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No CXXI. THURSDAY, JULY 19.
JOVIS OMNIA PLINA,
VIRG. ECL. III. v. 6o.
-ALL IS FULL OF JOVE.
S I was walking this morning in that all beasts and birds of prey are won
the great yard that belongs to derfully subject to anger, malice, remy friend's country-house, I was won venge, and all the other violent passions derfully pleased to see the different work- that may animate them in search of their ings of initinet in a hen followed by a proper food; as those that are incapable brood of ducks. The young, upon the of defending themselves, or annoying fight of a pond, immediately ran into others, or whose fafety lies chiefly in it; while the step-mother, with all ima- their flight, are suspicious, fearful, and ginable anxiety, hovered about the bor. apprehensive of every thing they fee or ders of it, to call them out of an ele. hear; whilst others that are of assistance ment that appeared to her so dangerous and use to man, have their natures softand destructive. As the different prin- ened with something mild and tractable, ciple which acted in these different ani. and by that means are qualified for a denials cannot be termed reason, so when mestic life. In this case the passions we call it instinct, we mean something generally correspond with the make of we have no knowledge of. To me, as the body. We do not find the fury of I hinted in my lait paper, it seems the a lion in so weak and defenceless an aniimmediate direction of Providence, and mal as a lamb, nor the meekness of a such an operation of the supreme Being, lamb in a creature so armed for battle as that which determines all the portions and assault as the lion. In the fame of matter to their proper centres. A manner, we find that particular animals modern philofopher, quoted by Monsieur have a more or less exquifite sharpness Bayle in his learned Dissertation on the and sagacity in those particular senses Souls of Brutes, delivers the same opic which molt turn to their advantage, and nion, though in a bolder form of words, in which their fafety and welfare is the where he saysm Deus eft anima bruto- molt concerned.
run-God himself is the soul of Nor muft we here omit that great va
brutes.' Who can tell what to call riety of arms with which nature has that seeming fagacity in animals, which differently fortified the bodies of several directs them to such food as is proper kind of animals, such as claws, hoofs for them, and makes them naturally and horns, teeth and tusks, a tail, a sting, avoid whatever is noxious or unwhol- a trunk, or a proboscis. It is likewite some! Tully has observed, that a lamb observed by naturalists, that it must be no sooner falls from it's mother, but some hidden principle diftin&t from what immediately and of his own accord ap we call reason, which inftructs animals plies itself to the teat. Dampier, in his in the use of these their arms, and travels, tells us, that when seamen are teaches them to manage them to the thrown upon any of the unknown coasts best advantage; because they naturally of America, they never venture upon the defend themselves with that part in which fruit of any tree, how tempting soever their strength lies, before the weapon be it may appear, unless they observe that formed in it; as is remarkable in lambs, it is unarked with the pecking of birds; which though they are bred within but fall on without any fear or appre. doors, and never saw the actions of hension where the birds have been be. their own species, push at those who ap. fore them.
proach them with their foreheads, bcBut notwith&anding animals have no. fore the first budding of a horn ajothing like the use of reason, we find in pears. them all the lower parts of our nature, I fall add to these general observa. the passions and renses in their greatest tions an instance, which Mr. Locke hive Itrength and perfection.
given us of Providence even in the imAnd here it is worth our observation, perfections of a creature which seema
the meanest and most despicable in the • will not yield easily, as the air or the whole animal world. "We may,' says water, it had been dangerous to have he, • from the make of an oyster, or drawn so long a train behind her; for • cockle, conclude, that it has not so • her enemy might fall upon her rear, • many nor so quick senses as a man, or ' and fetch her out, before the had • several other animals: nor if it had, ' completed or got full pofleflion of her would it, in that state and incapacity
( works.' • of transferring itself from one place to I cannot forbear mentioning Mr. • another, be bettered by them. What Boyle's remark upon this latt creature,
good would light and hearing do to a who I remember fomewhere in his works • creature, that cannot move itself to, obferves, that though the mole be not • or from the object, wherein at a dif. totally blind, as is commonly thought, ' tance it perceives good or evil? And she has not fight enough to distinguish • would not quickness of sensation be particular objects. Her eye is said to • an inconvenience to an animal that have but one humnour in it, which is • must be still where chance has once fupposed to give her the idea of light, • placed it, and there receive the afflux but of nothing elle, and is fo forined • of colder or warmer, clean or foul that this idea is probably painful to the • water, as it happens to come to it.' animal. Whenever she comes up into
I shall add to this instance out of Mr. broad day she might be in danger of beLocke another out of the learned Dr. ing taken, unlels me were thus affected More, who cites it from Cardan, in re- by a light Atriking upon her eye, and lation to another animal which Provi- immediately warning her to bury herdence has left defective, but at the self in her proper element. More light fame time has shewn it's wisdom in the would be useless to her, as none at all formation of that organ in which it might be fatal, feems chiefly to have failed. " What is I have only instanced such animals ' more obvious and ordinary than a as seem the most imperfect works of na• mole? and yet what more palpable ar ture, and if Providence Mews itself even
guinent of Providence than the? The in the blemishes of these creatures, how • members of her body are so exactly much more does it discover itself in the « fitted to her nature and manner of feveral endowments which it has va• life: for her dwelling being under riously bestowed upon such creatures as • ground where nothing is to be seen, are more or less finished and compleated,
nature has so obscurely fitted her with in their several faculties, according to • eyes, that naturalists can hardly agree the condition of life in which they are • whether mc have any right at all or posted.
But for amends, what she is ca. Icould with our Royal Society would pable of for her defence and warning of compile a bouy of ratural history, the
danger, she has very eminently con best that could be gathered together 'ferred upon her; for nie is exceeding from books and obfervations. If the • quick of hearing. And then her hort several writers among them took each • tail and fort legs, but broad fore his particular fpecies, and gave us a • feet armed with harp claws, we see diftinét account of it's original, birth, • hy the event to what purpose they are, and education; it's policies, hoftilities, • the fo swiftly working herself under and alliances, with the frame, and tex
ground, and making her way so fast ture of it's inward and outward parts, • in the earth as they that beholl it can. and particularly those that distinguish it
not but adınire it. Her legs therefore from all other animals, with their pe• are short, that he need dig no more culiar aptitudes for the state of being in
than will serve the mere thickness of which Providence has placed them, it « her body; and her fore-feet are broad, would be one of the bett services their
that the may scoop away much earth studies could do mankind, and not a • at a time; and little or no tail the has, little redound to the glory of the all-wile • because Me courses not on the ground, Contriver. • like the rat or mouse, of whose kin It is true, such a natural history, • dred she is, but lives under the earth; after all the disquisitions of the learned, ' and is fain to dig herself a dwelling would be infinitely short and defective. • there. And the making her way Seas and desarts hide millions of ani• çhrough so thick an element, which mals from our obleryation, Innumera
table artifices and itratagems are acted in and goodness runs through the whole ti the howling wildernels and in the great creation, and puts every creature in a e deep, that can never come to our know condition to provide for it's fafety and refledge. Belides that there are infinitely subsistence in it's proper station. He is more fpecies of creatures which are not Tully has given us an admirable
+9 he leen without, nor indeed with, the sketch of natural history, in his second
help of the finest glafles, than of such book concerning the nature of the gods; as are bulky enough for the naked eye and that in a stile to raised by metay take hold of. However, from the phors and descriptions, that it lists the contideration of such aniinals as lie with subject above raillery and ridicule, which in the compais of our knowledge, we frequently fall on fuch nice observations might easily form a conclusion of the when they pass through the hands of an rest, that the same variety of wisulom ordinary writer.
No CXXII. FRIDAY, JULY 20.
COMES JUCUNDUS IN VIA PRO VEHICULO EST.
PUBL. SYR. FRAG.
AN AGREEABLE COMPANION UPON THE ROAD IS AS GOOD AS A COACH.
• hare or a pheasant; he knocks down a the reproaches of his own heart; • dinner with his gun twice or thrice a his next, to etcape the cenfures of the ' week; and by that means lives much world: if the last interferes with the for • cheaper than those who have not so mer, it ought to be intirely neglected; good an eltate as himself. He would but otherwise there cannot be a greater be a good neighbour if he did not desatisfaction to an honest mind, than to • stroy so many partridges: in fhort, he fee chose approbations which it gives it • is a very senlible man; shoots flying; felf feconded by the applauses of the r and has been several times foreinan puhlic: a man is more lure of his con • of the petty-jury. dat, when the verdict which he pafles " The other that rides along with upon his own behaviour is thus war him is Tom Touchy, a fellow famous rinted and confirmed by the opinion of « for taking the law of every body. all that know him.
« There is not one in the town where My worthy friend Sir Roger is one <he lives that he has not lued at a quarof those who is not only at peace within (ter-feffions. The rogue had once the himself, but beloved and esteemed by ' impudence to go to law with the wia all about him. He receives a suitable (dow. His head is full of costs, da. Gibute for his universal benevolence to mages, and ejectments; he plagued a mankind, in the returns of affection and couple of honest gentlemen so long good-will, which are paid him by every • for a trespass in breaking one of his one that lives within his neighbourhood. • hedges, until he was forced to sell the I lately met with two or three odd in ground it incloled to defray the charges ftances of that general respect which is • of the prosecution: his father left him shewn to the good old knight. He ' fourtcore pounds a year; but he has would needs carry Will Wimble and "calt" and been cast to often, that he myself with him to the county aslizes : is not now worth thirty. I suppose as we were upon the road, Will Wim • he is going upon the old businels of ble joineıl a couple of plain men who rid • the willow-tree.' before us, and conversed with them for As Sir Roger was giving me this ac. some time; during which my friend Sir count of Tom Touchy, Will Wimble Roger acquainted me with their cha. and his two companions stopped short racters.
came up to them. After have • The first of them,” says he,' that ing paid their respects to Sir Roger, Will has a spaniel by his fide, is a yeoman told him that Mr. Touchy and he must
of about an hundred pounds a year, appeal to him upon a dispute that arose ' an honest inan: he is just within the between them. Will it seeins had been
Game-act, and qualified to kill an giving his fellow traveller an account
of his angling one day in such a hole; giving him marks of their esteem. When when Tom Touchy, instead of hearing we were arrived upon the verge of his out his story, told him that Mr. fuch- estate, we atopped at a little inn to reit an-one, if he pleased, might take the ourselves and our horses. The man of law of him for fishing in that part of the house had it seems been formerly a the river. My friend Sir Roger heard servant in the knight's family; and to thein both, upon a round trot; and after do honour to his old malter, had some having paused some time told them, with time fince, unknown to Sir Roger, put the air of a man who would not give him up in a sign-post before the door; his judgment raihly, that' inuch might so that the ' knight's head' had hung • be said on both sides.' They were out upon the road about a week before neither of them dissatisfied with the he himself knew any thing of the matknight's determination, because neither ter. As foon as Sir Roger was acof them found himself in the wrong by quainted with it, finding that his serit; upon which we made the best of our vant's indiscretion proceeded wholly way to the assizes.
from affection and good-will, he only The court was fat before Sir Roger told him that he had made him too high came; but notwithstanding all the juf- a compliment; and when the fellow tices had taken their places upon the seemed to think that could hardly be, bench, they made room for the old aduled with a more decisive look, that it knight at the head of them; who for his was too great an honour for any man reputation in the country took occasion under a duke; but told him at the same to whisper in the judge's ear,' that he time, that it might be altered with a . was glad his lordihip had met with very few touches, and that he himself • fo much good weather in his circuit.' would be at the charge of it. Accord. I was listening to the proceeding of the ingly they got a painter by the knight's court with much attention, and infi- directions to add a pair of whiskers to nitely pleased with that great appcarance the face, and by a little aggravation of of folemnity which to properly ac the features to change it into the Saracompanies such a public administration cen's-head. I should not have known of our laws; when, after about an hour's this story had not the innkeeper, upon fitting, I obterved, to my great furprise, Sir Roger's alighting, told him in my in the midit of a trial, that my friend hearing, that his honour's head was Sir Roger was getting up to speak. I brought back last night with the altera, was in forne pain for him, until I found tions that he had ordered to be made in he had acquitted bimself of two or three it. Upon this my friend, with his usual fentences, with a look of much business chearfulness, related the particulars and great intrepidity:
above-mentioned, and ordered the head Upon his first riling, the court was to be brought into the room. I could hushed, and a general whilper ran not forbear discovering greater exprefamong the country people that Sir Ro- lions of mirth than ordinary upon the ger' was up. The speech he made was appearance of this monstrous face, unso little to the purpose, that I fall not der which, notwithstanding it was made trouble my readers with an account of to frown and stare in a most extraordi. it; and I believe was not so much de nary manner, I could itill discover a figned by the knight himself to inform diftant resemblance of my old friend. the court, as to give him a figure in my Sir Roger, upon feeing me laugh, deeye, and keep up his credit in the country. fred me to tell him truly if I thought
I was highly delighted when the court it possible for people to know him in rose, to see the gentlemen of the coun. that disguise. 'I at first kept my usual try gathering about my old friend, and silence; but upon the knight's conjuring ttriving who should compliment him me to tell him whether it was not still moft; at the same time that the ordinary more like himself than a Saracen, I compeople gazed upon him at a distance, not poled my countenance in the best mana little admiring his courage, that was ner I could, and replied, ' that much not afraid to speak to the judge.
might be said on both sides.' In our return home we met with a These several adventures, with the very odd accident; which I cannot for. knight's bebaviour in them, gave me as bear relating, because it hews how de- pleasant a day as ever I met with in any firous all who know Sir Roger are of of my travels.
L No CXXIII.
No CXXIII. SATURDAY, JULY 21.
DOCTRINA SED VIM PROMOVET INSITAM,
Hor. OD, ly. L. IV. V. 33,
AND VIRTUE ARMS THE SOLID MIND;
my friendy sick Roger, we S I was yesterday taking the air circumstances which make it rather ap
pear like a novel than a true story. were met by a fresh-coloured ruddy Eudoxus and Leontine began the young man who rid by us full speed, world with small estates. They were with a couple of servants behind him. both of them men of good sense and Upon my inquiry who he was, Sir Ro great virtue. They prosecuted their ger told me that he was a young gen- itudies together in their earlier years, tleman of a considerable eftate, who had and entered into such a friendship as been educated by a tender mother that laited to the end of their lives. Eulived not many miles from the place doxus, at his first setting out in the world, where we were. · She is a very good threw himself into a court, where by his
lady,' says my friend, · but took so natural endowments and his acquired much care of her son's health, that the abilities he made his way from one poft ' has made him good for nothing. She to another, until at length he had raised
quickly found that reading was bad a very considerable fortune. Leontine, ' for his eyes, and that writing made on the contrary, sought all opportunihis head ach. He was let loose among ties of improving his mind by study, the woods as soon as he was able to conversation, and travel. He was not ride on horseback, or to carry a gun only acquainted with all the sciences, .
upon his shoulder.' To be brief, I but with the most eminent professors of found, by my friend's account of him, them throughout Europe. He knew that he had got a great stock of health, perfectly well the interests of it's princes, but nothing else; and that if it were a with the cukoms and fashions of their man's business only to live, there would courts, and could scarce meet with the not be a more accomplished young fel name of an extraordinary person in the low in the whole county.
Gazette whom he had not either talked The truth of it is, fince my residing to or feen. In Nort, he had to well in these parts, I have seen and heard in. mixed and digested his knowledge of ! numerable instances of young heirs and men and books, that he made one of the
elder brothers, who either from their most accomplished persons of his age. own reflecting upon the estates they are During the whole course of his studies born to, and therefore thinking all other and travels be kept up a punctual coraccomplishments unnecessary, or from respondence with Eudoxus, who often hearing these notions frequently inculo made himself acceptable to the principal cated to them by the flattery of their fer- men about court by the intelligence vants and domeftics, or from the same which he received from Leontine. When foolish thought prevailing in those who they were both turned of forty, an age have the care of their education, are of in which, according to Mr. Cowley, no manner of use but to keep up their there is no dallying with life,' they families, and transmit their lands and determined, pursuant to the resolution houses in a line to pofterity.
they had taken in the beginning of their This makes me often think on a story lives, to retire, and pats the remainder I have heard of two friends, which í of their days in the country. In order thall give my reader at large, under to this, they both of them married much feigned names. The moral of it may, about the same time. Leontine, with I hope, be useful, though there are some his own and his wife's fortune, bought