpose their Lordships requested the Rev. F. C. Cook, as the most experienced of Her Majesty's Inspectors in the training of schoolmistresses, to report to them upon the subject; and I have the honor to enclose a copy of that gentleman's observations.
Mr. Cook considers it advisable to adhere to the present form of examination papers, which, without being different for the first and second year, nevertheless afford scope for exhibiting progressive attainments, by means of the division into elementary and supplementary parts.
Mr. Cook thinks that a more marked division would accord less with the requirements of female training.
He proposes, however, as you will see from his report, to introduce an important change into that part of the examination which consists of an oral exercise in teaching.
Mr. Cook proposes to dispense with this exercise at the end of the first year, and to concentrate the whole of it (for both years) into an exercise of the same kind, to be performed at the time of the Inspector's annual visit, and to be recorded for consideration along with the papers to be worked in the following December.
My Lords concur entirely in the propriety of these recommendations; and their Lordships do not doubt that they will equally meet with the concurrence of the managers of female colleges. Their Lordships have it in contempla tion to put them in force in December next.
In the coming examination their Lordships will, in each instance, add to the marks for the written exercises an average number of marks for the omitted
oral exercise. This will guard against any general derangement of the classlist, such as might result if the list were to be made up entirely from the marks given for work upon paper. Individual students, whose strength may lie in this exercise, will still have the benefit of their more than average proficiency when the time comes for fixing their certificate pursuant to the 11th section of the Minute dated 20 August 1853.
Principal of the
I have the honor to be, &c.
(Signed) Training School,
R. R. W. LINGEN,
Letter from Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, the Rev. F. C. Cook (referred to in foregoing Letter).
30 October 1854.
SIR, In the report which I have lately completed upon the female training Examinaschools, I have given an account of the results of the examinations in each tions of subject of instruction during the last five years, and have stated the modifica- dents in tions which, after a full inquiry and conference with the officers and managers Training of those institutions, I consider likely to promote improvement in those Schools. subjects which are most important to teachers of elementary schools.
Upon the whole I am quite confirmed in the opinion, which I expressed when consulted by you last autumn, that no considerable change is at all necessary; and for these reasons
1. The subjects of examination include all that is requisite for teachers of good schools; and the papers are so constructed as to give an opportunity to the few who are candidates for the highest certificates to show the extent of their attainments.
2. The course of reading required to pass the examination is not too extensive. It does not include any subject in which the greater part of the students have not been previously instructed; nor any in which Queen's scholars have not already displayed a fair amount of information. The examination requires so much knowledge of Holy Scripture, arithmetic, the English language, geography, English history, and school management as ought to be possessed by every schoolmistress, and it requires no more.
3. The managers of the training schools have expressed their entire satisfaction with the present form of the examination; and I have not attended any meeting of the committees of management without submitting this point to their consideration, and have invited discussion. This year not a single objection has been made.
4. The results of the examinations, both as regards the proportion of certificates and the marks awarded to each subject, have been satisfactory. The continuity of the improvement and the equable progress in elementary subjects are especially remarkable, as appears from my report this year.
5. Papers upon each subject could not be set separately for pupils of the first and second year without interfering with that classification which the principals of training schools find experimentally to be most advantageous. I therefore propose to leave the general form of the examination unchanged, with the following exceptions, for which I have assigned reasons in my report.
In the religious papers, and in those on arithmetic, grammar, geography, and domestic economy, I propose to increase the number of questions in the supplementary sections; to give general directions to the students of the first year not to touch this part of the paper until they have completed the former; and to allow the students of the second year to choose freely from each.
In the paper on English history, to make the elementary questions general, such as can be answered from text-books in common use; to arrange the supplementary questions in three sections, each referring to a different epoch, and to give the same discretion to students.