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sirup, and contains, in one hundred (100) cubic centimeters (20° C.) not less than four (4) grams of acetic acid.

5. Glucose vinegar is the product made by the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentations of solutions of starch sugar or glucose, is dextro-rotatory, and contains, in one hundred (100) cubic centimeters (20° C.), not less than four (4) grams of acetic acid.

6. Spirit vinegar, distilled vinegar, grain vinegar, is the product made by the acetous fermentation of dilute distilled alcohol, and contains, in one hundred (100) cubic centimeters (20° C.), not less than four (4) grams of acetic acid.

III. SALT. Table salt, dairy salt, is fine-grained crystalline salt containing on a water-free basis, not more than one and four-tenths (1.4) per cent of calcium sulphate (CaSO2), nor more than five-tenths (0.5) per cent of calcium and magnesium chlorids (CaCl, and MgC1,), nor more than one-tenth (0.1) per cent of matters insoluble in water.

I.

IV. PRESERVATIVES AND COLORING MATTERS.

(Schedules in preparation.)

NATIONAL PURE FOOD LAW. The National Pure Food Law entitled “The Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes," was approved June 30, 1906, and takes effect January 1, 1907. The law, so far as it relates to foods, has practically the same requirements as the Maine Pure Food Law. The Secretary of Agriculture is the executive officer of the National Pure Food Law. The food standards * are the same as those herewith adopted. While the National Law only regulates interstate commerce and hence does not apply to materials produced within the State, the rules and regulations † prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture will be recognized in all respects in the execution of the Maine Pure Food Law. There will therefore be only one set of standards and rules regulating the sale of food in Maine. Any article of food sold in conformity to the National Law will be held to be in conformity to the State Law.

* Circular 19, Office of the Secretary, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

† Circular 21 of the Secretary of Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

FOOD INSPECTION.

CHAS. D. WOODS, Director. J. M. BARTLETT, Chemist in charge of inspection analysis.

The law regulating the sale and analysis of foods, enacted by the legislature of Maine in 1905, contemplates two things; the proper and truthful branding of all articles of food, and the exclusion from the markets of deleterious food materials. The law does not seek to prevent the sale of any article of wholesome food, but in case a food material is other than it appears to be, it "shall be plainly labeled, branded or tagged so as to show the exact character thereof.” Bulletin 135 of this Station contains the full text of the law and food standards so far as they have been fixed for Maine. Copies of this bulletin may be had on application to the Station.

BAKING POWDERS. There are practically three classes of baking powders on the market, differing chiefly in the source of the acid :

Tartrate powders, in which the acid is either cream of tartar (by-tartrate of soda) or tartaric acid.

Phosphate powders, in which calcium or sodium acid phosphate is the acid constituent.

Alum powders, in which the acid constituent is the sulphate of aluminum as it occurs in the various alums.

There are of course many complex baking powders on the market which are made up of mixtures of two or more of the three classes above named. Of these mixtures, phosphate-alum powders are the most common. Indeed, phosphate-alum powders are far more common than straight alum powders.

Whether the acid principle be tartaric acid, calcium phosphate or aluminum sulphate, there is always a residual product which is undesirable as a food. Cream of tartar powders leave a residue of Rochelle salt, the active principle of Seidlitz powders; tartaric acid powders leave a residue of sodium tartrate; phosphate powders leave a residue of sodium and calcium phosphates; and alum powders leave a residue of ammonium, potassium or sodium sulphate, in accordance with the kind of alum used. The residues of the phosphate-alum powders differ somewhat from those of either alum or phosphate powders and vary with the proportion of the different acid constituents used. When the ingredients are properly proportioned in the baking powder, neither alum or alum phosphate powders leave any considerable amount of alum in the resulting bread or cake.

There is a great dispute as to which of these different residues are the least objectionable. The food law of this State does not attempt to in any way answer the question as to which is best. They are all put on the same footing of correctly stating the source of the acid constituent. A baking powder is adulterated under the law only when the label does not truthfully name the kind of acid salt it contains; when it is falsely labeled in any particular; or when it contains useless, inert foreign matter, mineral or otherwise.

The per cent of available carbonic acid gas furnished by the different classes of baking powders is, according to Wiley,* as follows:

Cream of tartar baking powder, 12 per cent available carbonic

acid gas.

Phosphate baking powder, 13.0 per cent available carbonic

acid gas.

Alum baking powder, 8.1 per cent available carbonic acid gas.

Phosphate-alum powder, 10.4 per cent available carbonic gas.

The alum powders would require a half more than the tartrate or phosphate powders to produce the same leavening effect. There are however very few straight alum powders on the market. Because of the greater leavening effect of the mixed powders and the supposed less harmful residues, nearly all the alum now used is in the phosphate-alum powders.

The samples here collected and reported upon have not been tested for strength, but merely for correctness of labeling. Many of the less common brands were found by correspondence with the manufacturers to be three or more years old. Naturally such powders would not be nearly as effective leavening agents as when they were fresher.

A description of the brands collected, the cost of the powders, and comments follow.

*The figures are quoted from Bul. 13 of Div. of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. of Agr.

The brand, maker, dealer, cost, and character of baking powders

examined. CREAM OF TARTAR AND TARTARIC ACID POWDERS. 7464. Cleveland Superior Baking Powder, made by Cleveland Baking Powder Company, New York. Purchased from John Dingley Co., Auburn. In half pound tin. Price per can 25 cents. Cost per ounce 3.2 cents. Guaranteed cream of tartar and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salt is correctly named.

7467. Cream Baking Powder, made by Price Baking Powder Co., N. Y. and Chicago. Purchased from Merrill & Crowell, Lewiston. In half pound tin. Price per can 25 cents. Cost per ounce 3.8 cents. Guaranteed cream of tartar; no alum, ammonia, lime or other adulterants. The acid salt is correctly nanied.

7475. John Alden Baking Powder, made by W. L. Wilson & Co., Portland. Purchased from manufacturer. In one pound tin. Price per can 45 cents. Cost per ounce 3.0 cents. Guaranteed cream of tartar, tartaric acid, and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salts are correctly named.

7476. King Arthur Baking Powder, made by Neally & Miller, Lewiston. Purchased from manufacturer. In half pound tin. Guaranteed cream of tartar, tartaric acid and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salts are correctly named.

7471. Plume Baking Powder, made by Plume Baking Powder Co., Malden, Mass. Purchased from W. L. Wilson Co., Portland. In pound tin. Price per can 40 cents. ounce 3.7 cents. Guaranteed cream of tartar starch and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salt is correctly named.

7470. Schilling's Best Baking Powder, made by A. Schilling & Co., San Francisco, Cal. Purchased from F. H. Verrill, Portland. In pound tin. Price per pound 45 cents. ounce 2.7 cents. The acid salt was not named on the label. The manufacturer stated that these were old goods and that all goods now sent out are labeled cream of tartar baking powder. Acid salt is as claimed.

7474. Shaw's Baking Powder, made by Geo. C. Shaw & Co., Portland. Purchased from manufacturer. In one pound tin. Price per can 43 cents. Cost per ounce 2.8 cents. Guaranteed a high grade cream of tartar baking powder, free from starch, alum phosphate, lime sulphate or chlorides. The acid salt is correctly named.

Cost per

Cost per

ACID PHOSPHATE POWDERS. 7465. Davis's O. K. Baking Powder, made by R. B. Davis, N. Y. Purchased from Dunn & Ross, Auburn. In half pound tin. Price per can 20 cents. Cost per ounce 2. I cents.

Guaranteed acid phosphate, starch and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salt is correctly named.

7469. Horsford's Self Raising Bread Preparation, made by Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I. Purchased from C. H. Cloutier, Lewiston. In half pound paper package. Price per package 25 cents. Cost per ounce 2.2 cents. Guaranteed acid phosphate, starch and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salt is correctly named.

7463. Rumford's Baking Powder, made by Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I. Purchased from John Dingley Co., Auburn. In half pound tin. Price per can 15 cents. ,

Cost per ounce 1.8 cents. Guaranteed strictly pure phosphate powder. The acid salt is correctly named.

ALUM POWDER. 7472. Bon Bon Baking Powder, made by J. C. Grant Chemical Co., East St. Louis. Purchased from Biddeford Grocery Co., Biddeford. In one pound tin. Price per can 12 cents. Cost per ounce .07 cents. Guaranteed double sulphate of aluminum, starch and bicarbonate of soda. The claim that it is an alum powder is correct.

TARTRATE-ALUM POWDER. 7477. Ocean Baking Powder, made by Ocean Mill, Montreal, P. Q. Purchased from Alex Quirion, Waterville. In quarter pound tin. Price per can 10 cents. Cost per ounce 2.2 cents. These were old goods and carried no guarantee. They have been withdrawn from market. Both tartaric acid and alum were found in the goods.

ACID PHOSPHATE-ALUM POWDER. 7473. Biskit Baking Powder, made by the Biskit Baking Powder Company, Boston. Purchased from J. O. Sullivan, Biddeford. In quarter pound tin. Price per can 10 cents. Cost per ounce 2.3 cents. Guaranteed acid calcium phosphate, alum, starch and bicarbonate of soda. The acid salts are correctly named.

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