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straight to the Vatican, those of the Coronari fore his actual elevation. The contest (rosary-makers), Argentieri (silversmiths), therefore ceases habitually on the night beand Lungara (long street) : * which is taken fore proclamation, and when the Cardinals, to mean that much outward show of devotion, on the last morning, proceed to ballot, they expenditure of money, and an industrious do so, as a rule, with the perfect knowledge swarming up the ladder of ecclesiastical rou- that they are going through a mere formtine, are the three safest means of reaching ality. the Pope's throne.
As soon as the ballot has furnished a reIn canon law there are no limitations turn with a majority of two-thirds,—the restricting the selection of Pope within the scrutators having satisfied themselves in the body of Cardinals. It is true that since event of its being a bare majority, that this Urban vi., in 1378, no one below this rank is not due to the successful candidate's own has mounted the chair of St. Peter, but still vote,-and he himself has accepted the choice it is worthy of note that this now established fallen on him, the Conclave is declared at an practice exists in virtue of no higher sanc-end, the doors are thrown open to the world, tion than custom, and that there is nothing and in the chapel, where all the canopies are in canon law to render invalid even the instantly lowered, except that over the new. choice of a layman for the Papacy.t John ly elected, the Pope receives the homage of XIX. (1024) and Adrian v. (1276) were cer- the assembled Cardinals, which is called the tainly laymen, and the latter furnishes the first act of adoration. Then, from the re conclusive precedent establishing that a Pope opened balcony window, which has been acquires all the plenitude of his supreme walled up, the Cardinal Dean proclaims the authority by the simple act of election, for new Pope, whose acclamation by the ap. Adrian v. died without taking any orders, plauding Roman people is formally attested aud yet he promulgated decrees modifying in a deed drawn up then and there by an the whole system of Papal elections, which appointed notary. Since the Quirinal has by his successors, were held to be invested become the site for Conclaves, it has been with all the sacredness of Pontifical utter- customary to postpone the remaining cere. ances. Adrian v. ruled but twenty-nine monies till the following day, when the Pope days, in which interval he repealed of his proceeds first to the Sistine Chapel, and authority the electoral constitution of Greg. afterwards down to St. Peter's, into which ory x., which remained in abeyance until he is borne upon the sedes gestatoria to reCelestine V., after six stormy elections, ceive the second and third adorations. Seatrevived it in 1292. Undoubtedly such cases ed on a cushion placed upon the high altar, must be set down as obsolete in the concrete, the Pope has his foot and hand kissed in yet at a critical moment like the present, succession by each Cardinal, whom he in when the Court of Rome is again imminento return embraces on both cheeks, the Carly exposed to transformation, it is well to dinal Dean opening the ceremony and chantnote remarkable instances of exceptional ing the Te Deum, while his colleagues are interventions which have been adınitted by performing their parts. This over, the it, as at all events not beyond the pale of its Pope bestows upon the assembled multitude principles.
his public benediction ; after which he reIn practice the final ballot is a mere form- turns to his residence every inch a Pope. * ality. As soon as it is perceived that a There are indeed two other remarkable cercanonical majority in favour of a candidate is really commanded, the matter is made known to the opposite party, so that acqui. Pope is consummated has been accurately discussed
* The question as to when the creation of a escing in defcat, its members may join in by Catholic writers, and it has been distinctly laid waiting on the future Pope the evening be- down by the highest authorities that election of
itself invests a Pope with plenary powers. "Qui
eligitur Rom. Pontifex,' says Bellarmine, De Rom. * There are three strects in Rome with these Pont. lib. ii. cap. 22, eo ipso sit Pont. summus
Ecclesiæ totius, etsi forte id non exprimant electo+ There is indeed a decree by Stephen 1., 769, res.' Clement v. excommunicated those who against the election to the Papacy of any one not asserere non verentur quod summus Pontifox ante an ordained Cardinal, but this decree, which was suæ coronationis insignia se non debet intromittere levelled against the anti-Pope Constantine, who de provisionibus, reservationibus, dispensationibus happened to be a layman, has never been invoked et aliis gratiis faciendis ;' and Moroni, who enters on the occasion when the choice of the Sacred at length upon the question, and must be considCollege fell on an individual not of their body, nor ered the organ of the Court of Rome, declares that is there any other pontifical utterance on record in a Pope must necessarily be in possession of all his the same sense. Moroni himself admits that John power from the instant of election, although he adxix. was a layman when elected, but preserves an mits that this opinion has prevailed in the Church ambiguous language in regard to the case of Ad-only since the days of Adrian V., the Pope who rian v.
died a layman.
emonies of ancient origin connected with the upon the inscription on its front. On this installation of a Pope which must be noticed; occasion, the Pope traverses the whole city but neither will be found to involve on his of Rome in solemn procession, accompanied part any formula of oath or obligation. At by all the Cardinals and the representatives an early day after election, in general on the of all the ecclesiastical hierarchy connected following Sunday, the Pope is enthroned in with the Court of Rome. Down to a very St. Peter's, when he is crowned with the recent time it was customary for the Pope celebrated triple crown, the tiara. The to ride a white steed, and to be escorted by ceremonies observed on this occasion are in the Sacred College on horseback. When part marked with a strange symbolism. Pius ix. made his progress to the Lateran, the Atrium of St. Peter, opposite the he expressed his desire to revive the pracwalled-up gate called La Porta Santa, which tice, but the idea was abandoned owing to is opened only in the years of Jubilee, the the remonstrances of the many very aged Pope, seated on a throne, receives first the Cardinals, who protested their incapacity to homage of the archpriest and all the clergy sit on their horses for so long a ride. It attached to the Basilica. This over, he is was also the custom for the Jews to live the carried in procession up the church to the portion of the way between the Arch of Chapel of St. Gregory, which is converted Titus and the Coliseum, and there to present into a robing-room. On issuing from it a in sign of homage a copy of their law to the Master of the Ceremonies suddenly steps Pope; but since Pius VI.'s time they have forward, and arresting the Pope on bent knee been dispensed from this service. The cereholds up to him a silver rod tipped with a mony in the church itself offers nothing that bundle of tow, which a clerk sets on fire from calls for special observation. It is simply a taper in his hand, the former officer sing- an act of taking possession, unaccompanied ing aloud, ' Sancte Pater, sic transit gloria by anything which implies a conditional tenmundi.' This curious piece of symbolism ure dependent on the observance of any speis repeated twice. At the high altar the cified and defined vows. Pope is clothed with the Pallium, and on the In the controversy waged as to what Pius termination of mass, during which occurs the ix. should do in regard to recent events, the homage of clergy of all ranks, the Pope is advocates of a policy of acquiescence in what borne in procession up to the balcony over- has befallen his temporal estate, have been looking the piazza of St. Peter, where, in freely met by the assertion that as Pope he presence of the assembled people, the mitre is bound by oaths which absolutely interdict having been first removed, there is placed his doing so. On looking into the matter on his head the renowned triregnum, by the it will appear however, that this is not corsecond senior Cardinal Deacon, who pro- rect. Whatever oaths Pius ix. has taken nounces the words, 'Accipe tiaram tribus have been sworn to by him freely, and of his coronis ornatam et scias te esse patrem prin- own accord, in the plenitude of his authoricipum et regum, rectorem orbis, in terra ty, and not at all as conditional to his acquivicarium Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, cuisition thereof; as happens with Cardinals est honos et gloria in sæcula sæculorum.' who are invested with the berretta only after And with this ends the coronation after the having repeated a prescribed oath. No Pope giving of the benediction, which always fol- is subjected to any oath whatever, on being lows every Papal appearance in public. * elevated to his supreme dignity, and if, at å The other ceremony is the taking possession later moment, it has been customary to swear by the new Pope of the Lateran Basilica, the observance of certain ancient constitutions the Metropolitan Church not merely of there is nothing to distinguish between the Rome, but the Universe, as stands written binding force of this oath and that of other
oaths from which Popes are universally held to
be able to absolve themselves and from which, * A widely accredited error is that the benedic
in regard to the very points under discussion, tion by the Pope from the balcony of St. Peter at they have actually on several occasions disEaster is given urbi et orbi. The phrase does not pensed themselves. occur in the ritual, and has no authority whatever. Nevertheless it is a received custom for Another popular error, to be found especially in Popes to swear the observance of certain the travels of the last century, is that at the coronation service there is chanted an anthem with the Bulls and Constitutions amongst which is words Non videbis annos Petri. A curious and lit one having special reference to the preservatle known form was, however, observed on that tion free from waste of the endowments of day until very recent times. When the Pope rose the Church,—but these oaths are taken of in the morning a bronze cock was carried to him their own free will, and in the exercise of in procession, to call to his mind, at that solemn moment of elevation, the frailty of which Peter their absolute powers, and by no means as was guilty, and to which human nature is exposed. necessaryto their legitimate acquisition of full
pontifical authority. Soon after election the brethren, while it was also expressly ordered Pope holds a Consistory, but there is no that this same oath should be administered fixed period when it must meet. Its convo. to all future Cardinals before receiving the cation depends on his pleasure, and generally hat, and that it should be added to those happens not more than two months after ac- taken by the Sacred College before entering cession. On this occasion the new Pope has a Conclave. Moreover it was enjoined that been in the habit to record his solemn adhe- a new Pope, after his accession, should rence to divers regulations and instructions promise and swear the same, and after his that have emanated from various predeces coronation reiterate his promise and oath by sors, amongst which are to be particularly special confirmatory rescripts, and that if named a Bull by Julius II. (1503-13) de. this, which cannot be believed, were to be claring ipso facto void a Papal election due refused or postponed by the Pope, then, in to simoniacal practices, and a Bull by Alex- the first secret Consistory, the Cardinals and ander vii. (1655–67) against the alienation specially their Dean, and with him the Capi of Church property. This is the instrument d'Ordine, should incessantly and most pressthat has been invoked with much pertinacity ingly with every instance ask, pray, and imby those who affirm that, in the matter of plore the observance of those presents, and his temporal estate, the Pope is bound by take most diligent care that this should ties absolutely depriving him of the power happen.' These very elaborate prescriptions to make surrender of dominions he has suc- received solemn confirmation in full from ceeded to. We believe that it is necessary various subsequent Popes, until Gregory only to look a little into the history of this xiv. (1590) modified the binding force of the celebrated Bull to be convinced that there engagements he had himself sworn on accesis no foundation for the exceptional sacred. sion, in conformity to custom, by the issue of ness thus ascribed to it, and which, if real, | a rescript highly illustrative of the absolute would at once limit the Pope's avowedly un nature of Papal authority. This Pope, who bounded dispensing power in a perfectly pre- reigned only a few months, was a vehement posterous degree.
partisan of Spain in the war of the League, The Bull of Alexander vil. does not pro- and was probably actuated in his relaxation fess to be an original statute, but merely a of stringent obstacles in the way of turning revival and confirmation of enactments by property into money by his desire to assist former Popes that had been either repealed Philip 11. in his undertakings. The changes or lost sight of, and the texts whereof are he wrought in the letter of the law were incorporated at length in this deed. The however shortlived, for Clement viii. abrofirst of these instruments, and therefore the gated them by a Consistorial decree of the ground-work of the whole Bull, is one issued 26th June 1592, admitted into the body of by Pius v. in 1567, which begins by express- Alexander vii.'s Bull, in which the very ing grief that divers persons too ambitious remarkable circumstances are recounted that and covetous of rule' should have ventured marked Gregory's act of legislation. Pope to inveigle several Popes by false suggestions Clement tells the world that as at 'a secret of policy into the step of infeoffing, under Consistory held at St. Mark's, on Friday various titles, possessions belonging to the the 13th September 1591, in which the opinChurch, whereby these had become alienated, ions of the Cardinals present, among whom to the signal impoverishment of that institu- was His Holiness (Pope Clement himself), • tion. Desirous to remedy this state of had not been asked for at all, and in spite of
things, Pius V., as he goes on to say, had many distinctly speaking against, his predetaken counsel with the Cardinals, who unan-cessor had nevertheless declared and decreed imously had sworn not only to observe the that by the constitution of Pius it was not present constitution, but also 'neither to forbidden to infeoff anew a fief not yet lapsed, assent to any Pope's attempting alienation when necessity or the manifest and true adcontrary to its tenor, nor to seek or accept | vantage of the Church demanded this,any dispensation from the oath they had that the oath taken to it did not comprehend sworn to it.' Accordingly he proceeded to such a case, and that no one could lawfully declare and pronounce all such infeoffments, swear thus, because it would be contrary to grants, or alienations of Church possessions the requirements and manifest advantage of null and void, any persons guilty of counsel- the Church,—he therefore adjudged and ling such hereafter, on any pretext, even of ruled the aforesaid constitution to be hence'necessity or manifest utility,' incurring pain forward so understood, that it would be unof excommunication by that fact; and to lawful for any one hereafter to speak or invest this Bull with the highest character write otherwise thereof than as was then deof sacredness, the Cardinals present in Con- clared by him, in accordance with the con. sistory swore to it by proxy for their absent tents of this decree and declaration. The whole of the saving clause ruled by his pred- | by which habitually Popes enriched their ecessor Pope Clement then cancelled, on relatives with possessions diverted, it might the ground that the plea of requirement and be said fraudulently, from their legitimate advantage would only serve to leave a door object. The monstrous custom of Nepotism, open to alienations injurious to the Church, which attained proportions that scorned all and this severe sentence against the personal pretence at secrecy, was the object aimed at disposition of Popes to enrich favourites at in the stringent provisions of these pontifical the expense of the institution they were decrees, as every one who is not animated elected to preside over was endorsed by with a spirit of special pleading must see Alexander vll., when he especially included from their very wording. It is impossible the whole text of Clement's rescript in his for a candid mind to mistake the plain meanelaborate confirmatory Bull of every strin- ing of these very explicit and precise progent enactment by predecessors on this sub- hibitions levelled against making grants of ject.
Church property for the benefit of individuFrom these facts, it results clearly that, als, and against nothing else. The limita-' however great the solemnity which successive tion of the sense attached to these decrees Popes sought to attach to these prohibitory is so absolute, and so distinctly expressed, declarations against alienatious of Church that only a deliberate spirit of perversion properties, it yet never amounted to a sacred could venture on pretending to misunder. ness inviolable even for pontifical authority. stand its force. The groundlessness of the The very circumstance of so many repeated interpretations which it has been sought confirmations by spontaneous Papaledicts to set on the oath taken by the Pope is renwould of itself be sufficient to set aside such dered still more clear by a second Bull he a hypothesis. A dogma is not reaffirmed by | swears to along with the other, and which is successive Popes, but takes care of itself coupled therewith as a sort of commentary when once promulgated for all time, because and supplementary illustration. This Bull its nature must be assumed to represent an issued by Alexander vll., and known by the eternal principle which, once recognised, title of Constitutio Moderatoria Dona. stands forever an indelible member in the or- tionum,' is so directly levelled against the ganism of the Church's doctrine. Moreover, immoderate grants made by Popes to their the instance of Gregory xiv.'s declaration, kinsmen as to name these without disguise, and the terms of the reversal passed thereon and to have put it beyond the stretch of the by his successor, conclusively establish that most wilful casuistry to attempt to twist the there is no exceptional force for a Pope in plain meaning of the text. A more conthe obligations attaching to this particular founding illustration does not exist of the engagement. For Gregory xiv. had himself, practice once recognised in the Court of in accordance with the original prescription Rome than is here afforded by a Pope writof Pius v., confirmed on his accession the ing with a clearness such as to baffle the terms of the original bull, and yet in spite powers of misapprehension, or indulgent exof this solemn act of adhesion had considered planation. The preamble states that this himself at liberty to issue his qualifying dec. Constitution is promulgated for the moderlaration of its meaning; while Clement viii., ating of gifts and the distribution of ecclesiwho made no effort to disguise irritation at astical revenues to the kinsmen and connexhis predecessor's action, never introduced a lions of the Pope, or to those adopted as such, word in the unfriendly language with which and for the prescribing of safeguards to be he mentioned his proceedings that implied a observed in the assignment of favours which charge of Gregory's having exceeded the are said to have been at times granted by bounds of his lawful privileges—of having deputation, per concessum, during a Pope's violated a fundamental vow-by those modi sickness.' Accordingly it is ruled that a fying declarations which he then was solemn Pope may lawfully assist, should they be in ly repealing in virtue of the same authority. want, his brothers, nephews, relatives, and
But even if we granted that there were connexions (consanguinei et affines), as also aught in the oath so taken which put it be those whom he may have adopted as such, yond the range of the Pope's dispensing | but only in the degree in which he habitually power to absolve himself therefrom, we must administers to the destitution of the poor consider it a quite false reading of its obli- who stand in no particular relation to him. gations to make these refer to a limitation Should any of the before-mentioned relatives on the Pope's sovereign authority for sur enter the Church, it is enjoined that they rendering territory in deference to dictates shall be endowed with but moderate preferof policy and expediency. The whole scope ments; and in the event of any attaining to of the Constitution was to set a check upon the Cardinalate, that they shall not be ala prevailing system of scandalous favouritism lowed to accumulate benefices exceeding in
value 12,000 crowns a year, it being express-departure from precedent, under a wise rely conceded that such income shall proceed gard for policy, has each time been approved from holdings for life,—any additional but of by the concurrent conscience of generainsecure income from preferments held at tions in the Church. The great schism was the Pope's pleasure not being included in healed by one of the boldest and most revothis estimate of the portion due to Papal lutionary measures on record,—the creation kinsmen. Furthermore, to obviate the re- of what was a religious constituent for the currence of what has happened in the case nonce,-calling into existence for a special of favours granted by deputation during a purpose an electoral assembly without prePore's sickness, and which exceeded what he cedent. On other occasions, Popes have of would have sanctioned if acting for himself, their own authority dispensed with the most Alexander vii. ordered that those invested time-honoured and the most carefully enjoinwith powers of deputation, even though by ed prescriptions, when these were found a Chirograph signed by the Pope's own contrary to sound policy; and the Church hand, should under no circumstances be ca- has never considered them to have exceeded pable henceforth of granting any favour, their legitimate attributes by such stretches except with the assent of two Cardinals, of authority. The constitution of the Court subscribing, in the Pope's presence, the deed of Rome is therefore so far from being what of concession, which, without their signatures, it is generally supposed, a thing of strictly shall be null and void. This Bull, issued in limited nature, over-weighted with the encumthe first instance to restrain the arts and brance of absolute injunctions, that it will practices by which the spirit of the former be found, when the heart of the system is prohibitions against Nepotism was evaded, reached, to be actually one of the most elasstamps, beyond all controversy, the scope of tic in existence. Let only the instincts of those earlier Papal decrees with which it the body representing the Church be alive stands connected, and in conjunction with to a necessity, however new, and the body which subsequent Popes have sworn to it. can at once, without taint of illegal and revThe assertion, therefore, that the Pope (who, olutionary pretension, recognise the existin every other respect is invested with abso- ence of new conditions. There is in fact no lute powers exceeding those of every other limitation on the plenary power of the Prince) holds his temporal sovereignty by erning body, in spite of the stringent formties involving a limitation on his executive, alism within which at first sight it seems to for which there is no precedent in the con- be tightly bound. If, then, it be the case ditions attached to the tenure of any other that the circumstances now besetting the Crown,-ties that would reduce him to the Papacy exact concessions from it for the recondition of a helpless bondsman in a matter moval of otherwise insuperable difficulties, it recognised to lie within the province of every is certain that there is nothing in the nature sovereign's individual discretion by the fun of its tenure which must on principle put it damental principles of monarchical govern- out of the power of the holder of that diguity ment,—may be fearlessly pronounced to be to make freely any such concessions as may as unfounded an allegation as the fact would be demanded by reasons of sound policy. be a glaring and unparalleled paradox.
We have now brought to a close our survey of the elements that exist in the living organization of the See of Rome in relation to that capital function of its system-Pope-making. Much which is curious might still be added on a subject so vast and Art. II-1. Animal Chemistry. By Barabounding in strange incident, but our object On Justus LIEBIG. London, 1842. has not been to write a history of Papal elec- 2. Die organische Bewegung in ihrem Zutions, but to point out the provisions exist sammenhange mit dem Stoffwechsel. DR. ing in the constitution of the Court of Rome MAYER. 1845. for such purposes, and the facilities these 3. The Food of Man in relation to his use may furnish for new combinations, if by cir ful Work. By Lyon PLAYFAIR, LL. D. cumstances recommended as expedient. It Edinburgh, 1865. will have been seen that an organization 4. On the Constituents of Food and their which at first sight appears framed on prin relation to Muscular Work and Animal ciples of the most rigid formalism, contains Heat. By J. C. DONDER3, M, D. Transwithin it a vast stock of elasticity and capacity lated from the Dutch by W. D. Moore, for adaptation to new forms. This faculty, M. D. Dublin, 1866. as we have shown, has been called into play 5. Lectures on Animal Chemistry. By W. on various and capital occasions, and such ODLING, F. R. S. London, 1866.