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I went this evening to visit a friend so well as I, but would resign all the with a delign to railly him, upon a story world can bestow to be fò near the end I had heard of his intending to steal a of such a life. Why does my heart lo marriage without the privacy of us his little obey my reason as to lament thee, intimate friends and 'acquaintance. I thou, excellent man-Heaven receive came into his apartment with that inti- him, or restore him—Thy beloved momacy which I have done for very inany ther, thy obliged friends, thy helpless years, and walked directly into his bed- fervants, stand around thee without difchamber, where I found my friend in tinction. How much wouldeit thou, the agonies of death. What could I hadit thou thy senses, say to each of do? The irinocent mirth in my thoughts us! ftruck upon me like the most flagitious But now that good heart bursts, and wickelness: 1 in vain called upon him; he is at reft-with that breath expired a he was senseless, and too far spent to soul who never indulged a paffion unfit have the least knowledge of my forrow, for the place he is gone to: where are or any pain in himself. Give me leave now thy plans of juitice, of truth, of then to transcribe my soliloquy, as I honour? Of what use the volumes thou stood by his mother, dumb with the haft collated, the arguments thou hast weight of grief for a son who was her invented, the examples thou haft folhonour and her comfort, and never un lowed ? Poor were the expectations of til that hour since his birth had been an the studious, the modest and the good, occasion of a moinent's sorrow to her. if the reward of their labours were only

to be expected from man. HOW surprising is this changed

from friend, thy intended pleadings, thy inthe poffeßion of vigorous life and tended good offices to thy friends, thy strength, to be reduced in a few hours intended services to thy country, are to this fatal extremity! Those lips which already performed, as to thy concern in look fo pale and livid, within thele few them, in his fight before whom the days gave delight to all who heard their past, present, and future, appear at one utterance: it was the business, the pur- view. While others with thy talents pose of his being, next to obeying Him were tormented with ambition, with to whom he is going, to pleate and in- vain-glory, with envy, with emulation, struct, and that for no other end than how well didst thou turn thy mind to to please and initruct. Kindness was it's own improvement in things out of the motive of his actions, and with all the power of fortune; in probity, in inthe capacity requisite for making a fi. tegrity, in the practice and study of jusgure in a contentious world, modera. tice; how silent thy passage, how prition, gooil-nature, affability, tempe vate thy journey, how glorious thy end! rance, and chastity, were the arts of his Many have I known more famous, some excellent life. There as he lies in help more knowing, not one so innocent. Jels agony, no wile man who knew him


No, my


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Ovid. MET. L. I. v. 521.

URING absence in the coun who have vended their wares from a

try, several packets have been left stage in that place, has pleasantly enough for nie, which were not forwarded to addressed to me, as no less a fage in me, because I was expected every day moralicy, than those are in phyfic. To in town.

The author of the following comply with his kind inclination to letter, dated from Tower Hill, having make my cures famous, I shall give you sometimes been entertained with some his testimonial of my great abilities at learned gentlemen in plush doublets, large in his own words.






able, by the application of your medi

cines, taken only with half an ounce of YOUR saying the other day there is right Virginia tobacco, for fix fucceffive ness of those minds which can be pleaf- officious, frank, and hospitable. I am

mornings, I am become open, obliging, ed, and be barren of bounty to those who please them, makes me in pain that your humble servant, and great ad

mirer, I am not a man of power. If I were,


GEORGE TRUSTY. you should soon fee how much I approve July 5, 1711. your speculations. In the mean time I beg leave to supply that inability with the empty tribute of an honest mind, by The careful father and humble petitelling you plainly I love and thank you tioner hercafter mentioned, who are unfor your daily refreshments. I con

der difficulties about the just manage-, ftantly peruse your paper as I smoke my ment of fans, will soon receive proper morning's pipe, though I cannot for- advertisements relating to the professors bear reading the motto before I fill and in that behalf, with their places of abode light, and really it gives a grateful relish and methods of teaching. to every whiff; each paragraph is freighted either with useful or delightful no

JULY THE 5th, 1711. țions, and I never fail of being highly diverted or improved. The variety of IN your Spectator of June the 7th,

you transcribe a letter sent to you your subjects lurprises me as much as a

from a new sort of muster-maiter, who box of pictures did formerly, in which

teaches ladies the whole exercise of the there was only one face, that by pulling fan; I have a daughter just come to some pieces of isinglass over it, was

town, who though she has always held changed into a grave lenator or a Merry

a fan in her hand at proper times, yet Andrew, a patched lady or a nun, a

she knows no more how to use it acbeau or a black-a-moor, a prude or a çoquette, a country squire or a conjurer, ward school-boy does to make use of his

cording to true discipline, than an auk, with many other different representa

new sword : I have sent for her on purtions, very, entertaining, as you are, pofe to learn the exercise, the being although still the same at the bottom.

This was a childish amusement when I ready very well accomplished in all other was carried away with outward appear- lady to understand; my request is, that

arts which are necessary for a young ance, but you make a deeper impression, and affect the secret springs of the mind; my behall, and in your next paper let

you will speak to your correspondent on you charm the fancy, soothe the pas

me know what he expects, either by the lions, and insensibly lead the reader to that sweetness of temper that you lo and where he keeps his place of rendez

month, or the quarter, for teaching; well describe; you route generosity with that fpirit, and incukate humanity with fain have taught to gallant fans, and

vous. I have a lon too, whom I would that ease, that he must be miserably should be glad to know what the genitupid that is not affected by you. Í cannot say, indeed, that you have put i finding fans for practice at my own

tleman will have for teaching them both, impertinence to silence, or vanity out of countenance; but methinks you have expence. This information will in the bid as fair for it, as any man that ever

highest manner oblige, Sir, your molt

humble servant, appeared upon a public stage; and offer an infallible cure of vice and folly, for

WILLIAM WISEACRE, the price of one penny. And since it is usual for those who receive benefit by As soon as my son is perfect in this such famous operators, to publish an art, which I hope will be in a year's advertisement, that others may reap the tine, for the boy is pretty apt, I design fame adyantage, I think myself obliged he shall learn to rive the great horse, alto declare to all the world, that having though he is not yet above twenty years for a long time been fplenetic, ill-na- old, if his mother, whose darling he is, jured, froward, fufpicious and unfoci- will venture him,




tleinen besides myself, and still goes or

laying waite whereloever she comes, THE NUMBLE PETITION OF BENJAMIN whereby the whole village is in great LASY, GENT.

danger. Our humble request is, there.

fore, that this bold Amazon be ordered was your petitioner's mif- immediately to lay down her arms, or fortune to walk to Hackney church that you would iffue forth an order, Lait Sunday, where to his great amaze

that we who have been thus injured may ment he met with a soldier of your own

meet at the place of general rendezvous, training: flie furls a fan, l'ecovers a fan,

and there be taught to manage our snuffand goes through the whole exercise of boxes in such manner as we may be an it to admiration. This well-managed equal match for her. oficer of yours has, to my knowledge, And your petitioner shall ever pray, &e. been tire ruip of abore five young gen


THAT it wa



Hor. SAT. X. L. 1. V.



Have fomewhere read of an eminent it's abourding in monosyllables, which

berton, who used in his private offi- gives us an opportunity of delivering ces of devotion to give thanks to Heaven, our thoughts in few founds. This in that he was born a Frenchman: for my deed takes off from the elegance of our

» part, I look upon it as a peculiar tongue, but at the faine time expresles bleiting that I was born an Englishman. our ideas in the readielt manner, and Anong many other reasons, I think consequently answers the first design of wyfelf very happy in my country, as speech better than the multitude of fyl. the language of it is wonderfully adapt-' labies, which make the words of other ed to a man who is fpiring of his words, languages more tunable and fonorous. and an enemy to loquacity.

The sounds of our Englith words are As I have frequently reflected on my commonly like those of Itring music, good fortune in ihis particular, I mall short and tranfient, which rise and perith communicate to the public my specula- upon a single touch; those of other lantions upon the English tongue, not guages are like the notes of wind inftru. denbring but they will be acceptable to ments, sweet and swelling, and lengthall my curious readers.

ened out into variety of modulation. The Englith delight in filence more In the next place we may observe, than any other European nation, if the that where the words are not monofylFemarks which are made on us by fo- lables, we often make them fo, as much reigners are trike,

Our difcourse is not as lies in our power, by our rapidity of kept up in conversation, but falls into pronunciation; as it generally happens Inove pantes and intervals than in our in most of our long words which are neighbouring countries; as it is ob- derived from the Latin, where we conferved, that the inatter of our writings tract the length of the fyllables that gives is thrown much cloter together, and lies them a grave and folemn air in their own in a narrower compass than is usual in language, to make them more proper the works of foreign authors: for, to for difpatch, and more conformable to favour our natural taciturnity, when we the genius of our tongue. This we are obliger to utter our thoughts, we do may find in a multitude of words, as it in the shortelt waywe are able, and Liberty, Conspiracy, Theatre, Oragive as quick a birth to our conceptions tor, &c. as poñible.

The same natural averfion to loquaThis humour shews ittelf in several city bas of late years made a very con. remarks that we may makt upon the fiderable alteration in our language, by English language. As firti ot' all by closing in one syllable the termination of


ear præterperfect tense, as in these fyllables, as in, Mob. Rep. Pof. Incog. words, Drown'd, Walk’d, Arriv'd; and the like; and as all ridiculous words for Drowned, Walked, Arrived; which make their first entry into a language bas very much disfigured the tongue, by familiar phrafes, Í dare not antwer and turned a tenth part of our smoothest for these that they will not in time be words into lo many clusters of conso looked upon as a part of our tongue. nants. This is the more remarkable, We see fome of our poets have been so because the want of vowels in our lan- indiscreet as to imitate Hudiivas's doge guage has been the general coniplaint of grel expreffions in their serious compoour politeft authors, who nevertheless sitions, by throwing out the figns of our are the men that have made these re fubftantives, which are eflential to the trenchments, and consequently very English language. Nay, this humour much increased our former (carcity. of Thortening ou language liad once

This reflection on the words that end run so far, that fome of our celebrated in ed, I have heard in conversation from authors, among whom we may recken one of the greatett geniuses this age has Sir Roger L'Eltrange in particular, beproduced. I think we may add to the gan to prune their words of all fuperforegoing observation, the change which Auous letters, as they termed them, in bas happened in our language, by the order to adjust the spelling to the proabbreviation of several words that are nunciation; which would have conterminated in eth, by substituting an s founded all our etymologies, and have in the room of the latt fyllable, as in quite destroyed our tongue. Drowns, Walks, Alrives, and in We may here likewise observe, that numerable other words, which in the our proper names, when familiarized in pronunciation of our forefathers were Englisi, generally dwindle to mono, Drowneth, Walketh, Arriveth. This syllables; whereas in other modern lanhas wonderfully multiplied a letter guages they receive a fofter turn on this which was before too frequent in the occafion, by the addition of a new fyl, English tongue, and added to that hiff-lable. Nick in Italian is Nicolini, Jack ing in our language which is taken so in French Janot; and fo of the relt. mech notice of by foreigners; but at There is another particular in our the fame time humours our taciturnity, language which is a great inftance of and eases us of many superfluous fyl our frugality of words, and that is the lables.

fupprefling of several particles whieta I might here observe, that the same mult be produced in other tongues to fingle letter on many occasions does the make a sentence intelligible: this often office of a whole word, and represents perplexes the best writers, when they the his or her of our forefathers. There find the relatives Whom, Which, or is no doubt but the ear of a foreigner, They, at their mercy whether they may which is the bett judge in this case, have admiffion or not; and will never would very much difapprove of such in- be decided until we have founething like novations, which indeed we do ourselves an academy, that by the trett authorities in fome measure by retaining the old and rules drawn from the analogy of termination in writing, and in all the languages fhall settle all controversies folemn offices of our religion.

between grammar and idiom. As in the instances I have given we I have only confidered our language have epitomized many of our particular as it shews the genius and natural temwords to the detriment of our tongue, per of the English, which is modett, fo on other occasions we have drawn thoughtful, and sincere, and which pertwo words into one, which has likewise haps may recommend the people, though very much untuned our language, and it has (poiled the tongue. We might clogged it with confonants, as Mayn't, perhaps carry the same thought into Can't, Shan't, Won't, and the like, for other languages, and dednce a great May Not, Can Not, Shall Not, Will part of what is peculiar to them from Not, &c.

the genius of the people who speak them. It is perhaps this humour of speaking It is certain, the light talkative humour no more than we needs must, which has of the French has not a little infected fom ferably curtailed some of our words, their tongue, which might be shewn by that in familiar writings and convería- many instances; as the genius of the tions they often lose all but their first Italians, which is so inucb addicted to



, music and ceremony, has moulded all and the blunt honeft humour of the Ger. their-words and phrases to those parti mans founds better in the roughness of cular uses. The stateliness and gravity the High Dutch, than it would in a poof the Spaniards Shews itself to perfec- liter tongue. tion in the folennity of their language,




Hor. Ep. r. L. 2. v. 112.


this strange fellow, I thall print world. He never made any impertithe following letter.

nent shew of his valour, and then be

had an excellent genius for the world in MR, SPECTATOR,

every other kind. I had letters from I

Shall without any manner of preface him, here I felt in my pockets, that ex

or apology acquaint you, that I am, actly spoke the Czar's character, which and ever have been from my youth up I knew perfectly well; and I could not ward, one of the greatest liars this island forbear concluding, that I lay with his has produced. I have read all the mo- Imperial Majelty twice or thrice a week ralifts upon the subject, but could never all the while he lodged at Deptford, find any effect their discouvses had upon What is worse than all this, it is iinme, but to add to my misfortune by possible to speak to me, but you give me new thoughts and ideas, and making fome occasion of coming out with one me more ready in my language, and lye or other, that lias neither wit, hucapable of sometimes mixing seeming mour, prospect or interest, or any other truths with my improbabilities. With motive that I can think of in nature. this strong passion towards fallhood in The other day, when one was com. this kind, there does not live an ho. mending an eminent and learned divine, nester man or a sincerer friend; but my what occasion in the world had I to say imagination runs away with me, and Methinks he would look more vewhatever is started, I have such a scene • nerable if he were not so fair a man?" of adventures appears in an instant be. I remember the company smiled. I fore me, that I cannot help uttering have teen the gentleman tince, and he is them, though, to my iinmediate con

coal-black. I have intimations every fusion, I cannot but know I am liable day in my life that nobody believes nie, to be detected by the firit man I meet. yet I am never the better. I was saya

Upon occalion of the mention of the ing something the other day to an old battle of Pultowa, I could not forbear friend at Will's coffee-house, and he giving an account of a kintinan of mine, made no manner of antwer; but told me, a young merchant who was bred at Mur- that an acquaintance of Tully the oracow, that had too much mettle to at. tor having two or three times together tend books of entries and accounts, said to him, without receiving any anwhen there was so active a scene in the swer, that upon his honour he was but country

where he resided, and followed that very month forty years of age; the Czar as a volunteer: this warm Tully answered — Surely you think youth, born at the instant the thing was me the most incredulous man in the spoke of, was the man who unhorsed ( world, if I do not believe what you the Swedish general, he was the occa • have told me every day these ten years.' fion that the Muscovites kept their fire The mischief of it is, I find myself won. in so soldier-like a manner, and brought derfully inclined to have been present up those troops which were covered from at every occurrence that is spoken of be. the enemy at the beginning of the day; fore me; this has led me into many inbesides this, he had at last the good for conveniencies, but indeed they have been tune to be the man who took Count the fewer, because I am no ill-natured Piper. With all this fire i knew my man, and never speak things to any


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