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Adjustment Group. The present head of that group new receives a salary of $14,800 as a member of the Board of Directors and President of Commodity Credit Corporation; his salary as an Assistant Secretary would be $15,000, only $200 more.

It is anticipated that the other Assistant Secretary will also serve as Director of Foreign Agricultural Service. The salary for that position is $14,800, compared with $15,000 for an Assistant Secretary, another increase of $200.

The Administrative Assistant Secretary would serve as head of the Departmental Administration Group. The Director of that Group now receives $11,300. The salary of the Administrative Assistant Secretary would be $14,800; this is an increase of $3,500.

Thus, there is a total increase in salaries involved of only $3,900 for those 3 positions. However, that does not mean that there would be an overall increase of this amount in the cost of maintaining the immediate Office of the Secretary. Changes have been made in the personnel of the Secretary's Office and both the number of persons employed and the annual appropriation will be less under the revised budget for 1954 than under the 1953 budget.

The occasion for the proposed Assistant Secretaries is to give the heads of these administrative groups a title and rank commensurate with their responsibilities. With the wide range of activities in which the Department is engaged, it is impossible for the Secretary to exercise direct supervision and control of all of them. He needs the Assistant Secretaries to share with him these supervisory responsibilities. With the addition of the 2 Assistant Secretaries proposed by the plan, there will be an Assistant Secretary for each of the 3 major operating groups:

Research, Extension and Land Use
Commodity Marketing and Adjustment

Foreign Agricultural Service For the fourth major operating group, Agricultural Credit Services, it is believed a head with the title of Director will be adequate.

The Department of Agriculture is the only Department which has but one Assistant Secretary. In addition to at least 1 Under Secretary, other civilian departments have 2 to 8 Assistant Secretaries, the average number being 4. In 6 of the 8 other civilian departments, there is also either an Administrative Assistant Secretary or in the Department of State) an Under Secretary for Administration.

THE SECRETARY'S OBLIGATION TO WORK WITH THE CONGRESS

I should like to refer briefly to some of the underlying principles of executive-legislative relationships that are inherent in this plan.

Recognizing the interest which the Congress has in the organization and administration of the Department of Agriculture, it would be my purpose, as previously stated, to advise and consult with the appropriate committees of the Congress before any major organization changes are made. As suggested by the chairman at the hearing on May 13 (hearings, p. 73), this would be the obligation imposed on any Secretary of Agriculture by section 4(b). I understand this has been the practice in the past, and I believe it is a sound and desirable one. my talk before the Graduate School of the Department on April 30

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on the subject of legislative-executive relationships, I stated as one of the principles and practices of the Department:

We shall respect the right of the Congress to know what this Department is doing at any time. We shall remember that the Congress is not only interested in receiving reports of our stewardship; it is entitled to them-and in time to act upon them.

To this end we shall welcome constant and full consultation with the Congress.

I would like to interpolate here, Madam Chairman, if I may, that it will ever be my purpose and the purpose of my staff not to interfere with the prerogatives of the Congress, but to defend them, and to see that the purposes and the objectives of the Congress in any legislations pertaining to agriculture are fully carried out.

As I mentioned, the regrouping which was made shortly after I entered office was discussed with a number of Members of Congress.

It is hardly conceivable that a major change in organization would be made by any Secretary of Agriculture if the Congress were strongly opposed to it. The executive and the legislative branches must live together, and it would hardly be possible for the Secretary to direct successfully a type of organization with which the Congress was not in sympathy.

While I want to meet the necessary and legitimate interests of the Congress in this matter, I think we must recognize that the head of any organization must be able to make changes and adjustments in it if he is to do an efficient job of administration. Congress determines the programs of the Government, but the organizational means of carrying them into effect I believe should be vested in the Executive, subject to the rule of keeping the Congress informed and obtaining its views and suggestions on organization changes.

As a practical matter, it is hardly feasible to effect all organizational changes through legislation or through reorganization plans. The reorganization of a department such as this must be a continuing process, designed to insure that we have the best possible organizational structure to execute the agricultural programs which the Congress has enacted. When needed changes cannot be made promptly, the cumulative total of those problems as time goes on tends seriously to weaken the administration of the Department,

Even if it were possible to agree on legislation regarding the organization of the Department, the law would soon be out of adjustment because of changes in our programs or in the needs which they are designed to serve.

I want to cooperate wholeheartedly with the Congress, to keep its Members posted and to receive the advice and help which they can give. In my judgment it will greatly facilitate the ability of the Secretary to carry out such cooperation and to accomplish the objectives determined upon by the Congress, if he is given greater discretion in the selection of tools with which to work. Unless this plan or some similar arrangement is approved, I have grave doubts that we can insure the efficient and economical management of the Department which Congress expects and to which the Nation is entitled.

May I sav, in conclusion, that if the Congress sees fit to approve this plan we will try to use the authority wisely as a sacred trust. We are not interested in building an empire. We are anxious and determined to make the great Department of Agriculture a more effective and efficient service unit for the agricultural industry and all of our

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people. We are convinced that this can be accomplished with a substantial saving to the taxpayer while improving the quality of the service. We stand ready to accept such a challenge.

APPENDIX A

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 2 OF 1953—DEPARTMENT OF

AGRICULTURE

AUTHORITY SIMILAR TO THAT IN EFFECTIVE PLANS FOR OTHER DEPARTMENTS

The transfer of functions to the Secretary and the provision for performance of functions through other officers, agencies, and employees contained in sections 1 (a) and 4 (a) of the pending plan (No. 2 of 1953) are similar to reorganization plans now in effect for:

Post Office Department (plan No. 3 of 1949)
Department of Justice (plan No. 2 of 1950)
Interior Department (plan No. 3 of 1950)
Department of Commerce (plan No. 5 of 1950)
Department of Labor (plan No. 6 of 1950)

Treasury Department (plan No. 26 of 1950) The qualifications on delegation of powers contained in sections 4 (b) and (c) of the pending plan for the Department of Agriculture do not appear in the plans now effective in the other departments.

In the following paragraphs the provisions of sections 1 (a) and 4 (a) of plan No. 2 of 1953 are compared with corresponding provisions of the effective plans listed above.

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS TO SECRETARY AND CONTINUING AUTHORITY TO

DELEGATE FUNCTIONS

Plan No. 2 of 1953 SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Secretary.-(a) Subject to the exceptions specified in subsection (b) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture all functions not now vested in him of all other officers, and of all agencies and employees, of the Department of Agriculture.

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Sec. 4. Delegation of functions.-(a) The Secretary of Agriculture may from time to me make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of Agriculture of any function of the Secretary, including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

Plan No. 3 of 1949Post Office Section 1. Functions of the Postmaster General.-(a) There are hereby transferred to the Postmaster General the functions of all subordinate officers and agencies of the Post Office Department, including the functions of each Assistant Postmaster General, the Purchasing Agent for the Post Office Department, the Comptroller, and the Bureau of Accounts. (b) The Postmaster General is hereby authorized to delegate to any officer, employee, or agency of the Post Office Department designated by him such of his functions as he deems appropriate.

Plan No. 2 of 1950Justice SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Attorney General.-(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Attorney General all functions of all other officers of the Department of Justice and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department.

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Sec. 2. Performance of functions of the Attorney General.- The Attorney General may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of Justice of any function of the Attorney General, including any function transferred to the Attorney General by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

Plan No. 3 of 1950— Interior SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Secretary.—(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Interior all functions of all other officers of the Department of the Interior and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department.

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Sec. 2. Performance of functions of Secretary:The Secretary of the Interior may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of the Interior of any function of the Secretary, including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

Plan No. 5 of 1950-Commerce SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Secretary.--(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Commerce all functions of all other officers of the Department of Commerce and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department.

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Sec. 2. Performance of functions of Secretary.- The Secretary of Commerce may, from time to time, make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of Commerce of any function of the Secretary, including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan,

Plan No. 6 of 1950Labor SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Secretary.- (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Labor all functions of all other officers of the Department of Labor and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department.

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Sec. 2. Performance of functions of Secretary.-The Secretary of Labor may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of Labor of any function of the Secretary, including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

Plan No. 26 of 1950—— Treasury SECTION 1. Transfer of functions to the Secretary.-(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, and subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, there are hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury all functions of all other officers of the Department of the Treasury and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department.

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(NOTE.-Sec. 1 (c) contains a limitation applicable to the Coast Guard.)

SEC. 2. Performance of functions of Secretary.--The Secretary of the Treasury may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of the Treasury of any function of the Secretary, including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

Senator Smith. Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary.

We appreciate having your statement and views on this plan before us.

Senator Dworshak?
Senator DWORSHAK. I have just a few comments and questions.

Mr. Secretary, I want to compliment you on the forthright, thorough manner in which you have presented the views which

you have in mind, or which have actuated you in presenting this reorganization plan. It is quite difficult to ask any questions because it seems to me you have met most, if not all of the objections, which have been raised by opponents of your measure.

I think that you have made it very clear that you intend to confer with Congress, to consult with committees, and that you have no intention of undertaking any changes which will not have the full approval of the legislative branch. And if you proceed upon that basis and follow that procedure at all time, I am sure that you will have little difficulty in getting the approval which is so essential of the Congress.

Secretary BENSON. Thank you.

Senator DWORSHAK. I notice on page 4 of your statement that you point out that your major objective is to promote economy, eliminate duplication, and increase efficiency. While

you

have been on the job only about 4 months, I presume that you have already ascertained that in addition to getting greater efficiency, you have concluded that there are many instances of duplication and overlapping and inefficiency, so that you can reduce personnel. I have always been interested in trying to reduce personnel, because it seems to me that we have far too many employees in practically every branch of the executive departments.

Can you elaborate any on what you have found concerning personnel in your Department? Have you cut down much so far? Do you have in mind any material reductions in the immediate future?

Secretary BENSON. I mentioned a few specific examples, Senator Dworshak. There are others of course. We are moving slowly on it, studying each step very carefully. We do not anticipate any radical immediate changes. We are going to continue to study the whole plan and make changes as we feel justified.

As we presented our budget, the 1954 budget, we indicated a reduction of 1,088 employees under the 1954 budget. We feel that is a good beginning. However, we feel that we can go further than that as we become better acquainted with the operation of the various units of the Department.

We have no desire, of course, to cut down any important service or essential service. We look at the Department as a great service organization to agriculture and to the country, supported by the taxpayers.

Senator DWORSHAK. I am sure you are not going to encounter any opposition on the part of farm groups or those who receive service from your Department if you attempt to reduce personnel, if you maintain a high morale. I think that in most cases, the employees

a realize that they must have worthwhile functions to perform or they cannot justify their employment on the Federal payroll, and I am sure you have that in mind as you attempt to get greater efficiency and economy,

Secretary BENSON. Yes; we do, Senator. There has been some comment and some criticism, I believe, of Production and Marketing Administration Memorandum 101, which pertains to PMA committees. I would like to make very clear what we had in mind. (See appendix B, p. 211.)

This memorandum, which no doubt some members of the committee have seen, is a rather simple memorandum. It gives formal recognition to the grassroots experience gained by State and county committees over the past 20 years that they have been in operation,

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